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FIRST edit 

ion, published in three volumes, 

1768— 1771 


, ,, ten 


1777— 1784. 


, „ eighteen 


1788— 1797 


, „ twenty 


l80I l8lO. 


, „ twenty 


l8lS l8l7 


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l823 l824 


, „ twenty-one 


183O 1842. 


, „ twenty-two 


l8S3 — l860 


, „ twenty-five 


l87S-l88 9 . 


, ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 

1902 I9O3. 


, published in twenty-nine volumes, 

I9IO igil. 


in all countries subscribing to the 
Bern Convention 


of the 


All rights reserved 










New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 
342 Madison Avenue 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 191 1, 


The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 




A. Bo.* 

A. B. G.* 

A. B. R. 

A. C. Be. 
A. C. C. 

A. C. McG. 

A. C. S. 
A. D. 
A. E. B. 

A. F. L. 

A. G. 

A. Go.* 
A. H.* 

A. He.* 
A. H. J. G. 

A. J. G. 

f Conclave; 
Editor of the Canoniste -j Concordat; 
1 Consistory. 

Auguste Boudinhon, D.D., D.C.L. 

Professor of Canon Law in the Catholic University of Paris. 
contemporain. Author of Biens d'eglise et peines canoniques; &c. 

Alice B. Gomme. 

Hon. Member of the Folk-lore Society. Author of Dictionary of Traditional Games -j Children's Games. 
of Great Britain and Ireland; Children's Singing Games. L 

Alfred Barton Rendle, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. f r „. n „. R 

Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classifi- i ljOCOa - botany, 
cation of Flowering Plants ; &c. I Coffee: Botany. 

Arthur Christopher Benson, C.V.O., M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 
See the biographical article: Benson, Edward White. 

Church, Dean. 

Albert Curtis Clark, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College, Oxford, and University Reader in Latin. -\ Cicero. 
Editor of Cicero's Speeches (Clarendon Press). 

Arthur Cushman McGiffert, D.D., Ph.D., M.A. (" 

Professor of Church History in Union Theological Seminary, New Vork. Author of < Church History (in part). 

A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. (_ 

Algernon Charles Swinburne. J" Congreve, William. 

See the biographical article: Swinburne, A. C. \ 

1 Chesterfield, 4th Earl of. 


Austin Dobson. 

See the biographical article: Dobson, Henry Austin. 

Rev. Andrew Ewbank Burn, M.A., D.D. 

Vicar of Halifax and Prebendary of Lichfield. Author of An Introduction to the- 
Creeds and the Te Deum ; Niceta of Remesiana ; &c. 

Arthur Francis Leach, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales. . 
Formerly Assistant Secretary of the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford, 1874-1881. Stanhope Prizeman, 1872. I 

Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1908). f 

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate-A Children's Courts. 
Secrets of the Prison House ; &c. L 


J" Chemnitz; 
\ Cochlaeus. 

Church History Un part). 

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. 

Albert Hauck, D.Th., Ph.D., D. Juris. 

Professor of Church History in the University of Leipzig. Director of the Collection 
of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Member of the Royal Saxon Society of Arts and 
Sciences. Formerly Professor in the University of Erlangen. Editor of the 3rd 
edition of Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopddie fur protestantische Theologie und Kirche. 
Author of Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands ; Tertullians Leben und Schriften; &c. 

Augustine Henry, M.A., F.L.S. r 

Reader in Forestry, Cambridge University. Formerly Official in Chinese Imperial J pj,: na . pi 
Maritime Customs. Explorer of the Flora of the interior of China, Formosa and 1 *""""• ^'■ ora - 
Hainan. [ 

Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.) (d. 1905). 

Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford, and of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Infamia in Roman Law ; Handbook" of Greek Constitutional \ Comitia. 
History; Roman Public Life; History of Rome. Joint-author of Sources of Roman 
History, 133-70 B.C. 

Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D. (Lond.). 

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent 
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of 
Mysore Educational Service. 

Clement I. (in part). 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 



A. J. L. 

,&. Lo. 

A. W. 0, 
A. W. Po. 

A. W. R. 



A. MacM 








E. A. 

C. H. Ha. 
C. J. H. 

C. M. K. 

C. Pf. 
C. R. B. 


C. W. R. C. 

C. W. W. 

D. P. T. 

Andrew Jackson Lamoureux. 

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. 
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901 

Editor of the Rio News 

' Chile: Geography and 

Colombia: Geography and 


Professor at the College de France. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Member 
de la Gaule au VI e siecle. 

Director of the ficole des Hautes Etudes. J rhSfillnn 
>mber of the Institute. Author of Gtoeraphie 1 vaduuan ' 

Arthur William Clayden, M.A. 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Principal of the Royal Albert Memorial College, 
Exeter. Author of Cloud Studies; The Clouds of Venus; &c. 

Alfred William Pollard, M.A. 

Assistant Keeper of Printed . Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College, 
London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books 
and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of the " Globe " 

Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws 
of England. 

Earl of Crewe. 

See the biographical article: Crewe, Earl of. 

Charles Alexander Macmunn, M.A., M.D., F.CS. 

Formerly Physician and Pathologist to Wolverhampton General Hospital. Author 
of Outlines of Clinical Chemistry ; The Spectroscope in Medicine ; &c. 






Colours of Animals: 


J* Chronicle; 
\ Commines. 

Charles Bemont, D.Litt. (Oxon.). 

See the biographical article: Bemont, C. 

Rev. Charles Bigg, M.A., D.D. (1840-1908). r 

Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Oxford, 1901-1908. Examining J Clement Of Alexandria 
Chaplain to Bishop of London. Author of Neoplatonism; The Christian Platonists] r- . ,\ 
of Alexandria; &c. Editor of St Augustine's Confessions; De Imitatione; &c. L pan). 

Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. 
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

f Chemistry; 

V Circle (in part). 

E. Akers. 
Formerly Times Correspondent in Buenos Aires. 
America, 1854-1904. 

Author of A History of South < Chile: History (in part) 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, D.D. r 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member J Clement VI.; 

of the American Historical Association. Author of An Introduction to the Sources 1 Clement VIII " antitoobe 

relating to the Barbarian Invasions. \_ " V V • 

Charles John Holmes, M.A. r 

Director, Keeper and Secretary of the National Portrait Gallery. Slade Professor J China: Chinese Art (Sculptttre); 
of Fine Art, Oxford, 1904-1910. Author of Constable; Constable and his Influence 1 Constable, John. 
on Landscape Painting ; Notes on the Science of Picture Making ; &c. I 

Sir Charles Malcolm Kennedy, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1831-1908). 

Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872-1893. Lecturer on Inter- 
national Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in the Levant, 1870-1871 ; «j Commercial Treaties. 
at Paris, 1872-1886. Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882. Author of 
Diplomacy and International Law. 

Christian Pfister, D. es L. [ Childebert; Chilperic; 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of -! Clotaire; Clotilda, Saint; 
Etudes sue le regne de Robert le Pieux ; &c. [ rjj ov ; s 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 

of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. -{ Columbus, Christopher. 

Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 

Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. 

Hon. Carl Schurz, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Schurz, Carl. 

Charles Wallwyn Radcliffe Cooke. 

President, National Association of English Cider-makers. M.P. for Walworth, - 
1885-1892, and for Hereford, 1893-1900. Author of A Book about Cider and Perry. 

Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907). 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. • Secretary to the North American Boundary 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- 
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General 
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of 
Lord Clive; &c. 

Clay, Henry. 


Cilicia (in part). 

Donald Francis Tovey. nienihini- 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising the J v,nwu " ,,I1 » 
Classical Concerto; The Goldberg Variations; and analyses of many other classical 1 Chorale; 
works. 1 Concerto. 





D. Mn. 

E. B. P, 

E. C» Bi 



E. G. 

E. G. J. M 

E. Gr. 

E. H. M. 

E. K. C. 

E. Ma. 

E. 0.* 


E. W. C. 

F. CO. 

P. E. W.-S. 
F. G. M. B. 
F. G. P. 


F. H. B. 
F. J. J.-S. 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 ' 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

Cilicia (in part) ; 



David Hannay. 

F'ormerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 
1 21 7-1688; Life of Emilio Castslar; &c. 

Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 

r Chioggia; 

J Church, Sir Richard; 
1 Coastguard; 
[ Codrington, Sir Edward. 

Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A. 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London -<j Concordance. 
Missionary Society. Author of Constructive Congregational Ideals. 

Edward Bagnall Poulton, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. f 

Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Jesus College, J Colours of Animals. 
Oxford. Author of The Colours of Animals; Essays on Evolution; Darwin and the\ Bionomics. 

Original Species; &c. 

Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt. (DubUrs). 
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. 

Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern Languages and Monro Lecturer in Celtic, Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge. 

Edward Everett Hale 

See the biographical article : Hale, E. E. 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Gosse, E. 

E. G. J. Moyna, F.R.G.S. 
New College, Oxford. 

Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. 

Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. 

Lecturer in Palaeography in the University of Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant - 
Librarian, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. 

Edmund Kerchever Chambers. 

Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Sometime Scholar of Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford. Chancellor's English Essayist, 1891. Author of The Medieval Stage. ' 

Editor of the " Red Letter " Shakespeare; Donne's Poems; Vaughan's Poems; &c. 


Edward Manson. 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation ; ■ 
Law of Trading Companies ; Practical Guide to Company Law ; &c. 

Eduard Meyer, D.Litt. (Oxon.), Ph.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. 
Prussian Academy. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; 
Ceschichte; &c. 

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street. Author of A Manual of Analogy for Senior Students. 

Rev. Edmund Venables, M.A., D.D. (1819-1895). 
Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcoi- 

j Cistercians; Clara, Saint; 
I Clares, Poor; Cluny. 

Columba, Saint. 

Clarke, James Freeman. 

f Choriambic Verse; Clanvowe; 
, Collins, William; 
1 Conscience, Hendrik; 
I Constable, Henry. 

Chile: History (in part). 

J Chios (in part); 

I Cithaeron; Clazomenae. 


Clough, A. H. 


Member of the Royal 
Forschuneen zur alien 

'■ Palaces of England. 


Cleft Palate and Hare Lip. 


Ettrick William Creak, C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. f 

Captain, R.N. Formerly Superintendent of Compasses, Hydrographic Department, -J Compass (in part). 
Admiralty. Author of many papers on magnetic subjects. [ 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen). 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. 

Francis Edward Wentworth-Sheilds, M.Inst.CE. 
Docks Engineer, London & South-Western Railway. 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. 

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. 
Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Frederick Hirth, Ph.D. 

Professor of Chinese in Columbia University, New York. Author of China and the 
Roman Orient ; The A ncient History of China to the End of the Ghon Dynasty ; &c. 

Francis H. Butler, M.A. 

Associate of the Royal School of Mines. 

Rev. Frederick John Jervis-Smith, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Millard Lecturer in Experimental Mechanics and Engineering, Trinity College, 
Oxford. Formerly University Lecturer in Mechanics. 



f Cimbri; 
I Ccenwulf. 


Coelom and Serous Membranes 

China: History (in part). 
Compass (in part). 


F. K. 

F. LI. G. 

F. N. M 












G. C. W. 

G. E. 

G. Fa. 
G. G. Co. 

G. H. C. 

G. H. Fo. 


G. J. T. 

G. L. 
G. S. C. 

G. W. Kn. 

H. A. Gi. 

H. B. 
H. C. H. 

H. E. W. 

Dommune: Medieval. 

Feiedeich Wilhelm Eduard Keutgen, Ph.D. 

Professor of History in the University of Hamburg. Formerly Professor of Medieval 
and Modern History in the University of Jena. Author of Die Hanse und England 
itn 14. Jahrhundert; Untersuchungen uber den Ur sprung der deutschen Stadtverfassung; 
Urkunden zur stddtischen Verfassungsgeschichte; Amter und Ziinfte; &c. 

Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D. (Leipzig), F.S.A. (" 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, J 
Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the 1 Cheops. 
Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. I 

Col. Frederic Nattjsch Maude, C.B. f 

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the 1 Conscription. 
World's Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign. {_ 

J Congo; 

\ Congo Free State (in pari). 

\ Chrysoberyl; Chrysoprase; 
1 Cinnabar. 

Clock (in part). 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 

Frederick William Ritdler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. 

Lord Grimthorpe. 

See the biographical article: Grimthorpe, ist Baron. 

George A. Boulenger, F.R.S. f c; e i,iM. 

In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British -j ' 

Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. [ Cod. 

George Charles Williamson, Litt.D. f 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard J Clouet, Francois; 
Cosway, R.A . ; George Engleheart ; Portrait Drawings ; &c. Editor of new edition | Clouet, Jean. 
of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. I 

Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. 
Employed by British Government in preparation of the British case in the British " 
Guiana- Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations. 

G. Faur. 

George Gordon Coulton, M.A. 

Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author - 
of Medieval Studies; Chaucer and his England; &c. 

George Herbert Carpenter, M.R.I.A. 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: 
their Structure and Life. 

George Herbert Fowler, Ph.D., F.Z.S., F.L.S. 

Formerly Berkeley Fellow of Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant Professor of 
Zoology at University College, London. Member of Council of Linnean Society. 

George Jamieson, C.M.G., M.A. 

Formerly Consul-General at Shanghai, and Consul and Judge of the Supreme Court, 

George James Turner. 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. 
Society; &c. 

Chile: History (in part) ; 
Colombia: History. 

Conjuring (in part). 


\ Coleoptera. 
J Coelentera. 
J China (in part). 

Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden J Clarendon, Constitutions of, 

Georg Lunge, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

See the biographical article : Lunge, Georg. 

Sir George Sydenham Clarke, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Governor of Bombay. Author of Imperial Defence; Russia's Great Sea Power; The . 
Last Great Naval War; &c. 

Rev. George William Knox, D.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Philosophy and History of Religion, Union Theological Seminary, New 
York. Author of The Religion of Jesus ; The Direct and Fundamental Proofs of the ' 
Christian Religion; &c. 

Herbert Allen Giles, M.A., LL.D. 

Professor of Chinese in the University of Cambridge. Member of the China Consular 
Service, 1 867-1 893. Author of a Chinese-English Dictionary; A Chinese Biographical ' 
Dictionary; History of Chinese Literature. 

Hilary Bauermann, F.G.S. (d. 1909). 

Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of _ 
A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron. 

Rev. Horace Carter Hovey, A.M., D.D. 

Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Geological 
Society of America, National GeographicSociety and Societe de Speleologie (France). ' 
Author of Celebrated American Caverns; Handbook of Mammoth Cave of Kentucky; &c. 

Henry Edward Watts. 

Editor of the Melbourne Argus. 

Sir Henry Hardtnge Cunynghame, E.C.B., M.A. f 

Assistant Under-Secretary, Home Office ; Vice-President, Institute of Electrical A Clock. 
Engineers. Author of various works on Enamelling, Electric Lighting, &c. 1_ 

S Coal-Tar. 


China: Language, Literature, 


Coal (in part) ; 

Colossal Cavern. 

Author of Life of Cervantes. Translator of Don \ Cid, The, 



H. L. C. 
H. M. R. 
H. M. W. 

H. M. Wo. 

H. S. J. 

H. S. WL 

H. Wh. 

H. W. S. 
H. Y. 

J. A. CI. 
J. A. F. 

J. A. H. 
J. A. R. 

J. C. Sc. 

J. D. 

J. D. v. d. W. 

J. E. F. 
J. E. S.* 

J. H. R. 
J. J. T. 

Hugh Longbourne Callendar, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor of 
Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London. 

Hugh Munro Ross. 

Formerly [.Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. 
Engineering Supplement. Author of British. Railways. 

Conduction of He^t. 

Editor of " The Times" -I Coal (in part). 



Constantine I. 

Chronology (in part) ; 

Harry Marshall Ward, F.R.S. , D.Sc. (d. 1905). 

Formerly Professor of Botany, Cambridge University. President of the British , 

Mycological Society. Author of Timber and some of its Diseases ; The Oak ; Diseases 1 Conn, Ferdinand Julius. 

in Plants; &c. [ 

Harold Mellor Woodcock, D.Sc. r 

Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of Uni- J 
versity College, London. Author of " Haemoflagellates " in Professor Ray Lan- 1 
kester's Treatise of Zoology, and of various scientific papers. I 

Henry Stuart Jones, M.A. ( 

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. Director of the British School at - 
Rome, 1903-1905. Author of The Roman Empire; &c. 

Henry Sturt, M.A. 

Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism; &c. 

Henry Smith Williams, M.D., B.Sc. 

Formerly Lecturer in the Hartford School of Sociology, U.S.A. Editor of The . 
Historians' History of the World. Author of The Story of Nineteenth Century Science ; 
The History of the Art of Writing; The Lesson of Heredity; &c. I 

Horace White, LL.D. f 

Formerly Editor of the New York Evening Post. Sometime Editor of Chicago J Cleveland, Grover. 
Tribune. Author of Money and Banking Illustrated by American History; The\ 
Tariff Question ; The Gold Question ; The Stiver Question ; &c. I 

H. Wickham Steed. 

Correspondent of The Times at Rome, 1897-1902, and at Vienna. 

Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B. 

See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry. 

Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A 
Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. 
Edited Jewish Quarterly Review, 1 888-1 908. 

John Algernon Clarke. 

Author of Fen Sketches ; &c. 

John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., M.I.E.E. 

Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of 
University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, - 
and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author of Magnets and 
Electric Currents. 

John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

Very Rev. Joseph Armitage Robinson, D.D. 

Dean of Westminster. Fellow of the British Academy. Hon. Fellow of Christ's 

College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, and Norrisian -i Clement I. (in part) 

Professor of Divinity in the University. Author of Some Thoughts on the Incarnation ; 

John Christopher Schwab, A.M., Ph.D. r 

Librarian, Yale University. Editor of Yale Review. Author of The Confederate -i Confederate States Of America. 

States of America; History of New York Property Tax; &c. [ 

Sir James Donaldson. 

See the biographical article : Donaldson, Sir J. 

Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Ph.D. f 

Professor of Physics at the University of Amsterdam. Author of The Continuity of A Condensation of Gases. 

the Liquid and Gaseous States. L 

Rev. James Everett Frame, A.M. (Harvard). f 

Edward Robinson Professor of Biblical Theology in Union Theological Seminary, X Colossians, Epistle to the. 
New York. Author of Purpose of New Testament Theology. [ 

John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. f 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John's College, J Classics. 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical | 
Scholarship; &c. L 

John Horace Round, LL.D. (Edin.). f 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage andi Clare: Family. 
Pedigree; &c. I 

Sir Joseph John Thomson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., LL.D., Ph.D. 

Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, Cambridge. Professor of Physics, Conduction, Electric: Through 
Royal Institution, London. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. President -( Gases 
of the British Association, 1909-1910. Awarded Nobel Prize for Physics, 1906. 
Author of Conduction of Electricity through Gases; Recent Researches in Electricity 
and Magnetism; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry; &c. 


China: History (in pari). 


Conjuring (in part). 

Conduction, Electric. 


-j Clement of Alexandria (in part). 


J. Le. 

J. Mo. 
J. M. M. 

J. M. Ro. 

Rev. James Legge. 

See the biographical article : Legge, James. 

■< Confucius. 
















J. S. K. 

J. T. C. 

J. T. S.* 
J. V. B. 

K. S. 

L. B. 
L. D.* 
L. Gi. 

L. J. S. 
L. V.* 

M. E. S. 

John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A. ( 

Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly J citium 
Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of 1 
Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford. I 

Viscount Morley of Blackburn. 

See the biographical article : Morley, Viscount. 

\ Comte. 

John Malcolm Mitchell.. fri^h' 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer on Classics at East London "( Cleisthenes; 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. I Colchis, 

John Mackinnon Robertson, M.P. [ 

Author of Montaigne and Shakespeare; Modern Humanists; Buckle and Ms Critics;') Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. 
&c. M.P., Tyneside Division of Northumberland. I 

John Nevtl Maskelyne. 

Author of Modern Spiritualism ; 

Sharps and Flats ; &c. 

-i Conjuring (in part). 

J* Chippendale; 
1 Clock (in part). 

James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. 
Editor of the Guardian, London. 

Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhemar Esmein. C 

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. J Chatelet; 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elementaire d'histoire du droit 1 Code Napoleon. 
francais; &c. I 

Joseph Rogerson Cotter, M.A. 

Assistant to the Professor of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin, 
edition of Preston's Theory of Heat. 

Editor of 2nd 3 Colour. 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. f Clay; 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in J Concretion* 
Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby | „ , '. 

Medallist of the Geological Society of London. I Conglomerate. 

John Scott Keltie, LL.D., F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot.). 

Secretary, Royal Geographical Society. Knight of Swedish Order of North Star. 
Commander of the Norwegian Order of St Olaf. Hon. Member, Geographical " 
Societies of Paris, Berlin, Rome, &c. Editor of Statesman's Year Book. Editor of 
the Geographical Journal. 

Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. r 

Lecturer on Zoology at South- Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of J Chiton; 
University College, Oxford, and Assistant Professor of Natural History in the Uni- 1 Cockle. 
versity of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. I 

Congo Free State (in part). 

James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. 

Author of The Apostolic 

■j Colbert, Jean Baptiste. 

Clementine Literature; 

Chelys; Cheng; Chorus; 
Cithara; Cittern; Clarina; 
Clarinet; Clavichord; 
Clavicytherium; Concertina. 

■< China: Chinese Art. 

/clement II. 

Lionel Giles, M.A. ( 

Assistant, Oriental Department, British Museum. Author of Sun Tzu on the Art \ China: Language (in pari). 

of War. l 

James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews). 

Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. 
Age; &c. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra. 

Laurence Binyon. 

See the biographical article: Binyon, L. 

Louis Duchesne. 

See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O. 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant, Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical 


Luigi Villari. 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre- 
spondent in East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Phil- 
adelphia, 1907; and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town 
and Country; &c. 

Michael Ernest Sadler, M.A., LL.D. 

Professor of the History and Administration of Education in the University of 
Manchester. Formerly Director of Special Enquiries and Reports to the Board of 
Education. Student and Steward of Christ Church, Oxford. Editor of Continua- 
tion Schools in England and elsewhere; Moral Instruction and Training in Schools; &c. 

Childrenite; Chlorite; 
Chromite; Chrysocolla; 
Clintonite; Cobaltite; 
Colemanite; Columbite. 

Cibrario; Colleoni; 
Colletta; Colonna: Family; 
Colonna, Vittoria; 




M. G. D. 

M. V. T. 
M. 0. B. C. 


0. Ba. 
0. J. R. H. 

P. A. M. 

P. C. Y. 

P. La. 

R. de C. W. 

R. H.* 

R. J. M. 
R. K. D. 

R. L.* 

R. N. B. 
R. P. S. 

Lecturer in Greek at Birming- i Chios (in part) 

Rt. Hon. Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant-Duff, G.C.S.I., F.R.S. (1829- 
M.P. for the Elgin Burghs. 1857-1881. Under-Secretary of State for India, 1868- 
1874. Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1880-1881. Governor of Madras, 
1881-1886. President of the Royal Geographical Society, 1889-1893. President 
of the Royal Historical Society, 1892-1899. Author of Studies in European Politics; 
Notes from a Diary ; &c. 

Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A. J 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. 1 Cleomenes, 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. *~ 

Max Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. 

Reader in Ancient History at London University, 
ham University, 1905-1908. 

Joseph Marie Noel Valois. ' 

Member of Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris. Honorary Archivist 
at the Archives Nationales. ^Formerly President of the Societe de l'Histoire de " 
France and the Societe de l'Ecole de Chartes. Author of La France et le grand 
schisme d' Occident; &c. 

Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A. 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the 
Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference ; Kinship and ' 
Marriage in Australia; &c. { 

Oswald Barron, F.S.A. |" 

Editor of the Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the"i Collar. 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. I 

Osbert John Radcliffe Howarth, M.A. f 

Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the -j Coal {in part). 
British Association. I 

Coleridge, J. D. C, 1st Baron 

Clement VII.: antipope. 
Constance, Council of, 


Octave Maus, LL.D. (Brussels). 

Advocate of the Court of Appeal at Brussels. Director of V Art Moderns and of 
La Libre Esthetique. President of the Association of Belgian writers. Officer of - 
the Legion of Honour. Author of Le Thedtre de Bayreuth; Aux Ambassadeurs; 
Malta, Constantinople et la Crimee ; &c. 

Percy Alexander Macmahon, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Late Major, R.A. Deputy Warden of the Standards, Board of Trade. Joint 
General Secretary of the British Association. Formerly Professor of Physics, 
Ordnance College. President of London Mathematical Society, 1894-1896. 

Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly 
of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian " 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser's Comparative Geology. 

Robert de Courcy Ward, A.M. (Harvard). 

Assistant Professor of Climatology in the University of Harvard. Fellow of Royal 
Meteorological Society, London. Sometime Editor of American Meteorological' 
Journal. Author of Climate considered especially in Relation to Man; &c. 

Sir Robert Hunter, C.B., M.A. 

Solicitor to the Post Office. Author of The Preservation of Open Spaces and of* 
Footpaths and other Rights of Way; &c. 

Clays, Paul Jean. 

Combinatorial Analysis. 

Clanricarde, 1st Earl of; 
Clanricarde, Marquess of; 
Clarendon, 1st Earl of; 
Clifford of Chudleigh; 

China: Geology. 

Climate and Climatology. 


r- ~ 1 c-j* c *u o, t < I Chichester of Belfast; 
Formerly Editor of the St James s< _. . . _ , . 

1 Clare, 1st Earl of. 


Ronald John McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. 
Gazette, London. 

Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas. 

Formerly Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Keeper of Oriental I 

Printed Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1892-1907. Member of the Chinese -I China: History 

Consular Service, 1 858-1 865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; 

China ; Europe and the Far East ; &c. I 

Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. r^? vrota j n ; Chimpanzee; 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of J China: tauna; 

Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of] Chiroptera; Chiru; 

all Lands; &c. [ Clouded Leopard. 


Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). 

Formerly Assistant Librarian, British Museum. Author of Scandinavia: the Political 
History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 15 13-1900 ; The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1725 ; 
Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c. 

R. Phene Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Master of Architectural School and Surveyor, Royal Academy, London. 
Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 

Christian II., III., IV.; 
Christina of Sweden. 

Chimney (in part); 
Chimney piece; 

S. A. C. 

S. J. L. 

S. P. T. 

T. A. I. 

T. As. 

T. Ba. 

T. F. C. 
T. G. Br. 

T. H. H.* 

T. K. C. 

T. Mu. 

T. Se. 

V. C. 

W. A. B. C. 

W. A. P. 

W. B. B. 
W. C. D. W. 

W. F. C. 
W. G. F. 


Chronicles, Books of 

(in pari) . 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. 

Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and 
formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew 
and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic 
Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old 
Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 

Sidney James Low, M.A. f 

Fellow of King's College, London. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Formerly ...... T - „„„,,„,„,, 

Editor of the St James's Gazette. Joint-editor of the Dictionary of English History, i Uiurcnill, L.ora Kanaoipn. 
Author of The Governance of England. Joint-author of vol. xii. of Longman's 
Political History of England, 1837-1901. 

Simon Newcomb, D.Sc, D.C.L. 

See the biographical article : Newcomb, 




Member of the Supreme Council J Conquest . 
of Honour. Author of Problems ^ 

Clement VIII.-XIV. 

Silvanus Phillips Thompson, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. f 

Principal and Professor of Physics in the City and Guilds Technical College, Fins- J Compass (in ■part) 
bury. Formerly President of Physical Society, of Institution of Electrical Engineers, v \ r /■ 

and of Rontgen Society. Author of Lectures on Light; Michael Faraday; &c. I 

f Child, Sir Josiah; Children, 

Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. J Law Relating to (in part) ; 

Trinity College, Dublin. ] Chiltern Hundreds; Clearing 

I House; Confession: Law. 

Thomas Ashby, M.A., Dim. (Oxon.), F.S.A. f Chioggia (in part) ■ 

Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Director of British School of Archaeo- J CirceiUS Mons; ClOdia, Via; 
logy at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Craven j Clusium; Collatia; Como; 
Fellow, Oxford, 1897. I Concordia. 

Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. 

of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion 

of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. 

Dr Theodore Frelinghuysen Collier, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A. 

Thomas Gregor Brodie, M.D., F.R.S. f 

Professor of Physiology in the University of Toronto. Author of Essentials of A Connective Tissues. 

Experimental Physiology. t 

Col. Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc. f 

Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., 

London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King's 

Award; India; Tibet; &c. 
Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, D.D., D.Litt. 

See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K. 

Thomas Muir, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S. (Edin.). f 

Superintendent-General of Education in Cape Colony. Formerly Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow. Vice-Chancellor of the J Circle (in part). 
University of the Cape of Good Hope till 1901. Author of Theory of Determinants 
in the Historical Order of Development; History of Determinants; Text-Book of De- [ 
terminanls; &c. 

Thomas Seccombe, M.A. f 

Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, . 
University of London. Assistant Editor, Dictionary of National Biography, 1891- 
1900. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. 

Valentine Chirol. 

Director of the Foreign Department of The Times. Author of The Middle Eastern - 
Question ; The Far Eastern Question ; &c. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., D.Ph. (Bern). 
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-188 1. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphine; The Range of" 
the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in 
History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889, &c. 


\ Cherubim. 

Chenier, Andr6 de. 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; Tlie War of Greek Independence; &c. 

W. Baker Brown. 

Lieut.-Col., Commanding Royal Engineers at Malta. 

William Cecil Dampier Whetham, M.A., F.R.S. 

Recent Development of Physical Science ;.&c. 

William Feilden Craies, M.A. 

New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, 
King's College, London. Author of Craies on Statute Law. Editor of Archbold's 
Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). 

William George Freeman, B.Sc. (London), A.R.C.S. 

Joint-author of Nature Teaching; The World's Commercial Products. Joint-editor-^ (j g ee 
of Science Progress in the Twentieth Century. 

China: History (in part). 

Chaux de Fonds, La; 
Coire; Como, Lake of; 
Constance, Lake of. 
Chimere; Choir; 
Church History (in part) ; 
Clement VII.; 
Confessional; Congress; 

\ Coast Defence. 

J Conduction, Electric: 

1 in Liquids. 

Children, Law relating to 

(in part). 




xi u 






R. C 





















William Kirby Sullivan, Ph.D., D.Sc. 

President of Queen's College, Cork, 1S73-1890. 

Author of Celtic Studies: &c. 

i Clan. 

William Liest Readwin Cates (1821-1895). 

Editor of Dictionary of General Biography. Author of A History of England from 
the Death of Edward the Confessor to the Death of King John; &c. Part author of 
Encyclopaedia of Chronology. 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, D. G. 

Walter Nernst, Ph.D. 

Professor of Physical Chemistry in the University of Berlin. Director of the 
Physico-Chemical Institute in the University. Member of the Royal Prussian 
Academy of Science. Author of Theoretische Chemie ; &c. 

Ven. Winerid Oldfield Burrows, M.A. 

Archdeacon of Birmingham. Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, 1884-1891, and 
Principal of Leeds Clergy School, 1891-1900. 

William Roy Smith, M.A., Ph.D. 

Associate Professor of History, Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. 
Sectionalism in Pennsylvania during the Revolution ; &c. 

J Chronology {in part). 

J Cimabue; 

1 Claude of Lorraine. 

i Chemical Action. 

Confession: Religion; 

William Robertson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Smith, W. R. 

Author ofi Compromise Measures of 1850, 
I Chronicles, Books of (in part). 

William Warde Fowler, M.A. 

Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, 
Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; 
The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period ; &c. 

William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 
Author of Die Doppelehe des Landgrafen Philipp von Hessen. 

Club: Greek and Roman. 

j Clement III., IV., V. 


Chatham, Earl of. 







Chilean Civil War. 

Chile-Peruvian War. 


Chino-Japanese War. 




Christian Science. 



Churchill, Charles. 


Cinque Ports. 

Civil List. 

Civil Service. 


Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. 


Clive, Lord. 






Coco-nut Palm. 


Coke, Sir Edward. 

Collier, Jeremy. 

Colony. , 


Colours, Military. 


Common Order, Book of. 





Confirmation of Bishops. 

Congreve, Sir William. 

Conic Section. 


Conservative Party. 




CHATELET (from Med. Lat. castella), the word, sometimes 
also written castillet, used in France for a building designed for the 
defence of an outwork or gate, sometimes of great strength or 
size, but distinguished from the chdteau, or castle proper, in 
being purely defensive and not residential. In Paris, before the 
Revolution, this word was applied both to a particular building 
and to the jurisdiction of which it was the seat. This building, 
the original Chatelet, had been first a castle defending the ap- 
proach to the Cite. Tradition traced its existence back to Roman 
times, and in the 18th century one of the rooms in the great 
tower was still called the chambre de Cesar. The jurisdiction was 
that of the provostship {prevdte) and viscountship of Paris, which 
was certainly of feudal origin, probably going back to the counts 
of Paris. 

It was not till the time of Saint Louis that, with the appoint- 
ment of Etienne Boileau, the provostship of Paris became a 
private en garde, i.e. a public office no longer put up to sale. 
When the baillis (see Bailiff and Bailie) were created, the 
provost of Paris naturally discharged the duties and functions 
of a bailli, in which capacity he heard appeals from the seigniorial 
and inferior judges of the city and its neighbourhood, keeping, 
however, his title of provost. When under Henry II. certain 
bailliages became presidial )ViXmd.\ct\or&{presidiaux) , i.e. received 
to a certain extent the right of judging without appeal, the 
Chatelet, the court of the provost of Paris, was made a presidial 
court, but without losing its former name. Finally, various 
tribunals peculiar to the city of Paris, i.e. courts exercising 
jurisdictions outside the common law or corresponding to certain 
cours d 'exception which existed in the provinces, were united with 
the Chatelet, of which they became divisions (chambres). Thus 
the lieutenant-general of police made it the seat of his juris- 
diction, and the provost of the lie de France, who had the same 
criminal jurisdiction as the provosts of the marshals of France 
in other provinces, sat there also. As to the personnel of the 
Chatelet, it was originally the same as in the bailliages, except 
that after the 14th century it had some special officials, the 
auditors and the examiners of inquests. Like the baillis, the 
provost had lieutenants who were deputies for him, and in 
addition gradually acquired a considerable body of ex officio 
councillors. This last staff, however, was not yet in existence at 
the end of the 14th century, for it is not mentioned in the Registre 
criminel du CMtelet (1389-1392), published by the Societe des 
Bibliophiles Francah. In 1674 the whole personnel was doubled, 
at the time when the new Chatelet was established side by side 
with the old, the two being soon after amalgamated. On the eve 
of the Revolution it comprised, beside the provost whose office 
had become practically honorary, the lieutenant civil, who 
presided over the chambre de pr&volt au pare civil or court of first 
instance; the lieutenant criminel, who presided over the criminal 

VI. I 

court; two lieutenants parliculiers, who presided in turn over 
the chambre du prisidial or court of appeal from the inferior 
jurisdictions; a juge auditeur; sixty-four councillors (con- 
seillers); the procureur du roi, four avocats du roi, and eight 
substituts, i.e. deputies of the procureur (see Procurator) , beside 
a. host of minor officials. The history of the Chatelet under the 
Revolution may be briefly told: the Constituent Assembly em- 
powered it to try cases of lese-nation, and it was also before this 
court that was opened the inquiry following on the events of 
the 5th and 6th of August 1780. It was suppressed by the law 
of the 16th of August 1790, together with the other tribunals of 
the ancien regime. (J. P. E.) 

CHATEIjLERAULT, a town of western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Vienne, 19 m. N.N.E. 
of Poitiers on the Orleans railway between that town and 
Tours. Pop. (1906) 15,214. Chatellerault is situated on the 
right and eastern bank of the Vienne; it is connected with the 
suburb of Chateauneuf on the opposite side of the river by a 
stone bridge of the 16th and 17th centuries, guarded at the 
western extremity by massive towers. The manufacture of 
cutlery is carried on on a large scale in villages on the banks of 
the Clain, south of the town. Of the other industrial establish- 
ments the most important is the national small-arms factory, 
which was established in 1815 in Chateauneuf, and employs 
from 1500 to 5500 men. Chatellerault (or Chatelherault: 
Castellum Airaldi) derives its name from a fortress built in 
the 10th century by Airaud, viscount of its territory. In 1515 
it was made a duchy in favour of Francois de Bourbon, but it 
was not long after this date that it became reunited to the 
crown. In 1 548 it was bestowed on James Hamilton, 2nd earl 
of Arran (see Hamilton). 

CHATHAM, WILLIAM PITT, 1st Earl of (1708-17 78), English 
statesman, was born at Westminster on the 15 th of November 
1708. He was the younger son of Robert Pitt of Boconnoc, 
Cornwall, and grandson of Thomas Pitt (1653-1726), governor 
of Madras, who was known as " Diamond " Pitt, from the fact 
of his having sold a diamond of extraordinary size to the regent 
Orleans for something like £135,000. It was mainly by this 
fortunate transaction that the governor was enabled to raise 
his family, which was one of old standing, to a position of wealth 
and political influence. The latter he acquired by purchasing 
the burgage tenures of Old Sarum. 

William Pitt was educated at Eton, and in January 1727 was 
entered as a gentleman commoner at Trinity College, Oxford. 
There is evidence that he was an extensively read, if not a 
minutely accurate classical scholar; and it is interesting to 
know that Demosthenes was his favourite author, and that he 
diligently cultivated the faculty of expression by the practice of 
translation and re-translation. An hereditary gout, from which 


he had suffered even during his school-days, compelled him to 
leave the university without taking his degree, in order to travel 
abroad. He spent some time in France and Italy; but the 
disease proved intractable, and he continued subject to attacks 
of growing intensity at frequent intervals till the close of his life. 
In 1727 his father had died, and on his return home it was 
necessary for him, as the younger son, to choose a profession. 
Having chosen the army, he obtained through the interest of his 
friends a cornet's commission in the dragoons. But his military 
career was destined to be short. His elder brother Thomas 
having been returned at the general election of - 1734 both for 
Oakhampton and for Old Sarum, and having preferred to sit for 
the former, the family borough fell to the younger brother by the 
sort of natural right usually recognized in such cases. Accord- 
ingly, in February 1735, William Pitt entered parliament as 
member for Old Sarum. Attaching himself at once to the formid- 
able band of discontented Whigs known as the Patriots, whom 
Walpole's love of exclusive power had forced into opposition' 
under Pulteney, he became in a very short time one of its most 
prominent members. His maiden speech was delivered in April 
1736, in the debate on the congratulatory address to the king on 
the marriage of the prince of Wales. The occasion was one of 
compliment, and there is nothing striking in the speech as re- 
ported; but it served to gain for him the attention of the house 
when he presented himself, as he soon afterwards did, in debates 
of a party character. So obnoxious did he become as a critic of 
the government, that Walpole thought fit to punish him by 
procuring his dismissal from the army. Some years later he had 
occasion vigorously to denounce the system of cashiering officers 
for political differences, but with characteristic loftiness of spirit 
he disdained to make any reference to his own case. The loss 
of his commission was soon made up to him. The heir to the 
throne, as was usually the case in the house of Hanover, if not 
in reigning families generally, was the patron of the opposition, 
and the ex-cornet became groom of the bed-chamber to the 
prince of Wales. In this new position his hostility to the govern- 
ment did not, as may be supposed, in any degree relax. He had 
all the natural gifts an orator could desire — a commanding pres- 
ence, a graceful though somewhat theatrical bearing, an eye of 
piercing brightness, and a voice of the utmost flexibility. His 
style, if occasionally somewhat turgid, was elevated and passion- 
ate, and it always bore the impress of that intensity of conviction 
which is the most powerful instrument a speaker can have to sway 
the convictions of an audience. It was natural, therefore, that 
in the series of stormy debates, protracted through several years, 
that ended in the downfall of Walpole, his eloquence should have 
been one of the strongest of the forces that combined to bring 
about the final result. Specially effective, according to contem- 
porary testimony, were his speeches against the Hanoverian 
subsidies, against the Spanish convention in 1739, and in favour 
of the motion in 1742 for an investigation into the last ten years 
of Walpole's administration. It must be borne in mind that the 
reports of these speeches which have come down to us were made 
from hearsay, or at best from recollection, and are necessarily 
therefore most imperfect. The best-known specimen of Pitt's 
eloquence, his reply to the sneers of Horatio Walpole at his youth 
anddeclamatory manner, which has found a place in somanyhand- 
books of elocution, is evidently, in form at least, the work, not of 
Pitt, but of Dr Johnson, who furnished the report to the Gentle- 
man's Magazine. Probably Pitt did say something of the kind 
attributed to him, though even this is by no means certain in view 
of Johnson's repentant admission that he had often invented not 
merely the form, but the substance of entire debates. 

In 1742 Walpole was at last forced to succumb to the long- 
continued attacks of opposition, and was succeeded as prime 
minister by the earl of Wilmington, though the real power in 
the new government was divided between Carteret and the 
Pelhams. Pitt's conduct on the change of administration was 
open to grave censure. The relentless vindictiveness with 
which he insisted on the prosecution of Walpole, and supported 
the bill of indemnity to witnesses against the fallen minister, 
was in itself not magnanimous; but it appears positively un- 

worthy when it is known that a short time before Pitt had offered, 
on certain conditions, to use all his influence in the other direction. 
Possibly he was embittered at the time by the fact that, owing 
to the strong personal dislike of the king, caused chiefly by the 
contemptuous tone in which he had spoken of Hanover, he did 
not by obtaining a place in the new ministry reap the fruits of 
the victory to which he had so largely contributed. The so-called 
" broad-bottom " administration formed by the Pelhams in 
1744, after the dismissal of Carteret, though it included several 
of those with whom he had been accustomed to act, did not at 
first include Pitt himself even in a subordinate office. Before 
the obstacle to his admission was overcome, he had received a 
remarkable accession to his private fortune. The eccentric 
duchess of Marlborough, dying in 1744, at the age of ninety, 
left him a legacy of £10,000 as an " acknowledgment of the 
noble defence he had made for the support of the laws of England 
and to prevent the ruin of his country." As her hatred was 
known to be at least as strong as her love, the legacy was probably 
as much a mark of her detestation of Walpole as of her admiration 
of Pitt. It may be mentioned here, though it does not come in 
chronological order, that Pitt was a second time the object of a 
form of acknowledgment of public virtue which few statesmen 
have had the fortune to receive even once. About twenty years 
after the Marlborough legacy, Sir William Pynsent, a Somerset- 
shire baronet to whom he was personally quite unknown, left 
him his entire estate, worth about three thousand a year, in 
testimony of approval of his political career. 

It was with no very good grace that the king at length consented 
to give Pitt a place in the government, although the latter did 
all he could to ingratiate himself at court, by changing his tone 
on the questions on which he had made himself offensive. To 
force the matter, the Pelhams had to resign expressly on the 
question whether he should be admitted or not, and it was only 
after all other arrangements had proved impracticable, that they 
were reinstated with the obnoxious politician as vice-treasurer 
of Ireland. This was in February 1746. In May of the same 
year he was promoted to the more important and lucrative office 
of paymaster-general, which gave him a place in the privy council, 
though not in the cabinet. Here he had an opportunity of display- 
ing his public spirit and integrity in a way that deeply impressed 
both the king and the country. It had been the usual practice 
of previous paymasters to appropriate to themselves the interest 
of all money lying in their hands by way of advance, and also to 
accept a commission of J % on all foreign subsidies. Although 
there was no strong public sentiment against the practice, Pitt 
altogether refused to profit by it. All advances were lodged by 
him in the Bank of England until required, and all subsidies 
were paid over without deduction, even though it was pressed 
upon him, so that he did not draw a shilling from his office 
beyond the salary legally attaching to it. Conduct like this, 
though obviously disinterested, did not go without immediate 
and ample reward, in the public confidence which it created, 
and which formed the mainspring of Pitt's power as a statesman . 

The administration formed in 1746 lasted without material 
change till 1754. It would appear from his published corre- 
spondence that Pitt had a greater influence in shaping its policy 
than his comparatively subordinate position would in itself have 
entitled him to. His conduct in supporting measures, such as 
the Spanish treaty and the continental subsidies, which he 
had violently denounced when in opposition, had been much 
criticized; but within certain limits, not indeed very well 
defined, inconsistency has never been counted a vice in an English 
statesman. The times change, and he is not blamed for changing 
with the times. Pitt in office, looking back on the commencement 
of his public life, might have used the plea " A good deal has 
happened since then," at least as justly as some others have 
done. Allowance must always be made for the restraints and 
responsibilities of office. In Pitt's case, too, it is to be borne in 
mind that the opposition with which he had acted gradually 
dwindled away, and that it ceased to have any organized existence 
after the death of the prince of Wales in 17 51. Then in regard 
to the important question with Spain as to the right of search, 


Pitt has disarmed criticism by acknowledging that the course 
he followed during Wapole's administration was indefensible. 
All due weight being given to these various considerations, it 
must be admitted, nevertheless, that Pitt did overstep the 
limits within which inconsistency is usually regarded as venial. 
His one great object was first to gain office, and then to make 
his tenure of office secure by conciliating the favour of the king. 
The entire revolution which much of his policy underwent in 
order to effect this object bears too close a resemblance to the 
sudden and inexplicable changes of front habitual to placemen 
of the Tadpole stamp to be altogether pleasant to contemplate 
in a politician of pure aims and lofty ambition. Humiliating 
is not too strong a term to apply to a letter in which he expresses 
his desire to " efface the past by every action of his life," in order 
that he may stand well with the king. 

In 1754 Henry Pelham died, and was succeeded at the head of 
affairs by his brother, the duke of Newcastle. To Pitt the change 
brought no advancement, and he had thus an opportunity of 
testing the truth of the description of his chief given by Sir 
Robert Walpole, " His name is treason." But there was for a 
time no open breach. Pitt continued at his post; and at the 
general election which took place during the year he even 
accepted a nomination for the duke's pocket borough of Aid- 
borough. He had sat for Seaford since 1747. When parliament 
met, however, he was not long in showing the state of his feelings. 
Ignoring Sir Thomas Robinson, the political nobody to whom 
Newcastle had entrusted the management of the Commons, 
he made frequent and vehement attacks on Newcastle himself, 
though still continuing to serve under him. In this strange 
state matters continued for about a year. At length, just after 
the meeting of parliament in November 17 51, Pitt was dismissed 
from office, having on the debate on the address spoken at great 
length against a new system of continental subsidies, proposed by 
the government of which he was a member. Fox, who had 
just before been appointed secretary of state, retained his place, 
and though the two men continued to be of the same party, and 
afterwards served again in the same government, there was 
henceforward a rivalry between them, which makes the celebrated 
opposition of their illustrious sons seem like an inherited quarrel. 

Another year had scarcely passed when Pitt was again in 
power. The inherent weakness of the government, the vigour 
and eloquence of his opposition, and a series of military disasters 
abroad combined to rouse a public feeling of indignation which 
could not be withstood, and in December 1756 Pitt, who now 
sat for Okehampton, became secretary of state, and leader of 
the Commons under the premiership of the duke of Devonshire. 
He had made it a condition of his joining any administration 
that Newcastle should be excluded from it, thus showing a 
resentment which, though natural enough, proved fatal to the 
lengthened existence of his government. With the king un- 
friendly, and Newcastle, whose corrupt influence was still 
dominant in the Commons, estranged, it was impossible to 
carry on a government by the aid of public opinion alone, how- 
ever emphatically that might have declared itself on his side. 
In April 1757, accordingly, he found himself again dismissed 
from office on account of his opposition to the king's favourite 
continental policy. But the power that was insufficient to keep 
him in office was strong enough to make any arrangement that 
excluded him impracticable. The public voice spoke in a way 
that was not to be mistaken. Probably no English minister 
ever received in so short a time so many proofs of the confidence 
and admiration of the public, the capital and all the chief towns 
voting him addresses and the freedom of their corporations. 
From the political deadlock that ensued relief could only be had 
by an arrangement between Newcastle and Pitt. After some 
weeks' negotiation, in the course of which the firmness and 
moderation of " the Great Commoner," as he had come to be 
called, contrasted favourably with the characteristic tortuosities 
of the crafty peer, matters were settled on such a basis that, 
while Newcastle was the nominal, Pitt was the virtual head of 
the government. On his acceptance of office he was chosen 
member for Bath. 

This celebrated administration was formed in June 1757, and 
continued in power till 1761. During the four years of its 
existence it has been usual to say that the biography of Pitt is 
the history of England, so thoroughly was he identified with the 
great events which make this period, in so far as the external 
relations of the country are concerned, one of the most glorious 
in her annals. A detailed account of these events belongs to 
history; all that is needed in a biography is to point out the 
extent to which Pitt's personal influence may really be traced 
in them. It is scarcely too much to say that, in the general 
opinion of his contemporaries, the whole glory of these years 
was due to his single genius; his alone was the mind that planned, 
and his the spirit that animated the brilliant achievements of 
the British arms in all the four quarters of the globe. Posterity, 
indeed, has been able to recognize more fully the independent 
genius of those who carried out his purposes. The heroism of 
Wolfe would have been irrepressible, Clive would have proved 
himself ' a heaven-born general," and Frederick the Great 
would have written his name in history as one of the most skilful 
strategists the world has known, whoever had held the seals of 
office in England. But Pitt's relation to all three was such as to 
entitle him to a large share in the credit of their deeds. It was 
his discernment that selected Wolfe to lead the attack on Quebec, 
and gave him the opportunity of dying a victor on the heights of 
Abraham. He had personally less to do with the successes in 
India than with the other great enterprises that shed an undying 
lustre on his administration; but his generous praise in parlia- 
ment stimulated the genius of Clive, and the forces that acted 
at the close of the struggle were animated by his indomitable 
spirit. Pitt, the first real Imperialist in modern English history, 
was the directing mind in the expansion of his country, and 
with him the beginning of empire is rightly associated. The 
Seven Years' War might well, moreover, have been another 
Thirty Years' War if Pitt had not furnished Frederick with 
an annual subsidy of £700,000, and in addition relieved him of 
the task of defending western Germany against France. 

Contemporary opinion was, of course, incompetent to estimate 
the permanent results gained for the country by the brilliant 
foreign policy of Pitt. It has long been generally agreed that 
by several of his most costly expeditions nothing was really won 
but glory. It has even been said that the only permanent 
acquisition that England owed directly to him was her Canadian 
dominion; and, strictly speaking, this is true, it being admitted 
that the campaign by which the Indian empire was virtually won 
was not planned by him, though brought to a successful issue 
during his ministry. But material aggrandizement, though 
the only tangible, is not the only real or lasting effect of a war 
policy. More may be gained by crushing a formidable rival than 
by conquering a province. The loss of her Canadian possessions 
was only one of a series of disasters suffered by France, which 
radically affected the future of Europe and the world. Deprived 
of her most valuable colonies both in the East and in the West, 
and thoroughly defeated on the continent, her humiliation was 
the beginning of a new epoch in history. The victorious policy 
of Pitt destroyed the military prestige which repeated experience 
has shown to be in France as in no other country the very life 
of monarchy, and thus was not the least considerable of the many 
influences that slowly brought about the French Revolution. 
It effectually deprived her of the lead in the councils of Europe 
which she had hitherto arrogated to herself, and so affected the 
whole course of continental politics. It is such far-reaching 
results as these, and not the mere acquisition of a single colony, 
however valuable, that constitute Pitt's claim to be considered 
as on the whole the most powerful minister that ever guided the 
foreign policy of England. 

The first and most important of a series of changes which 
ultimately led to the dissolution of the ministry was the death 
of George II. on the 25th of October 1760, and the accession of 
his grandson, George III. The new king had, as was natural, new 
counsellors of his own, the chief of whom, Lord Bute, was at once 
admitted to the cabinet as a secretary of state. Between Bute 
and Pitt there speedily arose an occasion of serious difference. 


The existence of the so-called family compact by which the 
Bourbons of France and Spain bound themselves in an offensive 
alliance against England having been brought to light, Pitt urged 
that it should be met by an immediate declaration of war with 
Spain. To this course Bute would not consent, and as his refusal 
was endorsed by all his colleagues save Temple, Pitt had no 
choice but to leave a cabinet in which his advice on a vital 
question had been rejected. On his resignation, which took 
place in October 1761, the king urged him to accept some signal 
mark of royal favour in the form most agreeable to himself. 
Accordingly he obtained a pension of £3000 a year for three lives, 
and his wife, Lady Hester Grenville, whom he had married in 
1754, was created Baroness Chatham in her own right. In con- 
nexion with the latter gracefully bestowed honour it may be 
mentioned that Pitt's domestic life was a singularly happy one. 

Pitt's spirit was too lofty to admit of his entering on any 
merely factious opposition to the government he had quitted. 
On the contrary, his conduct after his retirement was dis- 
tinguished by a moderation and disinterestedness which, as 
Burke has remarked, " set a seal upon his character." The war 
with Spain, in which he had urged the cabinet to take the initia- 
tive, proved inevitable; but he scorned to use the occasion 
for "altercation and recrimination," and spoke in support of 
the government measures for carrying on the war. To the 
preliminaries of the peace concluded in February 1763 he offered 
an indignant resistance, considering the terms quite inadequate 
to the successes that had been gained by the country. When the 
treaty was discussed in parliament in December of the preceding 
year, though suffering from a severe attack of gout, he was carried 
down to the House, and in a speech of three hours' duration, 
interrupted more than once by paroxysms of pain, he strongly 
protested against its various conditions. The physical cause 
which rendered this effort so painful probably accounts for the 
infrequency of his appearances in parliament, as well as for much 
that is otherwise inexplicable in his subsequent conduct. In 
1763 he spoke against the obnoxious tax on cider, imposed by 
his brother-in-law, George Grenville, and his opposition, though 
unsuccessful in the House, helped to keep alive his popularity 
with the country, which cordially hated the excise and all con- 
nected with it. When next year the question of general warrants 
was raised in connexion with the case of Wilkes, Pitt vigorously 
maintained their illegality, thus defending at once the privileges 
of Parliament and the freedom of the press. During 1765 he 
seems to have been totally incapacitated for public business. 
In the following year he supported with great power the pro- 
posal of the Rockingham administration for the repeal of the 
American Stamp Act, arguing that it was unconstitutional to 
impose taxes upon the colonies. He thus endorsed the contention 
of the colonists on the ground of principle, while the majority of 
those who acted with him contented themselves with resisting the 
disastrous taxation scheme on the ground of expediency. The 
Repeal Act, indeed, was only passed pari passu with another 
censuring the American assemblies, and declaring the authority 
of the British parliament over the colonies " in all cases what- 
soever "; so that the House of Commons repudiated in the most 
formal manner the principle Pitt laid down. His language in 
approval of the resistance of the colonists was unusually bold, 
and perhaps no one but himself could have employed it with 
impunity at a time when the freedom of debate was only im- 
perfectly conceded. 

Pitt had not been long out of office when he was solicited to 
return to it, and the solicitations were more than once renewed. 
Unsuccessful overtures were made to him in 1763, and twice 
in 1765, in May and June — the negotiator in May being the 
king's uncle, the duke of Cumberland, who went down in person 
to Hayes, Pitt's seat in Kent. It is known that he had the 
opportunity of joining the marquis of Rockingham's short-lived 
administration at any time on his own terms, and his conduct 
in declining an arrangement with that minister has been more 
generally condemned than any other step in his public life. In 
July 1766 Rockingham was dismissed, and Pitt was entrusted by 
the king with the task of forming a government entirely on his 

own conditions. The result was a cabinet, strong much beyond 
the average in its individual members, but weak to powerlessness 
in the diversity of its composition. Burke, in a memorable 
passage of a memorable speech, has described this " chequered 
and speckled" administration with great humour, speaking of 
it as " indeed a very curious show, but utterly unsafe to touch 
and unsure to stand on." Pitt chose for himself the office of 
lord privy seal, which necessitated his removal to the House of 
Lords; and in August he became earl of Chatham and Viscount 
Pitt. ■ 

By the acceptance of a peerage the great commoner lost at 
least as much and as suddenly in popularity as he gained in 
dignity. One significant indication of this may be mentioned. 
In view of his probable accession to power, preparations were 
made in the city of London for a banquet and a general illumina- 
tion to celebrate the event. But the celebration was at once 
countermanded when it was known that he had become earl of 
Chatham. The instantaneous revulsion of public feeling was 
somewhat unreasonable, for Pitt's health seems now to have 
been beyond doubt so shattered by his hereditary malady, that 
he was already in old age though only fifty-eight. It was natural, 
therefore, that he should choose a sinecure office, and the ease of 
the Lords. But a popular idol nearly always suffers by removal 
from immediate contact with the popular sympathy, be the 
motives for removal what they may. 

One of the earliest acts of the new ministry was to lay an 
embargo upon corn, which was thought necessary in order to 
prevent a dearth resulting from the unprecedentedly bad 
harvest of 1766. The measure was strongly opposed, and Lord 
Chatham delivered his first speech in the House of Lords in 
support of it. It proved to be almost the only measure intro- 
duced by his government in which he personally interested himself . 
His attention had been directed to the growing importance of 
the affairs of India, and there is evidence in his correspondence 
that he was meditating a comprehensive scheme for transferring 
much of the power of the company to the crown, when he was 
withdrawn from public business in a manner that has always 
been regarded as somewhat mysterious. It may be questioned, 
indeed, whether even had his powers been unimpaired he could 
have carried out any decided policy on any question with a 
cabinet representing interests so various and conflicting; but, 
as it happened, he was incapacitated physically and mentally 
during nearly the Whole period of his tenure of office. He 
scarcely ever saw any of his colleagues though they repeatedly 
and urgently pressed for interviews with him, and even an offer 
from the king to visit him in person was declined, though in the 
language of profound and almost abject respect which always 
marked his communications with the court. It has been in- 
sinuated both by contemporary and by later critics that being 
disappointed at his loss of popularity, and convinced of the 
impossibility of co-operating with his colleagues, he exaggerated 
his malady as a pretext for the inaction that was forced upon 
him by circumstances. But there is no sufficient reason to doubt 
that he was really, as his friends represented, in a state that 
utterly unfitted him for business. He seems to have been freed' 
for a time from the pangs of gout only to be afflicted with a 
species of mental alienation bordering on insanity. This is the 
most satisfactory, as it is the most obvious, explanation of 
his utter indifference in presence of one of the most momentous 
problems that ever pressed for solution on an English statesman. 
Those who are able to read the history in the light of what 
occurred later may perhaps be convinced that no policy whatever 
initiated, after 1766 could have prevented or even materially 
delayed the declaration of American independence; but to the 
politicians of that time the coming event had not yet cast so 
dark a shadow before as to paralyse all action, and if any man 
could have allayed the growing discontent of the colonists and 
prevented the ultimate dismemberment of the empire, it would 
have been Lord Chatham. The fact that he not only did nothing 
to remove existing difficulties, but remained passive while his 
colleagues took the fatal step which led directly to separation, 
is in itself clear proof of his entire incapacity. The imposition 


of the import duty on tea and other commodities was the project 
of Charles Townshend, and was carried into effect in 1767 without 
consultation with Lord Chatham, if not in opposition to his 
wishes. It is probably the most singular thing in connexion 
with this singular administration, that its most pregnant measure 
should thus have been one directly opposed to the well-known 
principles of its head. 

For many months things remained in the curious position that 
he who was understood to be the head of the cabinet had as little 
share in the government of the country as an unenfranchised 
peasant. As the chief could not or would not lead, the sub- 
ordinates naturally chose their own paths and not his. The 
lines of Chatham's policy were abandoned in other cases besides 
the imposition of the import duty; his opponents were taken 
into confidence; and friends, such as Amherst and Shelburne, 
were dismissed from their posts. When at length in October 
1768 he tendered his resignation on the ground of shattered 
health, he did not fail to mention the dismissal of Amherst and 
Shelburne as a personal grievance. 

Soon after his resignation a renewed attack of gout freed 
Chatham from the mental disease under which he had so long 
suffered. He had been nearly two years and a half in seclusion 
when, in July 1769, he again appeared in public at a royal levee. 
It was not, however, until 1770 that he resumed his seat in the 
House of Lords. He had now almost no personal following, 
mainly owing to the grave mistake he had made in not forming 
an alliance with the Rockingham party. But his eloquence was 
as powerful as ever, and all its power was directed against the 
government policy in the contest with America, which had 
become the question of all-absorbing interest. His last appear- 
ance in the House of Lords was on the 7th of April 1778, on the 
occasion of the duke of Richmond's motion for an address 
praying the king to conclude peace with America on any terms. 
In view of the hostile demonstrations of France the various 
parties had come generally to see the necessity of such a measure. 
But Chatham could not brook the thought of a step which 
implied submission to the " natural enemy " whom it had been 
the main object of his life to humble, and he declaimed for a 
considerable time, though with sadly diminished vigour, against 
the motion. After the duke of Richmond had replied, he rose 
again excitedly as if to speak, pressed his hand upon his breast, 
and fell down in a fit. He was removed to his seat at Hayes, 
where he died on the nth of May. With graceful unanimity 
all parties combined to show their sense of the national loss. 
The Commons presented an address to the king praying that the 
deceased statesman might be buried with the honours of a public 
funeral, and voted a sum for a public monument which was 
erected over his grave in Westminster Abbey. Soon after the 
funeral a bill was passed bestowing a pension of £4000 a year 
on his successors in the earldom, He had a family of three 
sons and two daughters, of whom the second son, William, 
was destined to add fresh lustre to a name which is one of the 
greatest in the history of England. 

Dr Johnson is reported to have said that " Walpole was a 
minister given by the king to the people, but Pitt was a minister 
given by the people to the king," and the remark correctly 
indicates Chatham's distinctive place among English statesmen. 
He was the first minister whose main strength lay in the support 
of the nation at large as distinct from its representatives in the 
Commons, where his personal following was always small. He 
was the first to discern that public opinion, though generally 
slow to form and slow to act, is in the end the paramount power 
in the state; and he was the first to use it not in an emergency 
merely, but throughout a whole political career. He marks the 
commencement of that vast change in the movement of English 
politics by which it has come about that the sentiment of the 
great mass of the people now tells effectively on the action of 
the government from day to day, — almost from hour to hour. 
He was well fitted to secure the sympathy and admiration of his 
countrymen, for his virtues and his failings were alike English. 
He was often inconsistent, he was generally intractable and 
overbearing, and he was always pompous and affected to a 

degree which, Macaulay has remarked, seems scarcely compatible 
with true greatness. Of the last quality evidence is furnished 
in the stilted style of his letters, and in the fact recorded by 
Seward that he never permitted his tinder-secretaries to sit in 
his presence. Burke speaks of " some significant, pompous, 
creeping, explanatory, ambiguous matter, in the true Chathamic 
style." But these defects were known only to the inner circle 
of his associates. To the outside public he was endeared as a 
statesman who could do or suffer " nothing base," and who had 
the rare power of transfusing his own indomitable energy and 
courage into all who served under him. "A spirited foreign 
policy " has always been popular in England, and Pitt was the 
most popular of English ministers, because he was the most 
successful exponent of such a policy. In domestic affairs his 
influence was small and almost entirely indirect. He himself 
confessed his unfitness for dealing with questions of finance. The 
commercial prosperity that was produced by his war policy was 
in a great part delusive, as prosperity so produced must always 
be, though it had permanent effects of the highest moment in the 
rise of such centres of industry as Glasgow. This, however, was 
a remote result which he could have neither intended nor foreseen. 
The correspondence of Lord Chatham, in four volumes, was 
published in 1838-1840; and a volume of his letters to Lord Camel- 
ford in 1804. The Rev. Francis Thackeray's History of the Rt. Hon. 
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (2 vols., 1827), is a ponderous and 
shapeless work. Frederic Harrison's Chatham, in the " Twelve 
English Statesmen " series (1905), though skilfully executed, takes a 
rather academic and modern Liberal view. A German work, William 
Pitt, Graf von Chatham, by Albert von Ruville (3 vols., 1905; English 
trans. 1907), is the best and most thorough account of Chatham, 
his period, and his policy, which has appeared. See also the separate 
article on William Pitt, and the authorities referred tc, especially 
the Rev. William Hunt's appendix i. to his vol. x. of The Political 
History of England (1905). 

CHATHAM, also called Miramichi, an incorporated town and 
portof entryin Northumberland county, New Brunswick, Canada, 
on the Miramichi river, 24 m. from its mouth and 10 m. by rail 
from Chatham junction on the Intercolonial railway. Pop. (1901) 
5000. The town contains the Roman Catholic pro-cathedral, 
many large saw-mills, pulp-mills, and several establishments 
for curing and exporting fish. The lumber trade, the fisheries, 
and the manufacture of pulp are the chief industries. 

CHATHAM, a city and port of entry of Ontario, Canada, and 
the capital of Kent county, situated 64 m. S.W. of London, 
and 1 1 m. N. of Lake Erie, on the Thames river and the Grand 
Trunk, Canadian Pacific and Lake Erie & Detroit River railways. 
Pop. (1901) 9068. It has steamboat connexion with Detroit and 
the cities on Lakes Huron and Erie. It is situated in a rich agri- 
cultural and fruit-growing district, and carries on a large export 
trade. It contains a large wagon factory, planing and flour mills, 
manufactories of fanning mills, binder-twine, woven wire goods, 
engines, windmills, &c. 

CHATHAM, a port and municipal and parliamentary borough 
of Kent, England, on the right bank of the Medway, 34 m. 
E.S.E. of London by the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. 
Pop. (1891) 31,657; (1901)37,057. Though a distinct borough 
it is united on the west with Rochester and on the east with 
Gillingham, so that the three boroughs form, in appearance, a 
single town with a population which in 1901 exceeded 110,000. 
With the exception of the dockyards and fortifications there are*' 
few objects of interest. St Mary's church was opened in 1903, but 
occupies a site which bore a church in Saxon times, though the 
previous building dated only from 1786. A brass commemorates 
Stephen Borough (d. 1584), discoverer of the northern passage 
to Archangel in Russia (1553). St Bartholomew's chapel, 
originally attached to the hospital for lepers (one of the first in 
England), founded by Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, in 1070, 
is in part Norman. The funds for the maintenance of the hospital 
were appropriated by decision of the court of chancery to the 
hospital of St Bartholomew erected in 1863 within the boundaries 
of Rochester. The almshouse established in 1592 by Sir John 
Hawkins for decayed seamen and shipwrights is still extant, the 
building having been re-erected in the 19th century; but the fund 
called the Chatham Chest, originated by Hawkins and Drake in 


1588, was incorporated with Greenwich Hospital in 1802. In 
front of the Royal Engineers' Institute is a statue (1890) of 
General Gordon, and near the railway station another (1888) to 
Thomas Waghorn, promoter of the overland route to India. In 
1905 King Edward VII. unveiled a fine memorial arch com- 
memorating Royal Engineers who fell in the South African War. 
It stands in the parade ground of the Brompton barracks, facing 
the Crimean arch. There are numerous brickyards, lime-kilns 
and flour-mills in the district neighbouring to Chatham; and the 
town carries on a large retail trade, in great measure owing to 
the presence of the garrison. The fortifications are among the 
most elaborate in the kingdom. The so-called Chatham Lines 
enclose New Brompton, a part of the borough of Gillingham. 
They were begun in 1758 and completed in 1807, but have been 
completely modernized. They are strengthened by several 
detached forts and redoubts. Fort Pitt, which rises above the 
town to the west, was built in 1779, and is used as a general 
military hospital. It was regarded as the principal establishment 
of the kind in the country till the foundation of Netley in Hamp- 
shire. The lines include the Chatham, the Royal Marine, the 
Brompton, the Hut, St Mary's and naval barracks; the garrison 
hospital, Melville hospital for sailors and marines, the arsenal, 
gymnasium, various military schools, convict prison, and finally 
the extensive dockyard system for which the town is famous. 
This dockyard covers an area of 516 acres, and has a river 
frontage of over 3 m. It was brought into its present state by 
the extensive works begun about 1867. Before that time there 
was no basin or wet-dock, though the river Medway to some 
extent answered the same purpose, but a portion of the adjoin- 
ing salt-marshes was then taken in, and three basins have been 
constructed, communicating with each other by means of large 
locks, so that ships can pass from the bend of the Medway at 
Gillingham to that at Upnor. Four graving docks were also 
formed, opening out of the first (Upnor) basin. Subsequent 
improvements included dredging operations in the Medway to 
improve the approach, and the provision of extra dry-dock 
accommodation under the Naval Works Acts. 

The parliamentary borough returns one member. The town 
was incorporated in 1890, and is governed by a mayor, six alder- 
men and eighteen councillors. Area, 435s acres. The borough 
includes the suburb (an ecclesiastical parish) of Luton, in which 
are the waterworks of Chatham and the adjoining towns. 

Chatham (Ceteham, Chetham) belonged at the time of the 
Domesday Survey to Odo, bishop of Bayeux. During the 
middle ages it formed a suburb of Rochester, but Henry VIII. 
in founding a regular navy began to establish dockyards, and the 
harbour formed by the deep channel of the Medway was utilized 
by Elizabeth, who built a dockyard and established an arsenal 
here. The dockyard was altered and improved by Charles I. 
and Charles II., and became the chief naval station of England. 
In 1708 an act was passed for extending the fortifications of 
Chatham. During the excavations on Chatham Hill after 1758a 
number of tumuli containing human remains, pottery, coins, &c, 
suggestive of an ancient settlement, were found. Chatham was 
constituted a parliamentary borough by the Reform Bill of 1832. 
In the time of Edward III. the lord of the manor had two fairs, 
one on the 24th of August and the other on the 8th of September. 
A market to be held on Tuesday, and a fair on the 4th, 5th and 
6th of May, were granted by Charles II. in 1679, and another 
provision market on Saturday by James II. in 1688. In 1738 
fairs were held on the 4th of May and the 8th of September, and 
a market every Saturday. 

CHATHAM ISLANDS, a small group in the Pacific Ocean, 
forming part of New Zealand, 536 m. due E. of Lyttelton in the 
South Island, about 44 S., 177° W. It consists of three 
islands, a large one called Whairikauri, or Chatham Island, a 
smaller one, Rangihaute, or Pitt Island, and a third, Rangatira, 
or South-east Island. There are also several small rocky islets. 
Whairikauri, whose highest point reaches about 1000 ft., is 
remarkable for the number of lakes and tarns it contains, and for 
the extensive bogs which cover the surface of nearly the whole 
of the uplands. It is of very irregular form, about 38 m. in 

length and 25 m. in extreme breadth, with an area of 321 sq. m. 
— a little larger than Middlesex. The geological formation is 
principally of volcanic rocks, with schists and tertiary limestone; 
and an early physical connexion of the islands with New Zealand 
is indicated by their geology and biology. The climate is colder 
than that of New Zealand. In the centre of Whairikauri is a 
large brackish lake called Tewanga, which at the southern end 
is separated from the sea by a sandbank only 1 50 yds. wide, which 
it occasionally bursts through. The southern part of the island 
has an undulating surface, and is covered either with an open 
forest or with high ferns. In general the soil is extremely fertile, 
and where it is naturally drained a rich vegetation of fern and 
flax occurs. On the north-west are several conical hills of basalt, 
which are surrounded by oases of fertile soil. On the south- 
western side is Petre Bay, on which, at the mouth of the river 
Mantagu, is Waitangi, the principal settlement. 

The islands were discovered in 1791 by Lieutenant W. R. 
Broughton (1762-1821), who gave them the name of Chatham 
from the brig which he commanded. He described the natives 
as a bright, pleasure-loving people, dressed in sealskins or mats, 
and calling' themselves Morioris or Maiorioris. In 1831 they 
were conquered by 800 Maoris who were landed from a European 
vessel. They were almost exterminated, and an epidemic of 
influenza in 1839 killed half of those left; ten years later there 
were only 90 survivors out of a total population of 1200. They 
subsequently decreased still further. Their language was allied 
to that of the Maoris of New Zealand, but they differed somewhat 
from them in physique, and they were probably a cross between 
an immigrating Polynesian group and a lower indigenous Melan- 
esian stock. The population of the islands includes about 200 
whites of various races and the same number of natives (chiefly 
Maoris). Cattle and sheep are bred, and a trade is carried on in 
them with the whalers which visit these seas. The chief export 
from the group is wool, grown upon runs farmed both by Euro- 
peans and Morioris. There is also a small export by the natives 
of the flesh of young albatrosses and other sea-birds, boiled down 
and cured, for the Maoris of New Zealand, by whom it is reckoned 
a delicacy. The imports consist of the usual commodities 
required by a population where little of the land is actually 

There are no indigenous mammals; the reptiles belong to 
New Zealand species. The birds — the largest factor in the fauna 
— have become v^ry greatly reduced through the introduction 
of cats, dogs and pigs, as well as by the constant persecution of 
every sort of animal by the natives. The larger bell-bird (Anlh- 
ornis melanocephala) has become quite scarce ; the magnificent 
fruit-pigeon (Carpophaga chathamensis) , and the two endemic 
rails (Nesolimnas dieffenbachii and Cabalus modestus) , the one of 
which was confined to Whairikauri and the other to Mangare 
Island, are extinct. Several fossil or subfossil avian forms, very 
interesting from the point of view of geographical distribution, 
have been discovered by Dr H. O. Forbes, namely, a true species 
of raven (Palaeocorax moriorum), a remarkable rail (Diaphora- 
pteryx), closely related to the extinct Aphanapteryx of Mauritius, 
and a large coot (Palaeolimnas chathamensis). There have also 
been discovered the remains of a species of swan belonging to 
the South American genus Chenopis, and of the tuatara (Hatteria) 
lizard, the unique species of an ancient family now surviving only 
in New Zealand. The swan is identical with an extinct species 
found in caves and kitchen-middens in New Zealand, which was 
contemporaneous with the prehistoric Maoris and was largely 
used by them for food. One of the finest of the endemic flower- 
ing plants of the group is the boraginaceous " Chatham Island 
lily " (Myositidium nobile), a gigantic forget-me-not, which grows 
on the shingly shore in a few places only, and always just on 
the high-water mark, where it is daily deluged by the waves; 
while dracophyllums, leucopogons and arborescent ragworts are 
characteristic forms in the vegetation. 

See Bruno Weiss, Fiinfzig Jahre auf Chatham Island (Berlin, 
1900); H. O. Forbes, "The Chatham Islands and their Story," 
Fortnightly Review (1893), vol. liii. p. 669, "The Chatham Islands, 
their relation to a former Southern Continent," Supplementary. 


Papers, R.G.S., vol. iii. (1893); J. H. Scott, "The Osteology of 
the Maori and the Moriori," Trans. New Zealand Institute, vol. xxvi. 
(1893) ; C. W. Andrews, " The Extinct Birds of the Chatham 
Islands," Novitates Zoologicae, vol. ii. p. 73 (1896). 

CHATILLON, the name of a French family whose history has 
furnished material for a large volume in folio by A. du Chesne, 
a learned Frenchman, published in 1621. But in spite of its 
merits this book presents a certain number of inaccurate state- 
ments, some of which it is important to notice. If, for instance, 
it be true that the Chatillons came from Chatillon-sur-Marne 
(Marne, arrondissement of Reims), it is now certain that, since 
the nth century, this castle belonged to the count of Cham- 
pagne, and that the head of the house of ChS-tillon was merely 
tenant in that place. One of them, howeVer, Gaucher of Chatillon, 
lord of Crecy and afterwards constable of France, became in 
1290 lord of Chatillon-sur-Marne by exchange, but since 1303 a 
new agreement allotted to him the countship of Porcien, while 
Chatillon reverted to the domain of the counts of Champagne. 
It may be well to mention also that, in consequence of a resem- 
blance of their armorial bearings, du Chesne considered wrongly 
that the lords of Bazoches and those of Chateau-Porcien of the 
12th and 13th centuries drew their descent from the house of 

The most important branches of the house of Chatillon were 
those of (1) St Pol, beginning with Gaucher III. of Chatillon, 
who became count of St Pol in right of his wife Isabelle in 1205, 
the last male of the line being Guy V. (d. 1360); (2) Blois, 
founded by the marriage of Hugh of Chatillon-St Pol (d. 1248) 
with Mary, daughter of Margaret of Blois (d. 1230), — this branch 
became extinct with the death of Guy II. in 1397; (3) Porcien, 
from 1303 to 1400, when Count John sold the countship to Louis, 
duke of Orleans; (4) Penthievre, by the marriage of Charles of 
Blois (d. 1364) with Jeanne (d. 1384), heiress of Guy, count of 
Penthievre (d. 133 1), the male line becoming extinct in 1457. 

See A. du Chesne, Histoire genealogique de la maison de Chastillon- 
sur-Marne (162 1); Anselme, Histoire genealogique de la maison 
royale de France, vi. 91-124 (1730). (A. Lo.) 

CHATILLON-SUR-SEINE, a town of eastern France, capital 
of an arrondissement in the department of Cote-d'Or, on the 
Eastern and Paris-Lyon railways, 67 m. N.N.W. of Dijon, 
between that city and Troyes. Pop. (1906) 4430. It is situated 
on both banks of the upper Seine, which is swelled at its 
entrance to the town by the Douix, one of the most abundant 
springs in France. Chatillon is constructed on ample lines and 
rendered attractive by beautiful promenades. Some ruins on 
an eminence above it mark the Ate of a chateau of the dukes of 
Burgundy. Near by stands the church of St Vorle of the 10th 
century, but with many additions of later date; it contains a 
sculptured Holy Sepulchre of the 16th century and a number of 
frescoes. In a fine park stands a modern chateau built by 
Marshal Marmont, duke of Ragusa, born at Chatillon in 1774. 
It was burnt in 1871, and subsequently rebuilt. The town 
preserves several interesting old houses. Chatillon has a sub- 
prefecture, tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a school 
of agriculture and a communal college. Among its industries 
are brewing, iron-founding and the manufacture of mineral and 
other blacks. It has trade in v/pod, charcoal, lithographic and 
other stone. Chatillon anciently consisted of two parts, Chau- 
mont, belonging to the duchy of Burgundy, and Bourg, ruled by 
the bishop of Langres; it did not coalesce into one town till the 
end of the 16th century. It was taken by the English in 1360 and 
by Louis XI. in 1475, during his struggle with Charles the Bold. 
Chatillon was one of the first cities to adhere to the League, but 
suffered severely from the oppression of its garrisons and gover- 
nors, and in 1595 made voluntary submission to Henry IV. In 
modern times it is associated with the abortive conference of 
18 14 between the representatives of Napoleon and the Allies. 

CHATSWORTH, a village of Derbyshire, England, containing 
a seat belonging to the duke of Devonshire, one of the most 
splendid private residences in England. Chatsworth House is 
situated close to the left bank of the river Derwent, 2J m. from 
Bakewell. It is Ionic in style, built foursquare, and enclosing a 
large open courtyard, with a fountain in the centre. In front, 

a beautiful stretch of lawn slopes gradually down to the riverside, 
and a bridge, from which may best be seen the grand facade of 
the building, as it stands out in relief against the wooded ridge 
of Bunker's Hill. The celebrated gardens are adorned with 
sculptures by Gabriel Cibber; Sir Joseph Paxton designed the 
great conservatory, unrivalled in Europe, which covers an acre; 
and the fountains, which include one with a jet 260 ft. high, are 
said to be surpassed only by those at Versailles. Within the 
house there is 'a very fine collection of pictures, including the 
well-known portraits by Reynolds of Georgiana, duchess of 
Devonshire. Other paintings are asccribed to Holbein, Diirer, 
Murillo, Jan van Eyck, Dolci, Veronese and Titian. Hung in the 
gallery of sketches there are some priceless drawings attributed 
to Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raffaelle, Correggio, Titian 
and other old masters. Statues by Canova, Thorwaldsen, 
Chantrey and R. J. Wyatt are included among the sculptures. 
In the state apartments the walls and window-panes are in some 
cases inlaid with marble or porphyry; the woodcarving, mar- 
vellous for its intricacy, grace and lightness of effect, is largely 
the work of Samuel Watson of Heanor (d. 1715). Chatsworth 
Park is upwards of n m. in circuit, and contains many noble 
forest-trees, the whole being watered by the Derwent, and 
surrounded by high moors and uplands. Beyond the river, and 
immediately opposite the house, stands the model village of 
Edensor, where most of the cottages were built in villa style, with 
gardens, by order of the 6th duke. The parish church, restored 
by the same benefactor, contains an old brass in memory of 
John Beaton, confidential servant to Mary, queen of Scots, who 
died in 1570; and in the churchyard are the graves of Lord 
Frederick Cavendish, murdered in 1882 in Phoenix Park, 
Dublin, and of Sir Joseph Paxton. 

Chatsworth (Chetsvorde, Chetelsvorde, " the court of Chetel ") 
took its name from Chetel, one of its Saxon owners, who held it 
of Edward the Confessor. It belonged to the crown and was 
entrusted by the Conqueror to the custody of William Peverell. 
Chatsworth afterwards belonged for many generations to the 
family of Leech, and was purchased in the reign of Elizabeth 
by Sir William Cavendish, husband of the famous Bess of 
Hardwick. In 1557 he began to build Chatsworth House, and 
it was completed after his death by his widow, then countess of 
Shrewsbury. Here Mary, queen of Scots, spent several years of 
her imprisonment under the care of the earl of Shrewsbury. 
During the Civil War, Chatsworth was occasionally occupied 
as a fortress by both parties. It was pulled down, and the 
present house begun by William, 1st duke of Devonshire in 1688. 
The little village consists almost exclusively of families employed 
upon the estate. 

CHATTANOOGA, a city and the county-seat of Hamilton 
county, Tennessee, U.S.A., in the S.E. part of the state, about 
300 m. S. of Cincinnati, Ohio, and 150 m. S.E. of Nashville, 
Tennessee, on the Tennessee river, and near the boundary line 
between Tennessee and Georgia. Pop. (i860) 2545; (1870) 
16093; (1880) 12,892; (1890) 29,100; (1900)30,154,0! whom 994 
were foreign-born and 13,122 were negroes; (TJ. S. census, 1910) 
44,604. The city is served by the Alabama Great Southern (Queen 
and Crescent), the Cincinnati Southern (leased by the Cincinnati, 
New Orleans & Texas Pacific railway company), the Nashville, 
Chattanooga & St Louis (controlled by the Louisville & Nash- 
ville), and its leased line, the Western & Atlantic (connecting 
with Atlanta, Ga.), the Central of Georgia, and the Chattanooga 
Southern railways, and by freight and passenger steamboat 
lines on the Tennessee river, which is navigable to and beyond 
this point during eight months of the year. That branch of 
the Southern railway extending from Chattanooga to Memphis 
was formerly the Memphis & Charleston, under which name it 
became famous in the American Civil War. Chattanooga 
occupies a picturesque site at a sharp bend of the river. To the 
south lies Lookout Mountain, whose summit (2126 ft. above the 
sea; 1495 ft. above the river) commands a magnificent view. 
To the east rises Missionary Ridge. Fine driveways and electric 
lines connect with both Lookout Mountain (the summit of which 
is reached by an inclined plane on which cars are operated by 



cable) and Missionary Ridge, where there are Federal reserva- 
tions, as well as with the National Military Park (15 sq. m.; 
dedicated 1895) on the battlefield of Chickamauga (q.v.); this 
park was one of the principal mobilization camps of the United 
States army during the Spanish-American Wax of i8g8. Among 
the principal buildings are the city hall, the Federal building, 
the county court house, the public library, the high school and 
the St Vincent's and the Baroness Erlanger hospitals. Among 
Chattanooga's educational institutions are two commercial 
colleges, the Chattanooga College for Young Ladies (non- 
sectarian), the Chattanooga Normal University, and the Uni- 
versity of Chattanooga, until June 1907, United States Grant 
University (whose preparatory department, " The Athens 
School," is at Athens, Tenn.), a co-educational institution under 
Methodist Episcopal control, established in 1867; it has a school 
of law (1899), a medical school (1889), and a school of theology 
(1888). East of the city is a large national cemetery containing 
more than 13,000 graves of Federal soldiers. Chattanooga is 
an important produce, lumber, coal and iron market, and is the 
principal trade and jobbing centre for a large district in Eastern 
Tennessee and Northern Georgia and Alabama. The proximity 
of coalfields and iron mines has made Chattanooga an iron 
manufacturing place of importance, its plants including car 
shops, blast furnaces, foundries, agricultural implement and 
machinery works, and stove factories; the city has had an 
important part in the development of the iron and steel industries 
in this part of the South. There are also flour mills, tanneries 
(United States Leather Co.), patent medicine, furniture, coffin, 
woodenware and wagon factories, knitting and spinning mills, 
planing mills, and sash, door and blind factories — the lumber 
being obtained from logs floated down the river and by rail. The 
value of the city's factory products increased from $10,517,886 
in 1900 to $15,193,909 in 1905 0^44-5%. 

Chattanooga was first settled about 1835, and was long known 
as Ross's Landing. It was incorporated in 185 1 as Chattanooga, 
and received a city charter in 1866. Its growth for the three 
decades after the Civil War was very rapid. During the American 
Civil War it was one of the most important strategic points in 
the Confederacy, and in its immediate vicinity were fought two 
great battles. During June 1862 it was threatened by a Federal 
force under General O. M. Mitchel, but the Confederate army 
of General Braxton Bragg was transferred thither by rail from 
Corinth, Miss., before Mitchel was able to advance. In 
September 1863, however, General W. S. Rosecrans, with the 
Union Army of the Cumberland out-manceuvred Bragg, con- 
centrated his numerous columns in the Chickamauga Valley, and 
occupied the town, to which, after the defeat of Chickamauga 
(.q.v.) , he retired. 

From the end of September to the 24th of November the Army 
of the Cumberland was then invested in Chattanooga by the 
Confederates, whose position lay along Missionary Ridge from 
its north end near the river towards Rossville, whence their 
entrenchments extended westwards to Lookout Mountain, which 
dominates the whole ground, the Tennessee running directly 
beneath it. Thus Rosecrans was confined to a semicircle of 
low ground around Chattanooga itself, and his supplies had to 
make a long and difficult detour from Bridgeport, the main road 
being under fire from the Confederate position on Lookout and 
in the Wauhatchie valley adjacent. Bragg indeed expected that 
Rosecrans would be starved into retreat. But the Federals once 
more, and this time on a far larger scale, concentrated in the face 
of the enemy. The XL and XII. corps from Virginia under 
Hooker were transferred by rail to reinforce Rosecrans; other 
troops were called up from the Mississippi, and on the 16th of 
October the Federal government reconstituted the western 
armies under the supreme command of General Grant, The 
XV. corps of the Army of the Tennessee, under Sherman, was 
on the march from the Mississippi. Hooker's troops had already 
arrived when Grant reached Chattanooga on the 23rd of October. 
The Army of the Cumberland was now under Thomas, Rosecrans 
having been recalled. The first action was fought at Brown's 
Ferry in the Wauhatchie valley, where Hooker executed with 

complete precision a plan for the revictualling of Chattanooga, 
established himself near Wauhatchie on the 28th, and repulsed 
a determined attack on the same night. But Sherman was still 
far distant, and the Federal forces at Knoxville, against which 
a large detachment of Bragg's army under Longstreet was now 
sent, were in grave danger. Grant waited for Sherman's four 
divisions, but prepared everything for battle in the meantime. 
His plan was that Thomas in the Chattanooga lines should 
contain the Confederate centre on Missionary Ridge, while 
Hooker on the right at Wauhatchie was to attack Lookout 
Mountain, and Sherman farther up the river was to carry out 
the decisive attack against Bragg's extreme right wing at the 
end of Missionary Ridgg. The last marches of the XV. corps 
were delayed, by stormy weather, Bragg reinforced Longstreet, 
and telegraphic communication between Grant and the Federals 
at Knoxville had already ceased. But Grant would not move 
forward without Sherman, and the battle of Chattanooga was 
fought more than two months after Chickamauga. On the 23rd 
of November a forward move of Thomas's army, intended as a 

Confederate line of defence- XX XX Union troops. ..MB 

demonstration, developed into a serious and successful action, 
whereby the first line of the Confederate centre was driven in 
for some distance. Bragg was now much weakened by successive 
detachments having been sent to Knoxville, and on the 24th the 
real battle began. Sherman's corps was graudally brought over 
the river near the mouth of Chickamauga Creek, and formed up 
on the east side. 

The attack began at 1 p.m. and was locally a complete success. 
The heights attacked were in Sherman's hands, and fortified 
against counter-attack, before nightfall. Hooker in the mean- 
while had fought the " Battle above the Clouds " on the steep 
face of Lookout Mountain, and though opposed by an equal 
force of Confederates, had completely driven the enemy from 
the mountain. The 24th then had been a day of success for the 
Federals, and the decisive attack of the three armies in concert 
was to take place on the 25th. But the maps deceived Grant 
and Sherman as they had previously deceived Rosecrans. 
Sherman had captured, not the north point of Missionary Ridge, 
but a detached hill, and a new and more serious action had to be 
fought for the possession of Tunnel Hill, where Bragg's right now 
lay strongly entrenched. The Confederates used every effort to 
hold the position and all Sherman's efforts were made in vain. 
Hooker, who was moving on Rossville, had not progressed far, 
and Bragg was still free to reinforce his right. Grant therefore 
directed Thomas to move forward on the centre to relieve the 


pressure on Sherman. The Army of the Cumberland was, after 
all, to strike the decisive blow. About 3.30 p.m. the centre 
advanced on the Confederate's trenches at the foot of Missionary 
Ridge. These were carried at the first rush, and the troops were 
ordered to lie down and await orders. Then occurred one of 
the most dramatic episodes of the war. Suddenly, and without 
orders either from Grant or the officers at the front, the whole 
line of the Army of the Cumberland rose and rushed up the ridge. 
Two successive lines of entrenchments were carried at once. 
In a short time the crest was stormed, and after a last attempt 
at resistance the enemy's centre fled in the wildest confusion. 
The pursuit was pressed home by the divisional generals, notably 
by Sheridan. Hooker now advanced in earnest on Rossville, 
and by nightfall the whole Confederate army, except the troops 
on Tunnel Hill, was retreating in disorder. These too were 
withdrawn in the night, and the victory of the Federals was 
complete. Bragg lost 8684 men killed, wounded and prisoners 
out of perhaps 34,000 men engaged; Grant, with 60,000 men, 
lost about 6000. 

CHATTEL (for derivation see Cattle), a term used in English 
law as equivalent to " personal property," that is, property 
which, on the death of the owner, devolves on his executor or 
administrator to be distributed (unless disposed of by will) 
among the next of kin according to the Statutes of Distributions. 
Chattels are divided into chattels real and chattels personal. 
Chattels real are those interests in land for which no " real 
action " (see Action) lies; estates which are less than freehold 
(estates for years, at will, or by sufferance) are chattels real. 
Chattels personal are such things as belong immediately to the 
person of the owner, and for which, if they are injuriously 
withheld from him, he has no remedy other than by a personal 
action. Chattels personal are divided into choses in possession 
and choses in action (see Chose). 

A chattel mortgage, in United States law, is a transfer of 
personal property as security for a debt or obligation in such 
form that the title to the property will pass to the mortgagee 
upon the failure of the mortgagor to comply with the terms of 
the contract. At common law a chattel mortgage might be 
made without writing, and was valid as between the parties, 
and even as against third parties if accompanied by possession 
in the mortgagee, but in most states of the Union legislation 
now requires a chattel mortgage to be in writing and duly 
recorded in order to be valid against third parties. At common 
law a mortgage can be given only of chattels actually in existence 
and belonging to the mortgagor, though if he acquired title 
afterwards the mortgage would be good as between the parties, 
but not as against subsequent purchasers or creditors. In 
equity, on the other hand, a chattel mortgage, though not good 
as a conveyance, is valid as an executory agreement. 

Goods and chattels is a phrase which, in its widest signification, 
includes any property other than freehold. The two words, 
however, have come to be synonymous, and the expression, 
now practically confined to wills, means merely things movable 
in possession. 

CHATTERIS, a market town in the Wisbech parliamentary 
division of Cambridgeshire, England, 255 m. N. by W. of Cam- 
bridge by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district 
(1001) 4711. It lies in the midst of the flat Fen country. The 
church of St Peter is principally Decorated; and there are 
fragments of a Benedictine convent founded in the 10th century 
and rebuilt after fire in the first half of the 14th. The town has 
breweries, and engineering and rope-making works. To the 
north runs the great Forty-foot Drain, also called Vermuyden's. 
after the Dutch engineer whose name is associated with the fen 
drainage works of the middle of the 17th century. 

Chattaradh-yaya] (1838-1894), Indian novelist, was born in 
the district of the Twenty-four Parganas in Bengal on the 27th 
of June 1838, and was by caste a Brahman. He was educated 
at the Hugh College, at the Presidency College in Calcutta, and 
at Calcutta University, where he was the first to take the degree 
of B.A. (1858). He entered the Indian civil service, and served 

as deputy magistrate in various districts of Bengal, his official 
services being recognized, on his retirement in 1891, by the 
title of rai bahadur and the CLE. He died on the 8th of April 
1894. • • 

Bankim Chandra was beyond question the greatest novelist 
of India during the 19th century, whether judged by the amount 
and quality of his writings, or by the influence which they have 
continued to exercise. His education had brought him into 
touch with the works of the great European romance writers, 
notably Sir Walter Scott, and he created in India a school of 
fiction on the European model. His first historical novel, the 
Durges-N andini or Chiefs Daughter, modelled on Scott, made 
a great sensation in Bengal; and the Kapala-Kundala and 
Mrinalini, which followed it, established his fame as a writer 
whose creative imagination and power of delineation had social 
been surpassed in India. In 1872 he brought out his first never 
novel, the Bisha-Brikkha or Poison Tree, which was followed by 
others in rapid succession. It is impossible to exaggerate the 
effect they produced; for over twenty years Bankim Chandra's 
novels were eagerly read by the educated public of Bengal, 
including the Hindu ladies in the zenanas ; and though numerous 
works of fiction are now produced year by year in every province 
of India, his influence has increased rather than diminished. 
Of all his works, however, by far the most important from its 
astonishing political consequences was the Ananda Math, which 
was published in 1882, about the time of the agitation arising 
out of the Ilbert Bill. The story deals with the Sannyasi (i.e.' 
fakir or hermit) rebellion of 1772 near Purmea, Tirtiut and 
Dinapur, and its culminating episode is a crushing victory won 
by the rebels over the united British and Mussulman forces, 
a success which was not, however, followed up, owing to the 
advice of a mysterious " physician " who, speaking as a divinely- 
inspired prophet, advises Satyananda, the leader of " the 
children of the Mother," to abandon further resistance, since a 
temporary submission to British rule is a necessity; for Hinduism 
has become too speculative and unpractical, and the mission of 
the English in India is to teach Hindus how to reconcile theory 
and speculation with the facts of science. The general moral 
of the Ananda Math, then, is that British rule and British 
education are to be accepted as the only alternative to Mussulman 
oppression, a moral which Bankim Chandra developed also in 
his Dharmataltwa, an elaborate religious treatise in which he 
explained his views as to the changes necessary in the moral and 
religious condition of his fellow-countrymen before they could 
hope to compete on equal terms with the British and Mahom- 
medans. But though the Ananda Math is in form an apology 
for the loyal acceptance of British rule, it is none the less inspired 
by the ideal of the restoration, sooner or later, of a Hindu 
kingdom in India. This is especially evident in the occasional 
verses in the book, of which the Bande Matdram is the most 

As to the exact significance of this poem a considerable 
controversy has raged. Bande Mataram is the Sanskrit for 
"Hail to thee, Mother!" or more literally "I reverence thee, 
Mother!", and according to Dr G. A. Grierson (The Times, 
Sept. 12, 1906) it can have no other possible meaning than an 
invocation of one of the " mother " goddesses of Hinduism, in 
his opinion Kali "the goddess of death and destruction." Sir' 
Henry Cotton, on the other hand (ib. Sept. 13, 1906), sees in 
it merely an invocation of the " mother-land " Bengal, and 
quotes in support of this view the free translation of the poem 
by the late W. H. Lee, a proof which, it may be at once said, 
is far from convincing. But though, as Dr Grierson points out, 
the idea of a " mother-land " is wholly alien to Hindu ideas, it is 
quite possible that Bankim Chandra may have assimilated it 
with his European culture, and the true explanation is probably 
that given by Mr J. D. Anderson in The Times of September 24, 
1906. He points out that in the nth chapter of the 1st book of 
the Ananda Math the Sannyasi rebels are represented as having 
erected, in addition to the image of Kali, " the Mother who Has 
Been," a white marble statue of " the Mother that Shall Be," 
which " is apparently a representation of the mother-land. 

vi. xa 



The Bande Mataram hymn is apparently addressed to both 

The poem, then, is the work of a Hindu idealist who personified 
Bengal under the form of a purified and spiritualized Kali. 
Of its thirty-six lines, partly written in Sanskrit, partly in 
Bengali, the greater number are harmless enough. But if the 
poet sings the praise of the " Mother " 

" As Lachmi, bowered in the flower 
That in the water grows," 

he also praises her as " Durga, bearing ten weapons," and lines 
10, ii and 12 are capable of very dangerous meanings in the 
mouths of unscrupulous agitators. Literally translated these 
run, " She has seventy millions of throats to sing her praise, 
twice seventy millions of hands to fight for her, how then 
is Bengal powerless?" As S. M. Mitra points out {Indian 
Problems, London, 1908), this language is the more significant 
as the Bande Mataram in the novel was the hymn by singing 
which the Sannyasis gained strength when attacking the British 

During Bankim Chandra Chatterji's lifetime the Bande 
Mataram, though its dangerous tendency was recognized, was 
not used as a party war-cry; it was not raised, for instance, 
during the Ilbert Bill agitation, nor by the students who flocked 
round the court during the trial of Surendra Nath Banerji in 
1883. It has, however, obtained an evil notoriety in the agita- 
tions that followed the partition of Bengal. That Bankim 
Chandra himself foresaw or desired any such use of it is impossible 
to believe. According to S. M. Mitra, he composed it " in a fit 
of patriotic excitement after a good hearty dinner, which he 
always enjoyed. It was set to Hindu music, known as the 
Mallar-Kawali-Tal. The extraordinarily stirring character of 
the air, and its ingenious assimilation of Bengali passages with 
Sanskrit, served to make it popular." 

Circumstances have made the Bande Mataram the most 
famous and the most widespread in its effects of Bankim 
Chandra's literary works. More permanent, it may be hoped, 
was the wholesome influence he exercised on the number of 
literary men he gathered round him, who have left their im- 
press on the literature of Bengal. In his earlier years he served 
his apprenticeship in literature under Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, 
the chief poet and satirist of Bengal during the earlier half of the 
19th century. Bankim Chandra's friend and colleague, Dina 
Bandhu Mitra, was virtually the founder of the modern Bengali 
drama. Another friend of his, Hem Chandra Banerji, was a poet 
of recognized merit and talent. And among the younger men 
who venerated Bankim Chandra, and benefited by his example 
and advice, may be mentioned two distinguished poets, Nalein 
Chandra Sen and Rabindra Nath Tagore. 

Of Bankim Chandra's novels some have been translated into 
English by H. A. D. Phillips and by Mrs M. S. Knight. 

CHATTERTON, THOMAS (1752-1770), English poet, was born 
at Bristol on the 20th of November 1752. His pedigree has a 
curious significance. The office of sexton of St Mary Redcliffe, 
at Bristol, one of the most beautiful parish churches in England, 
had been transmitted for nearly two centuries in the Chatter- 
ton family; and throughout the brief life of the poet it was 
held by his uncle, Richard Phillips. The poet's father, Thomas 
Chatterton, was a musical genius, somewhat of a poet, a numis- 
matist, and a dabbler in occult arts. He was one of the sub- 
chanters of Bristol cathedral, and master of the Pyle Street free 
school, near Redcliffe church. But whatever hereditary ten- 
dencies may have been transmitted from the father, the sole 
training of the boy necessarily devolved on his mother, who was 
in the fourth month of her widowhood at the time of his birth. 
She established a girls' school, took in sewing and ornamental 
needlework, and so brought up her two children, a girl and a 
boy, till the latter attained his eighth year, when he was admitted 
to Colston's Charity. But the Bristol blue-coat school, in which 
the curriculum was limited to reading, writing, arithmetic and 
the Church Catechism, had little share in the education of its 
marvellous pupil. The hereditary race of sextons had come to 
regard the church of St Mary Redcliffe as their own peculiar 

domain; and, under the guidance of his uncle, the child found 
there his favourite haunt. The knights, ecclesiastics and civic 
dignitaries, recumbent on its altar tombs, became his familiar 
associates ; and by and by, when he was able to spell his way 
through the inscriptions graven on their monuments, he found 
a fresh interest in certain quaint oaken chests in the muniment 
room over the porch on the north side of the nave, where parch- 
ment deeds, old as the Wars of the Roses, long lay unheeded 
and forgotten. They formed the child's playthings almost from 
his cradle. He learned his first letters from the illuminated 
capitals of an old musical folio, and learned to read out of a 
black-letter Bible. He did not like, his sister said, reading out 
of small books. Wayward, as it seems, almost from his earliest 
years, and manifesting no sympathy with the ordinary pastimes 
of children, he was regarded for a time as deficient in intellect. 
But he was even then ambitious of distinction. His sister relates 
that on being asked what device he would like painted on a bowl 
that was to be his, he replied, " Paint me an angel, with wings, 
and a trumpet, to trumpet my name over the world." 

From his earliest years he was liable to fits of abstraction, 
sitting for hours in seeming stupor, or yielding after a time to 
tears, for which he would assign no reason. He had no one near 
him to sympathize in the strange world of fancy which his 
imagination had already called into being; and circumstances 
helped to foster his natural reserve, and to beget that love of 
mystery which exercised so great an influence on the develop- 
ment of his genius. When the strange child had attained his 
sixth year his mother began to recognize his capacity; at eight 
he was so eager for books that he would read and write all day 
long if undisturbed; and in his eleventh year he had become a 
contributor to Felix Farley's Bristol Journal. The occasion of 
his confirmation inspired some religious poems published in this 
paper. In 1763 a beautiful cross of curious workmanship, which 
had adorned the churchyard of St Mary Redcliffe for upwards of 
three centuries, was destroyed by a churchwarden. The spirit 
of veneration was strong in the boy, and he sent to the local 
journal on the 7th of January 1764 a clever satire on the parish 
Vandal. But his delight was to lock himself in a little attic 
which he had appropriated as his study; and there, with books, 
cherished parchments, saved from the loot of the muniment room 
of St Mary Redcliffe, and drawing materials, the child lived in 
thought with his 15th-century heroes and heroines. The first of 
his literary mystifications, the duologue of " Elinoure and Juga," 
was written before he was twelve years old, and he showed his 
poem to the usher at Colston's hospital, Thomas Phillips, as the 
work of a 15th-century poet. 

Chatterton remained an inmate of Colston's hospital for 
upwards of six years, and the slight advantages gained from 
this scanty education are traceable to the friendly sympathy of 
Phillips, himself a writer of verse, who encouraged his pupils to 
write. Three of Chatterton's companions are named as youths 
whom Phillips's taste for poetry stimulated to rivalry; but 
Chatterton held aloof from these contests, and made at that 
time no confidant of his own more daring literary adventures. 
His little pocket-money was spent in borrowing books from a 
circulating library; and he early ingratiated himself with book 
collectors, by whose aid he found access to Weever, Dugdale 
and Collins, as well as to Speght's edition of Chaucer, Spenser 
and other books. 

His "Rowleian" jargon appears to have been chiefly the 
result of the study of John Kersey's Dictionarium Anglo- Bri- 
tannicum, and Prof. W..W. Skeat seems to think his knowledge 
of even Chaucer was very slight. His holidays were mostly 
spent at his mother's house; and much of them in the favourite 
retreat of his attic study there. He had already conceived the 
romance of Thomas Rowley, an imaginary monk of the 15 th 
century, and lived for the most part in an ideal world of his own, 
in that elder time when Edward IV. was England's king, and 
Master William Canynge — familiar to him among the recum- 
bent effigies in Redcliffe church — still ruled in Bristol's civic 
chair. Canynge is represented as an enlightened patron of 
literature, and Rowley's dramatic interludes were written for 



performance at his house. In order to escape a marriage urged 
by the king, Canynge retired to the college of Westbury in 
Gloucestershire, where he enjoyed the society of Rowley, and 
eventually became dean of the institution. In " The Storie of 
William Canynge," one of the shorter pieces of his ingenious 
romance, his early history is recorded. 

" Straight was I carried back to times of yore, 
Whilst Canynge swathed yet in fleshly bed, 
And saw all actions which had been before, 

And ail the scroll of Fate unravelled; 
And when the fate-marked babe acome to sight, 
I saw him eager gasping after light. 
In all his sheepen gambols and child's, play, 

In every merrymaking, fair, or wake, 
I kenn'd a perpled light of wisdom's ray ; 

He ate down learning with the wastel-cake; 
As wise as any of the aldermen, 
He'd wit enow to make a mayor at ten." 

This beautiful picture of the childhood of the ideal patron of 
Rowley is in reality that of the poet himself — " the fate-marked 
babe," with his wondrous child-genius, and all his romantic 
dreams realized. The literary masquerade which thus consti- 
tuted the life-dream of the boy was wrought out by him in 
fragments of prose and verse into a coherent romance, until the 
credulous scholars and antiquaries of his day were persuaded 
into the belief that there had lain in the parish chest of Redcliffe 
church for upwards of three centuries, a collection of MSS. of 
rare merit, the work of Thomas Rowley, an unknown priest of 
Bristol in the days of Henry VI. and his poet laureate, John 

Among the Bristol patrons of Chatterton were two pewterers, 
George Catcott and his partner Henry Burgum. Catcott was one 
of the most zealous believers in Rowley, and continued to collect 
his reputed writings long after the death of their real author. 
On Burgum, who had risen in life by his own exertions, the blue- 
coat boy palmed off the de Bergham pedigree, and other equally 
apocryphal evidences of the pewterer's descent from an ancestry 
old as the Norman Conquest. The de Bergham quartering, 
blazoned on a piece of parchment doubtless recovered from the 
Redcliffe muniment chest, was itself supposed to have lain for 
centuries in that ancient depository. The pedigree was pro- 
fessedly collected by Chatterton from original records, including 
" The Rowley MSS." The pedigree still exists in Chatterton's 
own handwriting, copied into a book in which he had previously 
transcribed portions of antique verse, under the title of " Poems 
by Thomas Rowley, priest of St. John's, in the city of Bristol "; 
and in one of these, " The Tournament," Syrr Johan de Berg- 
hamme plays a conspicuous part. The ennobled pewterer 
rewarded Chatterton with five shillings, and was satirized for 
this valuation of a noble pedigree in some of Chatterton's 
latest verse. 

On the ist of July 1767, Chatterton was transferred to the office 
of John Lambert, attorney, to whom he was bound apprentice 
as a clerk. There he was left much alone; and after fulfilling 
the routine duties devolving on him, he found leisure for his own 
favourite pursuits. An ancient stone bridge on the Avon, built 
in the reign of Henry II., and altered by many later additions 
into a singularly picturesque but inconvenient thoroughfare, 
had been displaced by a structure better adapted to modern 
requirements. In September 1768, when Chatterton was in the 
second year of his apprenticeship, the new bridge was partially 
opened for traffic. Shortly afterwards the editor of Felix Farley's 
Journal received from a correspondent, signing himself Dunelmus 
Bristoliensis , a " description of the mayor's first passing over the 
old bridge," professedly derived from an ancient MS. William 
Barrett, F.S.A., surgeon and antiquary, who was then accumu- 
lating materials for a history of Bristol, secured the original 
manuscript, which is now preserved in the British Museum, along 
with other Chatterton MSS., most of which were ultimately 
incorporated by the credulous antiquary into a learned quarto 
volume, entitled the History and Antiquities of the City of Bristol, 
published nearly twenty years after the poet's death. It was 
at this time that the definite story made its appearance — over 

which critics and antiquaries wrangled for nearly a century — 
of numerous ancient poems and other MSS. taken by the elder 
Chatterton from a coffer in the muniment room of Redcliffe 
church, and transcribed, and so rescued from oblivion, by his 
son. The pieces include the " Bristowe Tragedie, or the Dethe 
of Syr Charles Bawdin," a ballad celebrating the death of the 
Lancastrian knight, Charles Baldwin; " ^Ella," a "Tragycal 
Enterlude," as Chatterton styles it, but in reality a dramatic 
poem of sustained power and curious originality of structure; 
" Goddwyn," a dramatic fragment; " Tournament," " Battle 
of Hastings," " The Parliament of Sprites," " Balade of Charitie," 
with numerous shorter pieces, forming altogether a volume of 
poetry, the rare merit of which is indisputable, wholly apart from 
the fact that it was the production of a mere boy. Unfortunately 
for him, his ingenious romance had either to be acknowledged as 
his own creation, and so in all probability be treated with con- 
tempt, or it had to be sustained by the manufacture of spurious 
antiques. To this accordingly Chatterton resorted, and found 
no difficulty in gulling the most learned of his credulous dupes 
with his parchments. 

The literary labours of the boy, though diligently pursued at 
his desk, were not allowed to interfere with the duties of Mr 
Lambert's office. Nevertheless the Bristol attorney used to 
search his apprentice's drawer, and tear up any poems or other 
manuscripts that he could lay his hands upon; so that it was 
only during the absences of Mr Lambert from Bristol that he 
was able to expend his unemployed time in his favourite pursuits. 
But repeated allusions, both by Chatterton and others, seem to 
indicate that such intervals of freedom were of frequent occur- 
rence. Some of his modern poems, such as the piece entitled 
" Resignation," are of great beauty; and these, with the satires, in 
which he took his revenge on all the local celebrities whose 
vanity or meanness had excited his ire, are alone sufficient to fill 
a volume. The Catcotts, Burgum, Barrett and others of his 
patrons, figure in these satires, in imprudent yet discriminating 
caricature, along with mayor, aldermen, bishop, dean and other 
notabilities of Bristol. Towards Lambert his feelings were of too 
keen a nature to find reliei in such sarcasm. 

In December 1768' in his seventeenth year, he wrote to 
Dodsley, the London publisher, offering to procure for him 
" copies of several ancient poems, and an interlude, perhaps 
the oldest dramatic piece extant, wrote by one Rowley, a priest 
in Bristol, who lived in the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV." 
To this letter he appended the initials of his favourite pseudonym, 
Dunelmus Bristoliensis, but directed the answer to be sent to 
the care of Thomas Chatterton, Redcliffe Hill, Bristol. To this, 
as well as to another letter enclosing an extract from the tragedy 
of " ./Ella," no answer appears to have been returned. Chatter- 
ton, conceiving the idea of finding sympathy and aid at the hand 
of some modern Canynge, bethought him of Horace Walpole, 
who not only indulged in a medieval renaissance of his own,' but 
was the reputed author of a spurious antique in the Castle of 
Otranto. He wrote to him offering him a document entitled 
" The Ryse of Peyncteyne yn Englande, wroten by T. Rowleie, 
1469, for Mastre Canynge," accompanied by notes which included 
specimens of Rowley's poetry. To this Walpole replied with 
courteous acknowledgments. He characterized the verses as 
" wonderful for their harmony and spirit," and added, " Give me 
leave to ask you where Rowley's poems are to be had? I should 
not be sorry to print them; or at least a specimen of them, if 
they have never been printed." Chatterton replied, enclosing 
additional specimens of antique verse, and telling Walpole that 
he was the son of a poor widow, and clerk to an attorney, but 
had a taste for more refined studies; and he hinted a wish that 
he might help him to some more congenial occupation. Walpole's 
manner underwent an abrupt change. The specimens of verse 
had been submitted to his friends Gray and Mason, the poets, 
and pronounced modern. They did not thereby forfeit the 
wonderful harmony and spirit which Walpole had already 
professed to recognize in them. But he now coldly advised the 
boy to stick to the attorney's office; and " when he should 
have made a fortune," he might betake himself to more favourite 



studies, Chatterton had to write three times before he recovered 
his MSS. Walpoie has been loaded with more than his just 
share of responsibility for the fate of the unhappy poet, of 
whom he admitted when too late, " I do not believe there ever 
existed so masterly a genius." 

Chatterton now turned his attention to periodical literature 
and politics, and exchanged Felix Farley's Bristol Journal for 
the Town and County Magazine and other London periodicals. 
Assuming the vein of Junius — then in the full blaze of his 
triumph — he turned, his pen against the duke of Grafton, the 
earl of Bute, and the princess of Wales. He had just despatched 
one of his political diatribes to the Middlesex Journal, when he 
sat down on Easter Eve, 17th April 1770, and penned his " Last 
Will and Testament," a strange satirical compound of jest and 
earnest, in which he intimated his intention of putting an end 
to his life the following evening. Among his satirical bequests, 
such as his " humility " to the Rev. Mr Camplin, his " religion " 
to Dean Barton, and his "modesty" along with his "prosody 
and grammar " to Mr Burgum, he leaves "to Bristol all his 
spirit and disinterestedness, parcels of goods unknown on its 
quay since the days of Canynge and Rowley." In more genuine 
earnestness he recalls the name of Michael Clayfield, a friend to 
whom he owed intelligent sympathy. The will was probably 
purposely prepared in order to frighten his master into letting 
him go. If so, it had the desired effect. Lambert cancelled his 
indentures; his friends and acquaintance made him up a purse; 
and on the 25th or 26th of the month he arrived in London. 

Chatterton was already known to the readers of the Middlesex 
Journal as a rival of Junius, under the nom de plume of Decimus. 
He had also been a contributor to Hamilton's Town and County 
Magazine, and speedily found access to the Freeholder's Magazine, 
another political miscellany strong for Wilkes and liberty. His 
contributions were freely accepted; but the editors paid little 
or nothing for them. He wrote in the most hopeful terms to his 
mother and sister, and spent his first earnings in buying gifts 
for them. His pride and ambition were amply gratified by the 
promises and interested flattery of editors and political adven- 
turers; Wilkes himself had noted Jiis trenchant style, " and 
expressed a desire to know the author*"; and Lord Mayor 
Beckford graciously acknowledged a political address of his, 
and greeted him " as politely as a citizen could." But of actual 
money he received but little. He was extremely abstemious, 
his diligence was great, and his versatility wonderful. He could 
assume the style of Junius or Smollett, reproduce the satiric 
bitterness of Churchill, parody Macpherson's Ossian, or write in 
the manner of Pope, or with the polished grace of Gray and 
Collins. He wrote political letters, eclogues, lyrics, operas and 
satires, both in prose and verse. In June 1 7 70 — after Chatterton 
had been some nine weeks in London — he removed from Shore- 
ditch, where he had hitherto lodged with a relative, to an attic 
in Brook Street, Holborn. But for most of his productions the 
payment was delayed; and now state prosecutions of the press 
rendered letters in the Junius vein no longer admissible, and 
threw him back on the, lighter resources of his pen. In Shoreditch, 
as in his lodging at the Bristol attorney's, he had only shared a 
room; but now, for the first time, he enjoyed uninterrupted 
solitude. His bed-fellow at Mr Walmsley's, Shoreditch, noted 
that much of the night was spent by him in writing; and now 
he could write all night. The romance of his earlier years 
revived, and he transcribed from an imaginary parchment of 
the old priest Rowley his " Excelente Balade of Charitie." This 
fine poem, perversely disguised in archaic language, he sent to 
the editor of the Town and County Magazine, and had it rejected. 
The high hopes of the sanguine boy had begun to fade. He 
had not yet completed his second month in London, and already 
failure and starvation stared him in the face. Mr Cross, a neigh- 
bouring apothecary, repeatedly invited him to join him at dinner 
or supper; but he refused. His landlady also, suspecting his 
necessity, pressed him to share her dinner, but in vain. " She 
knew," as she afterwards said, " that he had not eaten anything 
for two or three days." But he was offended at her urgency, 
and assured her that he was not hungry. The note of his actual 

receipts, found in his pocket-book after his death, shows that 
Hamilton, Fell and other editors who had been so liberal in 
flattery, had paid him at the rate of a shilling for an article, and 
somewhat less than eightpence each for his songs; while much 
which had been accepted was held in reserve, and still unpaid 
for. The beginning of a new month revealed to him the indefinite 
postponement of the publication and payment of his work. He 
had wished, according to his foster-mother, to study medicine 
with Barrett; in his desperation he now reverted to this, and 
wrote to Barrett for a letter to help him to an opening as a 
surgeon's assistant on board an African trader. He appealed 
also to Mr Catcott to forward his plan, but in vain. On the 
24th of August 1770, he retired for the last time to his attic in 
Brook Street, carrying with him the arsenic which he there 
drank, after tearing into fragments whatever literary remains 
were at hand. 

He was only seventeen years and nine months old; but the 
best of his numerous productions, both in prose and verse, 
require no allowance to be made for the immature years of their 
author, when comparing him with the ablest of his contem- 
poraries. He pictures Lydgate, the monk of Bury St Edmunds, 
challenging Rowley to a trial at versemaking, and under cover 
of this fiction, produces his " Songe of .5511a," a piece of rare 
lyrical beauty, worthy of comparison with any antique or modern 
production of its class. Again, in his " Tragedy of Goddwyn," 
of which only a fragment has been preserved, the " Ode to 
Liberty," with which it abruptly closes, may claim a place among 
the finest martial lyrics in the language. The collection of poems 
in which such specimens occur furnishes by far the most remark- 
able example of intellectual precocity in the whole history of 
letters. Collins, Burns, Keats, Shelley and Byron all awaken 
sorrow over the premature arrestment of their genius; but the 
youngest of them survived to his twenty-fifth year, while 
Chatterton was not eighteen when he perished in his miserable 
garret. The death of Chatterton attracted little notice at the 
time; for the few who then entertained any appreciative 
estimate of the Rowley poems regarded him as their mere 
transcriber. He was interred in a burying-ground attached to 
Shoe Lane Workhouse, in the parish of St Andrew's, Holborn, 
which has since been converted into a site for Farringdon Market. 
There is a discredited story that the body of the poet was re- 
covered, and secretly buried by his uncle, Richard Phillips, in 
Redcliffe Churchyard. There a monument has since been erected 
to his memory, with the appropriate inscription, borrowed 
from his " Will," and so supplied by the poet's own pen — " To 
the memory of Thomas Chatterton. Reader! judge not. If 
thou art a Christian, believe that he shall be judged by a Superior 
Power. To that Power only is he now answerable." 

Bibliography. — Poems supposed to have been written at Bristol 
by Thomas Rowley and others, in the Fifteenth Century (1 777) was edited 
by Thomas Tyrwhitt; Thomas Warton, in his History of English 
Poetry (1778), vol. ii. section viii., gives Rowley a place among the 
15th century poets; but neither of these critics believed in the 
antiquity of the poems. In 1782 a new edition of Rowley's poems 
appeared, with a " Commentary, in which the antiquity of them is 
considered and defended," by Jeremiah Milles, dean of Exeter. 
The controversy which raged round the Rowley poems is discussed 
in A. Kippis, Biographia Britannica (vol. iv., 1789), where there is a 
detailed account by G. Gregory of Chatterton's life (pp. 573-619). 
This was reprinted in the edition (1803) of Chatterton's Works by 
R. Southey and J. Cottle, published for the benefit of the poet s 
sister. The neglected condition of the study of earlier English in 
the 1 8th century alone accounts for the temporary success of 
Chatterton's mystification. It has long been agreed that Chatterton 
was solely responsible for the Rowley Poems, but the language and 
style are analysed in confirmation of this view by Prof. W. W. 
Skeat in an introductory essay prefaced to vol. ii. of The Poetical 
Works of Thomas Chatterton (1871) in the " Aldine Edition of the 
British Poets." This, which is the most convenient edition, also 
contains a memoir of the poet by Edward Bell. The spelling of the 
Rowley poems is there modernized, and many of the archaic words 
are replaced by modern equivalents provided in many cases from 
Chatterton's own notes, the theory being that Chatterton usually 
composed in modern English, and inserted his peculiar words and 
his complicated orthography afterwards. For some criticism of 
Prof. Skeat's success in the very difficult task of reconstituting the 
text, see H. B. Forman, Thomas Chatterton and his latest Editor (1874). 



The Chatterton MSS., originally in the possession of William Barrett 
of Bristol, were left. by his heir to the British Museum in 1800. 
Others are preserved in the Bristol library. 

Chatterton's genius and his tragic death are commemorated by 
Shelley in Adonais, by Wordsworth in " Resolution and Independ- 
ence," by Coleridge in " A Monody on the Death of Chatterton," 
by D. G. Rossetti in " Five English Poets," and John Keats inscribed 
Endymion " to the memory of Thomas Chatterton." Alfred de 
Vigny's drama of Chatterton gives an altogether fictitious account of 
the poet. Herbert Croft (q.v .), in his Love and Madness, interpolated 
a long and valuable account of Chatterton, giving many of the 
poet's letters, and much information obtained from his family and 
friends (pp. 125-244, letter li.). There is a valuable collection of 
" Chattertoniana " in the British Museum, consisting of separate 
works by Chatterton, newspaper cuttings, articles, dealing with the 
Rowley controversy and other subjects, with MS. notes by Joseph 
Haslewood, and several autograph letters. 

Among biographies of Chatterton may be mentioned Chatterton: 
A Biographical Study (1869), by Daniel Wilson; Chatterton: A 
Biography (1899; first printed 1856 in a volume of essays), by 
D. Masson; " Thomas Chatterton " (1900), by Helene Richter, in 
Wiener Beitrage zur engl. Philologie; Chatterton, by C. E. Russell 

CHATTI, an ancient German tribe inhabiting the upper 
reaches of the rivers Weser, Eder, Fulda and Werra, a district 
approximately corresponding to Hesse-Cassel, though probably 
somewhat more extensive. They frequently came into conflict 
with the Romans during the early years of the 1st century. 
Eventually they formed a portion of the Franks and were 
incorporated in the kingdom of Clovis probably with the Ripuarii, 
at the beginning of the 6th century. • . 

Tacitus, Annals, i. 2, 11, 12, 13; Germania, 30-31; Strabo p. 
291 f. 

CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (? 1340-1400), English poet. The 
name Chaucer, a French form of the Latin calcearius, a shoe- 
maker, is found in London and the eastern counties as early as 
the second half of the 13th century. Some of the London 
Chaucers lived in Cordwainer Street, in the shoemakers' quarter; 
several of them, however, were vintners, and among others the 
poet's father John, and probably also his grandfather Robert. 
Legal pleadings inform us that in December 1324 John Chaucer 
was not much over twelve years old, and that he was still un- 
married in 1328, the year which used to be considered 
that of Geoffrey's birth. The poet was probably born 
from eight to twelve years later, since in 1386, when giving 
evidence in Sir Richard le Scrope's suit against Sir Robert 
Grosvenor as to the right to bear certain arms, he was set down 
as " del age de xl ans et plus, armeez par xxvij ans." At a later 
date, and probably at the time of the poet's birth, his father 
lived in Thames Street, and had to wife a certain Agnes, niece 
of Hamo de Compton, whom we may regard as Geoffrey Chaucer's 
mother. In 1357 Geoffrey is found, apparently as a lad, in the 
service of Elizabeth, countess of Ulster, wife of Lionel, duke of 
Clarence, entries in two leaves of her household accounts, 
accidentally preserved, showing that she paid in April, May and 
December various small sums for his clothing and expenses. 
In 1359, as we learn from his deposition in the Scrope suit, Chaucer 
went to the war in France. At some period of the campaign he 
was at " Retters," i.e. Rethel, near Reims, and subsequently 
had the ill luck to be taken prisoner. On the 1st of March 1360 
the king contributed £16 to his ransom, and by a year or two 
later Chaucer must have entered the royal service, since on the 
20th of June 1367 Edward granted him a pension of twenty 
marks for his past and future services. A pension of ten marks 
had been granted by the king the previous September to a 
Philippa Chaucer for services to the queen as one of her " domi- 
cellae '.' or " damoiselles," and it seems probable that at this date 
Chaucer was already married and this Philippa his wife, a con- 
clusion which used to be resisted on the ground of allusions in 
his early poems to a hopeless love-affair, now reckoned part of 
his poetical outfit. Philippa is usually said to have been one of 
two daughters of a Sir Payne Roet, the other being Katherine, 
who after the death of her first husband, Sir Hugh de Swynford, 
in 1372, became governess to John of Gaunt's children, and 
subsequently his mistress and (in 1396) his wife. It is possible 
that Philippa was sister to Sir Hugh and sister-in-law to 


Katherine. In either case the marriage helps to account 
for the favour subsequently shown to Chaucer by John of 

In the grant of his pension Chaucer is called " dilectus vallectus 
noster," our beloved yeoman; before the end of 1368 he had 
risen to be one of the king's esquires. In September of the 
following year John of Gaunt's wife, the duchess Blanche, died at 
the age of twenty-nine, and Chaucer wrote in her honour The 
Book of the Duchesse, a poem of 1334 lines in octosyllabic couplets, 
the first of his undoubtedly genuine works which can be connected 
with a definite date. In June 1370 he went abroad on the king's 
service, though on what errand, or whither it took him, is not 
known. He was back probably some time before Michaelmas, 
and seems to have remained in England till the 1st of December 
1372, when he started, with an advance of 100 marks in his 
pocket, for Italy, as one of the three commissioners to treat with 
the Genoese as to an English port where they might have special 
facilities for trade. The accounts which he delivered on his 
return on the 23rd of May 1373 show that he had also visited 
Florence on the king's business, and he probably went also to 
Padua and there made the acquaintance of Petrarch. 

In the second quarter of 1374 Chaucer lived in a whirl of 
prosperity. On the 23rd of April the king granted him a pitcher 
of wine daily, subsequently commuted for an annuity of 20 
marks. From John of Gaunt, who in August 1372 had granted 
Philippa Chaucer £10 a year, he himself now received (June 13) 
a like annuity in reward for his own and his wife's services. 
On the 8th of June he was appointed Comptroller of the Custom 
and Subsidy of Wools, Hides and Woodfells and also of the 
Petty Customs of Wine in the Port of London. A month before 
this appointment, and probably in anticipation of it, he took 
(May 10, 1374) a lease for life from the city of London of the 
dwelling-house above the gate of Aldgate, and here he lived for 
the next twelve years. His own and his wife's income now 
amounted to over £60, the equivalent of upwards of £1000 in 
modern money. In the next two years large windfalls came to 
him in the form of two wardships of Kentish heirs, one of whom 
paid him £104, and a grant of £71: 4: 6; the value of some 
confiscated wool. In December 1376 he was sent abroad on the 
king's service in the retinue of Sir John Burley; in February 
1377 he was sent to Paris and Montreuil in connexion probably 
with the peace negotiations between England and France, and 
at the end of April (after a reward of £20 for his good services) 
he was again despatched to France. 

On the accession of Richard II. Chaucer was confirmed in his 
offices and pensions. In January 1378 he seems to have been 
in France in connexion with a proposed marriage between 
Richard and the daughter of the French king; and on the 28th 
of May of the same year he was sent with Sir Edward de Berkeley 
to the lord of Milan and Sir John Hawkwood to treat for help in 
the king's wars, returning on the 19th of September. This was 
his last diplomatic journey, and the close of a period of his life 
generally considered to have been so unprolific of poetry that 
little beyond the Clerk's " Tale of Grisilde," one or two other of 
the stories afterwards included in the Canterbury Tales, and a 
few short poems, are attributed to it, though the poet's actual 
absences from England during the eight years amount to little 
more than eighteen months. During the next twelve or fifteen 
years there is no question that Chaucer was constantly engaged 
in literary work, though for the first half of them he had no lack 
of official employment. Abundant favour was shown him by the 
new king. He was paid £22 as a reward for his later missions in 
Edward III.'s reign, and was allowed an annual gratuity of 10 
marks in addition to his pay of £10 as comptroller of the customs 
of wool. In April 1382 a new comptrollership, that of the petty 
customs in the Port of London, was given him, and shortly after 
he was allowed to exercise it by deputy, a similar licence being 
given him in February 1385, at the instance of the earl of Oxford, 
as regards the comptrollership of wool. In October 1385 Chaucer 
was made a justice of the peace for Kent. In February 1386 we 
catch a glimpse of his wife Philippa being admitted to the 
fraternity of Lincoln cathedral in the company of Henry, earl of 



Derby (afterwards Henry IV.), Sir Thomas de Swynford and 
other distinguished persons. In August 1386 he was elected one 
of the two knights of the shire for Kent, and with this dignity, 
though it was one not much appreciated in those days, his good 
fortune reached its climax. In December of the same year he 
was superseded in both his comptrollerships, almost certainly 
as a result of the absence of his patron, John of Gaunt, in Spain, 
and the supremacy of the duke of Gloucester. In the following 
year the cessation of Philippa's pension suggests that she died 
between Midsummer and Michaelmas. In May 1388 Chaucer 
surrendered to the king his two pensions of 20 marks each, and 
they were re-granted at his request to one John Scalby. The 
transaction was unusual and probably points to a pressing need 
for ready money, nor for the next fourteen months do we know 
of any source of income possessed by Chaucer beyond his annuity 
of £10 from John of Gaunt. 

In July 1389, after John of Gaunt had returned to England, 
and the king had taken the government into his own hands, 
Chaucer was appointed clerk of the works at various royal 
palaces at a salary of two shillings a day, or over £31 a year, 
worth upwards of £500 present value. To this post was sub- 
sequently added the charge of some repairs at St George's Chapel, 
Windsor. He was also made a commissioner to maintain the 
banks of the Thames between Woolwich and Greenwich, and was 
given by the earl of March (grandson of Lionel, duke of Clarence, 
his old patron) a sub-forestership at North Petherton, Devon, 
obviously a sinecure. While on the king's business, in September 
1390, Chaucer was twice robbed by highwaymen, losing £20 of 
the king's money. In June 1391 he was superseded in his office 
of clerk of the works, and seems to have suffered another spell of 
misfortune, of which the first alleviation came in January 1393 
when the king made him a present of £10. In February 1394 
he was granted a new pension of £20. It is possible, also, that 
about this time, or a little later, he was in the service of the earl 
of Derby. In 1397 he received from King Richard a grant of a 
butt of wine yearly. For this he appears to have asked in terms 
that suggest poverty, and in May 1398 he obtained letters of pro- 
tection against his creditors, a step perhaps rendered necessary 
by an action for debt taken against him earlier in the year. 
On the accession of Henry IV. a new pension of 40 marks was 
conferred on Chaucer (13th of October 1399) and Richard II. 's 
grants were formally confirmed. Henry himself, however, was 
probably straitened for ready money, and no instalment of the 
new pension was paid during the few months of his reign that the 
poet lived. Nevertheless, on the strength of his expectations, 
on the 24th of December 1399 ne leased a tenement in the garden 
of St Mary's Chapel, Westminster, and it was probably here that 
he died, on the 25th of the following October. He was buried in 
Westminster Abbey, and his tomb became the nucleus of what 
is now known as Poets' Corner. 

The portrait of Chaucer, which the affection of his disciple, 
Thomas Hoccleve, caused to be painted in a copy of the latter's 
Regement of Princes (now Harleian MS. 4866 in the British 
Museum), shows him an old man with white hair; he has a 
fresh complexion, grey eyes, a straight nose, a grey moustache 
and a small double-pointed beard. His dress and hood are black, 
and he carries in his hands a string of beads. We may imagine 
that it was thus that during the last months of his life he used 
to walk about the precincts of the Abbey. 

Henry IV. 's promise of an additional pension was doubtless 
elicited by the Compleynt to his Purs, in the envoy to which 
w . Chaucer addresses him as the " conquerour of Brutes 

Albioun." Thus within the last year of his life the 
poet was still writing. Nevertheless, as early as 1393-1394, in 
lines to his friend Scogan, he had written as if his day for poetry 
were past, and it seems probable that his longer poems were 
all composed before this date. In the preceding fifteen — or, if 
another view be taken, twenty — years, his literary activity was 
very great, and with the aid of the lists of his works which he gives 
in the Legende of Good Women (lines 414-431), and the talk on the 
road which precedes the " Man of Law's Tale " {Canterbury 
Tales, B. 46-76), the order in which his main works were written 

can be traced with approximate certainty, 1 while a few both of 
these and of the minor poems can be connected with definite 

The development of his genius has been attractively summed 
up as comprised in three stages, French, Italian and English, 
and there is a rough approximation to the truth in this formula, 
since his earliest poems are translated from the French or based 
on French models, and the two great works of his middle period 
are borrowed from the Italian, while his latest stories have no 
such obvious and direct originals and in their humour and free- 
dom anticipate the typically English temper of Henry Fielding. 
But Chaucer's indebtedness to French poetry was no passing 
phase. For various reasons — a not very remote French origin 
of his own family may be one of them — he was in no way inter- 
ested in older English literature or in the work of his English 
contemporaries, save possibly that of " the moral Gower." On 
the other hand he knew the Roman de la rose as modern English 
poets know Shakespeare, and the full extent of his debt to his 
French contemporaries, not merely in 1369, but in 1385 and in 
1393 (the dates are approximate), is only gradually being dis- 
covered. To be in touch throughout his life with the best French 
poets of the day was much for Chaucer. Even with their stimulus 
alone he might have developed no small part of his genius. But 
it was his great good fortune to add to this continuing French 
influence, lessons in plot and construction derived from Boc- 
caccio's Filostrato and Teseide, as well as some glimpses of the 
higher art of the Divina Commedia. He shows acquaintance also 
with one of Petrarch's sonnets, and though, when all is said, the 
Italian books with which he can be proved to have been intimate 
are but few, they sufficed. His study of them was but an 
episode in his literary life, but it was an episode of unique im- 
portance. Before it began he had already been making his own 
artistic experiments, and it is noteworthy that while he learnt 
so much from Boccaccio he improved on his originals as he 
translated them. Doubtless his busy life in the service of the 
crown had taught him self-confidence, and he uses his Italian 
models in his own way and with the most triumphant and assured 
success. When he had no more Italian poems to adapt he had 
learnt his lesson. The art of weaving a plot out of his own 
imagination was never his, but he could take what might be little 
more than an anecdote and lend it body and life and colour with 
a skill which has never been surpassed. 

The most direct example of Chaucer's French studies is his 
translation of Le Roman de la rose, a poem written in some 
4000 lines by Guillaume Lorris about 1237 and extended to over 
22,000 by Jean Clopinel, better known as Jean de Meun, forty 
years later. We know from Chaucer himself that he translated 
this poem, and the extant English fragment of 7698 lines was 
generally assigned to him from 1532, when it was first printed, 
till its authorship was challenged in the early years of the Chaucer 
Society. The ground of this challenge was its wide divergence 
from Chaucer's practice in his undoubtedly genuine works as to 
certain niceties of rhyme, notable as to not rhyming words ending 
in -y with others ending -ye. It was subsequently discovered, 
however, that the whole fragment was divisible linguistically 
into three portions, of which the first and second end respectively 
at lines 1705 and 5810, and that in the first of these three sections 
the variations from Chaucer's accepted practice are insignificant. 
Lines 1-1705 have therefore been provisionally accepted as 
Chaucer's, and the other two fragments as the work of unknown 
translators (James I. of Scotland has been suggested as one of 
them), which somehow came to be pieced together. If, however, 
the difficulties in the way of this theory are less than those which 
confront any other, they are still considerable, and the question 
can hardly be treated as closed. 

While our knowledge of Chaucer's Romaunt of the Rose is 
in this unsatisfactory state, another translation of his from 
the French, the Book of the Lyon (alluded to in the " Retrac- 
tion " found, in some manuscripts, at the end of the Canterbury 
Tales), which must certainly have been taken from Guillaume 

1 The positions of the House of Fame and Palamon and Arcyte are 
still matters of controversy. 


i- 5 

Machault's Le Dit du lion, has perished altogether. The strength 
of French influence on Chaucer's early work may, however, be 
amply illustrated from the first of his poems with which we are 
on sure ground, the Book of the Duchesse, or, as it is alternatively 
called, the Deth of Blaunche. Here not only are individual 
passages closely imitated from Machault and Froissart, but the 
dream, the May morning, and the whole machinery of the poem 
are taken over from contemporary French conventions. But 
even at this stage Chaucer could prove his right to borrow by 
the skill with which he makes his materials serve his own purpose, 
and some of the lines in the Deth of Blaunche are among the most 
tender and charming he ever wrote. 

Chaucer's A. B.C., a poem in honour of the Blessed Virgin, of 
which the stanzas begin with the successive letters of the alpha- 
bet, is another early example of French influence. It is taken 
from the Pelerinage de la vie humaine, written by Guillaume de 
Deguilleville about 1330. The occurrence of some magnificent 
lines in Chaucer's version, combined with evidence that he did 
not yet possess the skill to translate at all literally as soon as 
rhymes had to be considered, accounts for this poem having been 
dated sometimes earlier than the Book of the Duchesse, and 
sometimes several years later. With it is usually moved up and 
down, though it should surely be placed in the 'seventies, the 
Compleyntto Pity, a fine poem which yet, from its slight obscurity 
and absence of Chaucer's usual ease, may very well some day 
prove to be a translation from the French. 

While Chaucer thus sought to reproduce both the matter 
and the style of French poetry in England, he found other 
materials in popular Latin books. Among his lost works are 
renderings of " Origenes upon the Maudeleyne," and of Pope 
Innocent III. on " The Wreced Engendring of Mankinde " 
{De miseria conditionis humanae). He must have begun his 
attempts at straightforward narrative with the Lyf of Seynt 
Cecyle (the weakest of all his works, the second Nun's Tale in 
the Canterbury series) from the Legenda Aurea of Jacobus de 
Voragine, and the story of the patience of Grisilde, taken from 
Petrarch's Latin version of a tale by Boccaccio. In both of these 
he condenses a little, but ventures on very few changes, though 
he lets his readers see his impatience with his originals. In his 
story of Constance (afterwards ascribed to the Man of Law), 
taken from the Anglo-Norman chronicle of Nicholas Trivet, 
written about 1334, we find him struggling to put some substance 
into another weak tale, but still without the courage to remedy 
its radical faults, though here, as with Grisilde, he does as much 
for his heroine as the conventional exaltation of one virtue at 
a time permitted. It is possible that other tales which now stand 
in the Canterbury series were written originally at this period. 
What is certain is that at some time in the 'seventies three or four 
Italian poems passed into Chaucer's possession, and that he set 
to work busily to make use of them. One of the most interesting 
of the poems reclaimed for him by Professor Skeat is a fragment- 
ary " Compleynt," part of which is written in terza rima. While 
he thus experimented with the metre of the Divina Commedia, 
he made his first attempt to use the material provided by 
Boccaccio's Teseide in another fragment of great interest, that of 
Queue Anelida and Fals Arcyte. More than a third of this is 
taken up with another, and quite successful, metrical experiment 
in Anelida's " compleynt," but in the introduction of Anelida 
herself Chaucer made the first of his three unsuccessful efforts 
to construct a plot for an important poem out of his own head, 
and the fragment which begins so well breaks off abruptly at 
line 357. 

For a time the Teseide seems to have been laid aside, and it 
was perhaps at this moment, in despondency at his failure, that 
Chaucer wrote his most important prose work, the translation of 
the De Consolatione Philosophiae of Boethius. Reminiscences 
of this helped to enrich many of his subsequent poems, and 
inspired five of his shorter pieces {The Former Age, Fortune, 
Truth, Gentilesse and Lak of Stedfastnesse) , but the translation 
itself was only a partial success. To borrow his own phrase, his 
" Englysh was insufficient " to reproduce such difficult Latin. 
The translation is often barely intelligible without the original, 

and it is only here and there that it flows with any ease or 

If Chaucer felt this himself he must have been speedily con- 
sold by achieving in Troilus and Criseyde his greatest artistic 
triumph. Warned by his failure in Anelida and Arcyte, he was 
content this time to take his plot unaltered from the Filostrato, 
and to follow Boccaccio step by step through the poem. But 
he did not follow him as a mere translator. He had done his 
duty manfully for the saints " of other holinesse " in Cecyle* 
Grisilde and Constance, whom he was forbidden by the rules of 
the game to clothe with complete flesh and blood. In this great 
love-story there were no such restrictions, and the characters 
which Boccaccio's treatment left thin and conventional became 
in Chaucer's hands convincingly human. No other English poem 
is so instinct with the glory and tragedy of youth, and in the 
details of the story Chaucer's gifts of vivid colouring, of humour 
and pity, are all at their highest. 

An unfortunate theory that the reference in the Legends of 
Good Women to " al the love of Palamon and Arcyte " is to a 
hypothetical poem in seven-line stanzas en this theme, which 
Chaucer is imagined, when he came to plan the Canterbury Tales, 
to have suppressed in favour of a new version in heroic couplets, 
has obscured the close connexion in temper and power between 
what we know as the " Knight's Tale " and the Troilus. The 
poem may have been more or less extensively revised before, with 
admirable fitness, it was assigned to the Knight, but that its 
main composition can be separated by several years from that of 
Troilus is aesthetically incredible. Chaucer's art here again is at 
its highest. He takes the plot of Boccaccio's Teseide, but only 
as much of it as he wants, and what he takes he heightens and 
humanizes with the same skill which he had shown in trans-: 
forming the Filostrato. Of the individual characters Theseus 
himself, the arbiter of the plot, is most notably developed; 
Emilie and her two lovers receive just as much individuality as- 
they will bear without disturbing the atmosphere of romance. 
The whole story is pulled together and made more rapid and 
effective. A comparison of almost any scene as told by the two 
poets suffices to show Chaucer's immense superiority. At some 
subsequent period the " Squire's Tale " of Cambuscan, the fair 
Canacee and the Horse of Brass, was gallantly begun in some- 
thing of the same key, but Chaucer took for it more materials 
than he could use, and for lack of the help of a leader like Boc- 
caccio he was obliged to leave the story, in Milton's phrase, 
" half-told," though the fragment written certainly takes us 
very much less than half-way. 

Meanwhile, in connexion (as is reasonably believed) with the 
betrothal or marriage of Anne of Bohemia to Richard II. (i.e. 
about 1381-1382), Chaucer had brought to a successful com- 
pletion the Parlement of Foules, a charming sketch of 699 lines, 
in which the other birds, on Saint Valentine's day, counsel the 
" Formel Egle " on her choice of a mate. His success here, as in 
the case of the Deth of Blaunche the Duchesse, was due to the 
absence of any need for a climax; and though the materials 
which he borrowed were mainly Latin (with some help from 
passages of the Teseide not fully needed for Palamon and Arcyte) 
his method of handling them would have been quite approved 
by his friends among the French poets. A more ambitious 
venture, the Hous of Fame, in which Chaucer imagines himself 
borne aloft by an eagle to Fame's temple, describes what he 
sees and hears there, and then breaks off in apparent inability 
to get home, shows a curious mixture of the poetic ideals of the 
Roman de la rose and reminiscences of the Divina Commedia. 

As the Hous of Fame is most often remembered and quoted 
for the personal touches and humour of Chaucer's conversation 
with the eagle, so the most-quoted passages in the Prologue to 
the Legende of Good Women are those in which Chaucer professes 
his affection for the daisy, and the attack on his loyalty by 
Cupid and its defence by Alceste. Recent discoveries have 
shown, however, that (besides obligations to Machault) some of 
the touches about the daisy and the controversy between the 
partisans of the Flower and of the Leaf are snatches from poems 
by his friends Froissart and Deschamps, which Chaucer takes up 



and returns to them with pretty compliments, and that he was 
indebted to Froissart for some of the framework of his poem. 1 
Both of the two versions of the Prologue to the Legende are 
charming, and some of the tales, notably that of Cleopatra, 
rank with Chaucer's best work. When, however, he had written 
eight and part of the ninth he tired of his scheme, which was 
planned to celebrate nineteen of Cupids faithful " saints," with 
Alcestis as their queen. With his usual hopefulness he had 
overlooked the risk of monotony, which obviously weighed 
heavily on him ere he broke off, and the loss of the other ten 
stories is less to be regretted than that of the celebration of 
Alceste, and a possible epilogue which might have exceeded in 
charm the Prologue itself. 

Chaucer's failure to complete the scheme of the Legende of 
Good Women may have been partly due to the attractions of the 
Canterbury Tales, which were probably taken up in 
Canter- immediate succession to it. His guardianship of two 
Tales. Kentish wards, his justiceship of the peace, his repre- 
senting the county in the parliament of 1386, his 
commissionership of the river-bank between Greenwich and 
Woolwich, all make it easy to understand his dramatic use of the 
merry crowds he saw on the Canterbury road, without supposing 
him to have had recourse to Boccaccio's Decamerone, a book 
which there is no proof of his having seen. The pilgrims whom 
he imagines to have assembled at the Tabard Inn in Southwark, 
where Harry Bailey was host, are said to have numbered " wel 
nyne and twenty in a company," and the Prologue gives full- 
length sketches of a Knight, a Squire (his son), and their 
Yeoman; of a Prioress, Monk, Friar, Oxford Clerk, and Parson, 
with two disreputable hangers-on of the church, a Summoner 
and Pardoner; of a Serjeant-at-Law and a Doctor of Physic, 
and of a Franklin, or country gentleman, Merchant, Shipman, 
Miller, Cook, Manciple, Reeve, Ploughman (the Parson's brother) 
and the ever-famous Wife of Bath. Five London burgesses are 
described in a group, and a Nun and Priest 2 are mentioned as 
in attendance on the Prioress. Each of these, with Chaucer 
himself making the twenty-ninth, was pledged to tell two tales, 
but including one second attempt and a tale told by the Yeoman 
of a Canon, who overtakes the pilgrims on the road, we have 
only twenty finished stories, two unfinished and two interrupted 
ones. As in the case of the Legende of Good Women, our loss is 
not so much that of the additional stories as of the completed 
framework. The wonderful character sketches of the Prologue 
are carried yet farther by the Talks on the Road which link the 
different tales, and two of these Talks, in which the Wife of 
Bath and the Pardoner respectively edify the company, have the 
importance of separate Tales, but between the Tales that have 
come down to us there are seven links missing, 3 and it was left 
to a later and weaker hand to narrate, in the " Tale of Beryn," 
the adventures of the pilgrims at Canterbury. 

The reference to the Lyf of Seynt Cecyle in the Prologue to 
the Legende of Good Women gives external proof that Chaucer 
included earlier work in the scheme of the Canterbury Tales, 
and mention has been made of other stories which are indisput- 
ably early. In the absence of any such metrical tests as have 

1 The French influences on this Prologue, its connexion with the 
Flower and the Leaf controversy, and the priority of what had pre- 
viously been reckoned as the second or " B " form of the Prologue 
over the " A," were demonstrated in papers by Prof. Kittredge on 
" Chaucer and some of his Friends " in Modern Philology, vol. i. 
(Chicago, 1903), and by Mr J. L. Lowes on " The Prologue to the 
Legend of Good Women " in Publications of the Modern Language 
Association of America, vol. xix., December 1904. 

2 The Talks on the Road show clearly that only one Priest in 
attendance on the Prioress, and two tales to each narrator, were 
originally contemplated, but the " Prestes thre " in line 164 of the 
Prologue, and the bald couplet (line 793 sq.) explaining that each 
pilgrim was to tell two tales each way, were probably both alterations 
made by Chaucer in moments of amazing hopefulness. The journey 
was reckoned a 3! days' ride, and eight or nine tales a day would 
surely have been a sufficient allowance. 

3 The absence of these links necessitates the division cf the 
Canterbury Tales into nine groups, to which, for purposes of quota- 
tion, the letters A to I have been assigned, the line numeration of the 
Tales in each group being continuous. 

proved useful in the case of Shakespeare, the dates at which 
several of the Tales were composed remain doubtful, while in 
the case of at least two, the Clerk's tale of Grisilde and the 
Monk's tragedies, there is evidence of early work being revised 
and supplemented. It is fortunately impossible to separate the 
prologue to the charmingly told story of " yonge Hugh of 
Lincoln " from the tale itself, and with the "quod sche" in the 
second line as proof that Chaucer was here writing specially for 
his Prioress we are forbidden to limit the new stories to any one 
metre or tone. There can be no doubt, however, that what may 
be called the Tales of the Churls (Miller, Reeve, Summoner, 
Friar, &c), and the conversational outpourings of the Pardoner 
and Wife of Bath, form, with the immortal Prologue, the most 
important and distinctive additions to the older work. In these, 
and in the Pardoner's story of Death and the Three Revellers, 
and the Nun's Priest's masterly handling of the fable of the 
Cock and Fox, both of them free from the grossness which marks 
the others, Chaucer takes stories which could have been told 
in a short page of prose and elaborates them with all the skill 
in narration which he had sedulously cultivated. The conjugal 
reminiscences of the Wife of Bath and the Reeve's Tale with its 
abominable climax (lightened a little by Aleyn's farewell, lines 
316-319) are among the great things in Chaucer, as surely as 
Troilus, and Palamon and Arcyte and the Prologue. They help 
notably to give him the width of range which may certainly be 
claimed for him. 

In or soon after 1391 Chaucer wrote in prose for an eleven- 
year-old reader, whom he addresses as " Litel Lowis my son," 
a treatise on the use of the Astrolabe, its short prologue being 
the prettiest specimen of his prose. The wearisome tale of 
" Melibee and his wyf Prudence," which was perhaps as much 
admired in English as it had been in Latin and French, may have 
been translated at any time. The sermon on Penitence, used as 
the Parson's Tale, was probably the work of his old age. " En- 
voys " to his friends Scogan and Bukton, a translation of some 
balades by Sir Otes de Granson, and the Compleynt to his Purs 
complete the record of his minor poetry. We have his own 
statement that in his youth he had written many Balades, 
Roundels and Virelayes in honour of Love, and the two songs 
embedded respectively in the Parlement of Foules and the Pro- 
logue to the Legende of Good Women are charming and musical. 
His extant shorter poems, however, whether early or late, 
offer no excuse for claiming high rank for him as a lyrist. He 
had very little sheer singing power, and though there are fine 
lines in his short poems, witness the famous " Flee fro the prees 
and dwell with soothfastnesse," they lack the sustained concen- 
tration of great work. From the drama, again, Chaucer was cut 
off, and it is idle to argue from the innumerable dramatic touches 
in his poems and his gift of characterization as to what he 
might have done had he lived two centuries later. His own age 
delighted in stories, and he gave it the stories it demanded 
invested with a humanity, a grace and strength which place him 
among the world's greatest narrative poets, and which bring the 
England of his own day, with all the colour and warmth of life, 
wonderfully near to all his readers. 

The part played by Chaucer in the development of the English 
language has often been overrated. He neither corrupted it, as 
used to be said, by introducing French words which 
it would otherwise have avoided, nor bore any such /nfluenc * 
part in fixing it as was afterwards played by the translators 
of the Bible. When he was growing up educated society 
in England was still bilingual, and the changes in vocabulary 
and pronunciation which took place during his life were the 
natural results of a society, which had been bilingual with a 
bias towards French, giving an exclusive preference to English. 
The practical identity of Chaucer's language with that of Gower 
shows that both merely used the best English of their day with 
the care and slightly conservative tendency which befitted poets. 
Chaucer's service to the English language lies in his decisive 
success having made it impossible for any later English poet to 
attain fame, as Gower had done, by writing alternatively in 
Latin and French. The claim which should be made for him is 



that, at least as regards poetry, he proved that English was 
" sufficient." 

Chaucer borrowed both his stanza forms and his " deca- 
syllabic " couplets (mostly with an extra syllable at the end 
of the line) from G.uillaume Machault, and his music, like that 
of his French master and his successors, depends very largely 
on assigning to every syllable its full value, and more especially 
on the due pronunciation of the final -e. The slower movement 
of change in Scotland allowed time for Chaucer to exercise a 
potent influence on Scottish poetry, but in England this final 
-e, to which most of the earlier grammatical forms by Chaucer's 
time had been reduced, itself fell rapidly into disuse during the 
15th century, and a serious barrier was thus raised to the apprecia- 
tion of the artistic value of his verse. His disciples, Hoccleve 
and Lydgate, who at first had caught some echoes of his rhythms, 
gradually yielded to the change in pronunciation, so that there 
was no living tradition to hand down his secret, while successive 
copyists reduced his text to a state in which it was only by 
accident that lines could be scanned correctly. For fully three 
centuries his reputation was sustained solely by his narrative 
power, his warmest panegyrists betraying no consciousness 
that they were praising one of the greatest technical masters 
of poetry. Even when thus maimed, however, his works found 
readers and lovers in every generation, and every improvement 
in his text has set his fame on a surer basis. 

Bibliography. — The Canterbury Tales have always been Chaucer's 
most popular work, and, including fragments, upwards of sixty 
15th-century manuscripts of it still survive. Two thin volumes of 
his minor poems were among the little quartos which Caxton printed 
by way of advertisement immediately on his return to England ; 
the Canterbury Tales and Boethius followed in 1478, Troilus and a 
second edition of the Tales in 1483, the TIous of Fame in 1484. The 
Canterbury Tales were subsequently printed in 1492 (Pynson), 1498 
(de Worde) and 1526 (Pynson); Troilus in 1517 (de Worde) and 
1526 (Pynson); the Hous of Fame in 1526 (Pynson); the Parlement 
of Foules in 1526 (Pynson) and 1530 (de Worde), and the Mars, 
" Venus " and Envoy to Bukton by Julyan Notary about 1500. 
Pynson's three issues in 1526 almost amounted to a collected edition, 
but the first to which the title The Workes of Geffray Chaucer was 
given was that edited by William Thynne in 1532 for Thomas 
Godfray. Of this there was a new edition in 1542 for John Reynes 
and William Bonham, and an undated reprint a few years later for 
Bonham, Kele, Petit and Toye, each of whom put his name on part 
of the edition. In 1561 a reprint, with numerous additions, edited 
by John Stowe, was printed by J. Kyngston for J. Wight, and this 
was re-edited, with fresh additions by Thomas Speght, in 1598 for 
G. Bishop and again in 1602 for Adam Islip. In 1687 there was an 
anonymous reprint, and in 1721 John Urry produced the last and 
worst of the folios. By this time the paraphrasers were already at 
work, Dryden rewriting the tales of the Knight, the Nun's Priest 
and the Wife of Bath, and Pope the Merchant's. In 1737 (reprinted 
in 1740) the Prologue and Knight's Tale were edited (anonymously) 
by Thomas Morell " from the most authentic manuscripts," and 
here, though by dint of much violence and with many mistakes, 
Chaucer's lines were for the first time in print given in a form in 
which they could be scanned. This promise of better things (Morell 
still thought it necessary to accompany his text with the paraphrases 
by Betterton and Dryden) was fulfilled by a fine edition of the 
Canterbury Tales (1775-1778), in which Thomas Tyrwhitt's scholarly 
instincts produced a comparatively good text from second-rate 
manuscripts and accompanied it with valuable illustrative notes. 
The next edition of any importance was that edited by Thomas 
Wright for the Percy Society in 1848-1851, based on the erratic 
but valuable British Museum manuscript Harley 7334, containing 
readings which must be either Chaucer's second thoughts of the 
emendations of a brilliantly clever scribe. In 1866 Richard Morris 
re-edited this text in a more scholarly manner for the Aldine edition 
of the British Poets, and in the following year produced for the 
Clarendon Press Series a school edition of the Prologue and Tales 
of the Knight and Nun's Priest, edited with the fulness and care 
previously bestowed only on Greek and Latin classics. 

In 1868 the foundation of the Chaucer Society, with Dr Furnivall 
as its director and chief worker, and Henry Bradshaw as a leading 
spirit, led to the publication of a six-text edition of the Canterbury 
Tales, and the consequent discovery that a manuscript belonging 
to the Earl of F.llesmere, though undoubtedly " edited," contained 
the best available text. The Chaucer Society also printed the best 
manuscripts of Troilus and Criseyde and of all the minor poems, 
and thus cleared the way for the " Oxford " Chaucer, edited by 
Professor Skeat, with a wealth of annotation, for the Clarendon Press 
in 1894, the text of which was used for the splendid folio printed 
two years later by William Morris at the Kelmscott Press, with 
illustrations by Sir Edward Burne-Jones. A supplementary volume 

of the Oxford edition, entitled Chaucerian and other Pieces, issued 
by Professor Skeat in 1897, contains the prose and verse which his 
early publishers and editors, from Pynson and Thynne onwards, 
included among his Works by way of illustration, but which had 
gradually come to be regarded as forming part of his text. The 
reasons for their rejection are fully stated by Professor Skeat in the 
work named and also in The Chaucer Canon (1900). Many of these 
pieces have now been traced to other authors, and their exclusion 
has helped to clear not only Chaucer's text but also his biography, 
which used (as in the " Life " published by William Godwin in two 
quarto volumes in 1803) to be encumbered with inferences from 
works now known not to be Chaucer's, notably the Testament of 
Love written by Thomas Usk. All information about Chaucer's 
life available in 1900 will be found summarized by Mr R. E. G. 
Kirk in Life-Records of Chaucer, part iv., published by the Chaucer 
Society in that year. See also Chaucer; a Bibliographical Manual, 
by Eleanor P. Hammond (1909). (A. W. Po.) 

CHAUDESAIGUES, a village of central France, in the depart- 
ment of Cantal, at the foot of the mountains of Aubrac, 19 m. 
S.S.W. of St Flour by road. Pop. (1906) town, 937; commune, 
1558. It is celebrated for its hot mineral springs, which vary 
in temperature from 135° to 177° Fahr., and at their maximum 
rank as the hottest in France. The water, which contains 
bicarbonate of soda, is employed not only medicinally (for 
rheumatism, &c), but also for the washing of fleeces, the incuba- 
tion of eggs, and various other economic purposes; and it 
furnishes a ready means of heating the houses of the town during 
winter. In the immediate neighbourhood is the cold chalybeate 
spring of Condamine. The warm springs were known to the 
Romans, and are mentioned by Sidonius Apollinaris. 

CHAUFFEUR (from Fr. chauffer, to heat, a term primarily 
used in French of a man in charge of a forge or furnace, and so 
of a stoker on a locomotive or in a steamship, but in its anglicized 
sense more particularly confined to a professional driver of a 
motor vehicle. (See also Brigandage.) 

poet and wit, was born at Fontenay, Normandy, in 1639. His 
father, maitre des comptes of Rouen, sent him to study at the 
College de Navarre. Guillaume early showed the wit that was 
to distinguish him, and gained the favour of the duke of Vendome, 
who procured for him the abbey of Aumale and other benefices. 
Louis Joseph, duke of Vendome, and his brother Philippe, grand 
prior of the Knights of Malta in France, at that time had a joint 
establishment at the Temple, where they gathered round them 
a very gay and reckless circle. Chaulieu became the constant 
companion and adviser of the two princes. He made an expedi- 
tion to Poland in the suite of the marquis de Bethune, hoping to 
make a career for himself in the court of John Sobieski; he saw 
one of the Polish king's campaigns in Ukraine, but returned to 
Paris without securing any advancement. Saint-Simon says that 
the abbe helped his patron the grand prior to rob the duke of 
Vendome, and that the king sent orders that the princes should 
take the management of their affairs from him. This account 
has been questioned by Sainte-Beuve, who regards Saint-Simon 
as a prejudiced witness. In his later years Chaulieu spent much 
time at the little court of the duchesse du Maine at Sceaux. 
There he became the trusted and devoted friend of Mdlle 
Delaunay, with whom he carried on an interesting correspond- 
ence. Among his poems the best known are " Fontenay " and 
" La Retraite." Chaulieu died on the 27th of June 1720. 

His works were edited with those of his friend the marquis de la 
Fare in 1714, 1750 and 1774. See also C. A. Sainte-Beuve, Causeries 
du lundi, vol. i. ; and Lettres inedites (1850), with a notice by 
Raymond, marquis de Berenger. 

CHAUMETTE, PIERRE GASPARD (1 763-1 794), French 
revolutionist, was born at Nevers. Until the Revolution he 
lived a somewhat wandering life, interesting himself particularly 
in botany. He was a student of medicine at Paris in 1790, 
became one of the orators of the club of the Cordeliers, and 
contributed anonymously to the Revolutions de Paris. As 
member of the insurrectionary Commune of the 10th of August 
1792, he was delegated to visit the prisons, with full power to 
arrest suspects. He was accused later of having taken part in 
the massacres of September, but was able to prove that at that 
time he had been sent by the provisional executive council to 
Normandy to oversee a requisition of 60,000 men. Returning 



from this mission, he pronounced an eloquent discourse in favour 
of the republic. His simple manners, easy speech, ardent 
temperament and irreproachable private life gave him great 
influence in Paris, and he was elected president of the Commune, 
defending the municipality in that capacity at the bar of the 
Convention on the 31st of October 1792. Re-elected in the 
municipal elections of the 2nd of December 1702, he was soon 
charged with the functions of procurator of the Commune, and 
contributed with success to the enrolments of volunteers by his 
appeals to the populace. Chaumette was one of the ringleaders 
in the attacks of the 31st of May and of the 2nd of June 1793 
on the Girondists, toward whom he showed himself relentless. 
He demanded the formation of a revolutionary army, and 
preached the extermination of all traitors. He was one of the 
promoters of the worship of Reason, and on the 10th of November 
1793 he presented the goddess to the Convention in the guise of 
an actress. On the 23rd of the same month he obtained a decree 
closing all the churches of Paris, and placing the priests under 
strict surveillance; but on the 25th he retraced his steps and 
obtained from the Commune the free exercise of worship. He 
wished to save the Hebertists by a new insurrection and struggled 
against Robespierre; but a revolutionary decree promulgated 
by the Commune on his demand was overthrown by the Con- 
vention. Robespierre had him accused with the Jiebertists ; he 
was arrested, imprisoned in the Luxembourg, condemned by the 
Revolutionary tribunal and executed on the 13th of April 1794. 
Chaumette's career had its brighter side. He was an ardent 
social reformer; he secured the abolition of corporal punishment 
in the schools, the suppression of lotteries, of houses of ill-fame 
and of obscene literature; he instituted reforms in the hospitals, 
and insisted on the honours of public burial for the poor. 

Chaumette left some printed speeches and fragments, and memoirs 
published in the Amateur d'autographes. His memoirs on the 10th 
of August were published by F. A Aulard, preceded by a biographical 

CHAUMONT-EN-BASSIGNY, a town of eastern France, 
capital of the department of Haute-Marne, a railway junction 
163 m. E.S.E. of Paris on the main line of the Eastern railway 
to Belfort. Pop. (1906) 12,089. Chaumont is picturesquely 
situated on an eminence between the rivers Marne and Suize 
in the angle formed by their confluence. To the west a lofty 
viaduct over the Suize carries the railway. The church of 
St-Jean-Baptiste dates from the 13th century, the choir and 
lateral chapels belonging to the 15th and 16th. In the interior 
the sculptured triforium (15th century), the spiral staircase in 
the transept and a Holy Sepulchre are of interest. The lycee 
and the hospital have chapels of the 17th and 16th centuries 
respectively. The Tour Hautefeuille (a keep of the 1 1 th century) 
is the principal relic of a chateau of the counts of Champagne; 
the rest of the site is occupied by the law courts. In the Place 
de l'Escargot stands a statue of the chemist Philippe Lebon 
(1767-1804), born in Haute-Mame. Chaumont is the seat of 
a prefect and of a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first 
instance and of commerce, a lycee, training colleges, and a 
branch of the Bank of France. The main industries are glove- 
making and leather-dressing. The town has trade in grain, iron, 
mined in the vicinity, and leather. In 1 190 it received a charter 
from the counts of Champagne. It was here that in 18 14 Great 
Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia concluded the treaty (dated 
March 1, signed March 9) by which they severally bound them- 
selves not to conclude a separate peace with Napoleon, and to 
continue the war until France should have been reduced within 
the boundaries of 1792. 

CHAUNCEY, ISAAC (1772-1840), American naval com- 
mander, was born at Black Rock, Connecticut, on the 20th of 
February 1772. He was brought up in the merchant service, and 
entered the United States navy as a lieutenant in 1 798. His first 
services were rendered against the Barbary pirates. During these 
operations, more especially at Tripoli, he greatly distinguished 
himself, and was voted by Congress a sword of honour, which, 
however, does not appear to have been given him. The most 
active period of his life is that of his command on the Lakes during 

the War of r8r2. He took the command at Sackett's Harbor on 
Lake Ontario in October 181 2. There was at that time only one 
American vessel, the brig " Oneida " (16), and one armed prize, 
a schooner, on the lake. But Commodore Chauncey brought 
from 400 to 500 officers and men with him, and local resources 
for building being abundant, he had by November formed a 
squadron of ten vessels, with which he attacked the Canadian 
port, York, taking it in April 1813, capturing one vessel and 
causing the destruction of another then building. He returned 
to Sackett's Harbor. In May Sir James .Lucas Yeo (1732-1818) 
came out from England with some 500 officers and men, to 
organize a squadron for service on the Lakes. By the end of 
the month he was ready for service with a squadron of eight 
ships and brigs, and some small craft. The governor, Sir G. 
Prevost, gave him no serious support. On the 29th of May, dur- 
ing Chauncey's absence at Niagara, the Americans were attacked 
at Sackett's Harbor and would have been defeated if Prevost had 
not insisted on a retreat at the very moment when the American 
shipbuilding yard was in danger of being burnt, with a shipof more 
than eight hundred tons on the stocks. The retreat of the British 
force gave Chauncey time to complete this vessel, the " General 
Pike," which was so far superior to anything under Yeo's com- 
mand that she was said to be equal in effective strength to 
the whole of the British flotilla. The American commodore was 
considered by many of his subordinates to have displayed 
excessive caution. In August he skirmished with Sir James Yeo's 
small squadron of six vessels, but made little effective use of 
his own fourteen. Two of his schooners were upset in a squall, 
with the loss of all hands, and he allowed two to be cut off by 
Yeo. Commodore Chauncey showed a preference for relying on 
his long guns, and a disinclination to come to close quarters. 
He was described as chasing the British squadron all round the 
lake, but his encounters did not go beyond artillery duels at 
long range, and he allowed his enemy to continue in existence 
long after he might have been destroyed. The winter suspended 
operations, and both sides made exertions to increase their forces. 
The Americans had the advantage of commanding greater 
resources for shipbuilding. Sir James Yeo began by blockading 
Sackett's Harbor in the early part of 1814, but when the American 
squadron was ready he was compelled to retire by the disparity 
of the forces. The American commodore was now able to 
blockade the British flotilla at Kingston. When the cruising 
season of the lake was nearly over he in his turn retired to 
Sackett's Harbor, and did not leave it for the rest of the war. 
During his later years he served as commissioner of the navy, 
and was president of the board of naval commissioners from 
1833 till his death at Washington on the 27th of February 1840. 
See Roosevelt's War of 1812 (1882) ; and A. T. Mahan, Sea-Power 
in its Relations to the War of 18 12 (1905). 

CHAUNCY, CHARLES (1592-1672), president of Harvard 
College, was born at Yardley-Bury, Hertfordshire, England, in 
November 1592, and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
of which he became a fellow. He was in turn vicar at Ware, 
Hertfordshire (1627-1633), and at Marston St Lawrence, North- 
amptonshire (1633-1637). Refusing to observe the ecclesiastical 
regulations of Archbishop Laud, he was brought before the court 
of high commission in 1629, and again in 1634, when, for opposing 
the placing of a rail around the communion table, he was sus- 
pended and imprisoned. His formal recantation in February 
1637 caused him lasting self-reproach and humiliation. In 1637 
he emigrated to America, and from 1638 until 1641 was an 
associate pastor at Plymouth, where, however, his advocacy of 
the baptism of infants by immersion caused dissatisfaction. 
He was the pastor at Scituate, Massachusetts, from 1641 until 
1654, and from 1654 until his death was president of Harvard 
College, as the successor of the first president Henry Dunster 
(c. 1612-1659). He died on the 19th of February 1672. By 
his sermons and his writings he exerted a great influence in 
colonial Massachusetts, and according to Mather was " a most 
incomparable scholar." His writings include: The Plain 
Doctrine of the Justification of a Sinner in the Sight of God (1659) 
and Antisynodalia Scripta Americana (1662). His son, Isaac 


x 9 

Chauncy (1632-1712), who removed to England, was a volu- 
minous writer on theological subjects. 

There are biographical sketches of President Chauncy in Cotton 
Mather's Magnalia Christi Americana (London, 1702), and in W. C. 
Fowler's Memorials of the Chauncys, including President Chauncy 
(Boston, 1858). 

President Chauncy's great-grandson, Charles Chauncy 
(1705-1787), a prominent American theologian, was born in 
Boston, Massachusetts, on the 1st of January 1705, and gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1 7 2 1 . In 1 7 2 7 he was chosen as the colleague 
of Thomas Foxcroft (1697-1769) in the pastorate of the First 
Church of Boston, continuing as pastor of this church until his 
death. At the time of the " Great Awakening " of 1740-1743 and 
afterwards, Chauncy was the leader of the so-called " Old Light " 
party in New England, which strongly condemned the White- 
fieldian revival as an outbreak of emotional extravagance. His 
views were ably presented in his sermon Enthusiasm and in his 
Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England 
(1743), written in answer to Jonathan Edwards's Some Thoughts 
Concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New England (1742). 
He also took a leading part in opposition to the projected estab- 
lishment of an Anglican Episcopate in America, and before and 
during the American War of Independence he ardently sup- 
ported the whig or patriot party. Theologically he has been 
classed as a precursor of the New England Unitarians. He died 
in Boston on the 10th of February 1787. His publications in- 
clude : Compleal View of Episcopacy, as Exhibited in the Fathers 
of the Christian Church, until the close of the Second Century ( 1 7 7 1 ) ; 
Salvation of All Men, Illustrated and Vindicated as a Scripture 
Doctrine (1782); The Mystery Hid from Ages and Generations 
made manifest by the Gospel- Revelation (1783); and Five Dis- 
sertations on the Fall and its Consequences (1785). 

See P. L. Ford's privately printed Bibliotheca Chaunciana (Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., 1884) ; and Williston Walker's Ten "New England Leaders 
(New York, 1901). 

CHAUNY, a town of northern France in the department of 
Aisne, 19 m. S. by W. of St Quentin by rail. Pop. (1906) 
10,127. The town is situated on the Oise (which here becomes 
navigable) and at the junction of the canal of St Quentin with the 
lateral canal of the Oise, and carries on an active trade. It 
contains mirror-polishing works, subsidiary to the mirror-works 
of St Gobain, chemical works, sugar manufactories, metal 
foundries and breweries. Chauny was the scene of much fighting 
in the Hundred Years' War. 

CHAUTAUQUA, a village on the west shore of Chautauqua 
Lake in the town of Chautauqua, Chautauqua county, New York, 
U.S.A. Pop. of the town (1900), 3590; (1905) 35°5; (191°) 
3515; of the village (1908) about 750. The lake is a beautiful 
body of water over 1300 ft. above sea-level, 20 m. long, and 
from a few hundred yards to 3 m. in width. The town of Chau- 
tauqua is situated near the north end and is within easy reach 
by steamboat and electric car connexions with the main railways 
between the east and the west. The town is known almost solely 
as being the permanent home of the Chautauqua Institution, a 
system of popular education founded in 1874 by Lewis Miller 
(1829-1899) of Akron, Ohio, and Bishop John H. Vincent 
(b. 1832). The village, covering about three hundred acres of 
land, is carefully laid out to provide for the work of the 

The Chautauqua Institution began as a Sunday-School 
Normal Institute, and for nearly a quarter of a century the 
administration was in the hands of Mr Miller, who was responsible 
for the business management, and Bishop Vincent, who was 
head of the instruction department. Though founded by 
Methodists, in its earliest years it became non-sectarian and has 
furnished a meeting-ground for members of all sects and de- 
nominations. At the very outset the activities of the assembly 
were twofold: (1) the conducting of a summer school for 
Sunday-school teachers, and (2) the presentation of a series of 
correlated lectures and entertainments. Although the move- 
ment was and still is primarily religious, it has always been 
assumed that the best religious education must necessarily take 

advantage of the best that the educational world can afford in 
the literatures, arts and sciences. The scope of the plan rapidly 
broadened, and in 1879 a regular group of schools with graded 
courses of study was established. At about the same time, also, 
the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, providing a 
continuous home-reading system, was founded. The season 
lasts during June, July and August. In 1907 some 325 lectures, 
concerts, readings and entertainments were presented by a 
group of over 190 lecturers, readers and musicians, while at the 
same time 200 courses in the summer schools were offered by a 
faculty of instructors drawn from the leading colleges and 
normal schools of the country. 

The Chautauqua movement has had an immense influence on 
education in the United States, an influence which is especially 
marked in three directions: (1) in the establishment of about 
300 local assemblies or " Chautauquas " in the United States 
patterned after the mother Chautauqua; (2) in the promotion 
of the idea of summer education, which has been followed by 
the founding of summer schools or sessions at a large number 
of American universities, and of various special summer schools, 
such as the Catholic Summer School of America, with head- 
quarters at Cliff Haven, Clinton county, New York, and the 
Jewish Chautauqua Society, with headquarters at Buffalo, N.Y.; 
and (3) in the establishment of numerous correspondence schools 
patterned in a general way after the system provided by the 
Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle. 

See John Heyl Vincent, The Chautauqua Movement (Boston, 1886), 
and Frank C. Bray, A Reading Journey through Chautauqua (Chicago, 

1832), French diplomatist and administrator. Though master of 
the king's wardrobe in 1789, he joined in the Revolution. He 
served in the army of Flanders, and then was sent to London 
in February 1792, to induce England to remain neutral in the 
war which was about to break out between France and "the 
king of Bohemia and Hungary." He was well received at first, 
but after the 10th of August 1792 he was no longer officially 
recognized at court, and on the execution of Louis XVI. (21st of 
January 1793) he was given eight days to leave England. After 
an unsuccessful embassy in Tuscany, he was imprisoned as a 
suspect during the Terror, but freed after the 9th Thermidor. 
Under Napoleon he became a member of the council of state, and 
from 181 2 to 1814 he governed Catalonia under the title of 
interidant-general, being charged to win over the Catalonians 
to King Joseph Bonaparte. He remained in private life during 
the Restoration and the Hundred Days. In 1816 he was elected 
deputy, and spoke in favour of liberty of the press and extension 
of the franchise. Though he was again deputy in 1827 he played 
no part in public affairs, and resigned in 1829. 

See G. Pallain, La Mission de Talleyrand & Londres en 1792 
(Paris, 1889). 

CHAUVIGNY, a town of western France, in the department 
of Vienne, 20 m. E. of Poitiers by rail. Pop. (1906) 2326. The 
town is finely situated overlooking the Vienne and a small 
torrent, and has two interesting Romanesque churches, both 
restored in modern times. There are also ruins of a chateau of 
the bishops of Poitiers, and of other strongholds. Near Chau- 
vigny is the curious bone-cavern of Jioux, the entrance to which 
is fortified by large blocks of stone. The town carries on lime- 
burning and plaster-manufacture, and there are stone quarries 
in the vicinity. Trade is in wool and feathers. 

CHAUVIN, ETIENNE (1640-1725), French Protestant divine, 
was born at Nimes on the 18th of April 1640. At the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes he retired to Rotterdam, where he was for 
some years preacher at the Walloon church; in 1695 the elector 
of Brandenburg appointed him pastor and professor of philo- 
sophy, and later inspector of the French college at Berlin, where 
he enjoyed considerable reputation as a representative of 
Cartesianism and as a student of physics. His principal work 
is a laborious Lexicon Rationale, sive Thesaurus Philosophicus 
(Rotterdam, 1692; new and enlarged edition, Leuwarden, 1713). 



He also wrote Theses de Cognitione Dei (1662), and started the 
Nouveau Journal des Savans (1694-1698). 
See E. and E. Haag, La France Protestante, vol. iv. (1884). 

CHAUVINISM, a term for unreasonable and exaggerated 
patriotism, the French equivalent of " Jingoism." The word 
originally signified idolatry of Napoleon, being taken from a 
much-wounded veteran, Nicholas Chauvin, who, by his adoration 
of the emperor, became the type of blind enthusiasm for national 
military glory. 

CHAUX DE FONDS, LA, a large industrial town in the Swiss 
canton of Neuchatel. It is about 19 m. by rail N. W. of Neuchatel, 
and stands at a height of about 3255 ft. in a valley (5 m. long) 
of the same name in the Jura. Pop. (1900) 35,968 (only 13,659 
in 1850); (1905) 38,700, mainly French-speaking and Pro- 
testants; of the 6114 " Catholics " the majority are " Old 
Catholics." It is a centre of the watch-making industry, especi- 
ally of gold watch cases; about 70% of those manufactured 
in Switzerland are turned out here. In 1900 it exported watches 
to the value of nearly £3,000,000 sterling. There is a school of 
industrial art (engraving and enamelling watch cases) and a 
school of watch-making (including instruction in the manufacture 
of chronometers and other scientific instruments of precision). 
It boasts of being le plus gros village de I' Europe, and certainly 
has preserved some of the features of a big village. L6opold 
Robert ( 1794-183 5), the painter, was born here. (W. A. B. C). 

CHAVES, a town of northern Portugal, in the district of Villa 
Real, formerly included in the province of Traz os Montes; 
8 m. S. of the Spanish frontier, on the right bank of the river 
Tamega. Pop. (1900) 6388. Chaves is the ancient Aquae 
Flaviae, famous for its hot saline springs, which are still in use. 
A fine Roman bridge of 18 arches spans the Tamega. In the 16th 
century Chaves contained 20,000 inhabitants; it was long one of 
the principal frontier fortresses, and in fact derives its present 
name from the position which makes it the " keys," or chaves, of 
the north. One of its churches contains the tomb of Alphonso I. 
of Portugal (1139-1185). In 1830 the town gave the title of 
marquess to Pinto da Fonseca, a leader of the Miguelite party. . 

CHAZELLES, JEAN MATHIEU DE (1657-1710), French 
hydrographer, was born at Lyons on the 24th of July 1657. 
He was nominated professor of hydrography at Marseilles in 
1685, and in that capacity carried out various coast surveys. In 
1693 he was engaged to publish a second volume of the Neptune 
jrancflis, which was to include the hydrography of the Mediter- 
ranean. For this purpose he visited the Levant and Egypt. 
When in Egypt he measured the pyramids, and, finding that 
the angles formed by the sides of the largest were in the direction 
of the four cardinal points, he concluded that this position must 
have been intended, and also that the poles of the earth and 
meridians had not deviated since the erection of those structures. 
He was made a member of the Academy in 1695, and died in 
Paris on the 16th of January 17 10. 

CHEADLE, a town in the Altrincham parliamentary division 
of Cheshire, England, 6 m. S. of Manchester, included in the 
urban district of Cheadle and Gatley. Pop. (1901) 7916. This 
is one of the numerous townships of modern growth which fringe 
the southern boundaries of Manchester, and practically form 
suburbs of that city. Stockport lies immediately to the east. 
The name occurs in the formerly separate villages of Cheadle 
Hulme, Cheadle Bulkeley and Cheadle Moseley. There are 
cotton printing and bleaching works in the locality. The parish 
church of St Giles, Cheadle, is Perpendicular, containing an altar- 
tomb of the 15th century for two knights. 

CHEADLE, a market town in the Leek parliamentary divi- 
sion of Staffordshire, England, 13 m. N.E. of Stafford, and 
the terminus of a branch line from Cresswell on the North 
Staffordshire railway. Pop. (1901) 5186. The Roman Catholic 
church of St Giles, with a lofty spire, was designed by Pugin 
and erected in 1846. The interior is lavishly decorated. There 
are considerable collieries in the neighbourhood, and silk and 
tape works in the town. In the neighbouring Froghall district 
limestone is quarried, and there are manufactures of copper. 
In Cheadle two fairs of ancient origin are held annually. 

CHEATING, " the fraudulently obtaining the property of 
another by any deceitful practice not amounting to felony, which 
practice is of such a nature that it directly affects, or may 
directly affect, the public at large" (Stephen, Digest of Criminal 
Law, chap. xl. § 367). Cheating is either a common law or 
statutory offence, and is punishable as a misdemeanour. An 
indictment for cheating at common law is of comparatively rare 
occurrence, and the statutory crime usually presents itself in the 
form of obtaining money by false pretences (q.v.). The word 
" cheat " is a variant of " escheat," i.e. the reversion of land to 
a lord of the fee through the failure of blood of the tenant. 
The shortened form " cheater " for " escheator " is found early 
in the legal sense, and chetynge appears in the Promptorium 
Parvulorum, c. 1440, as the equivalent of confiscaiio. In the 
16th century " cheat " occurs in vocabularies of thieves and other 
slang, and in such works as the Use of Dice-Play (1532). It is 
frequent in Thomas Harman's Caveat or Wareningfor . . . Vaga- 
bones (1567), in the sense of " thing," with a descriptive word 
attached, e.g. smeling chete = nose. In the tract Mihil Mumchance, 
his Discoverie of the Art of Cheating, doubtfully attributed to 
Robert Greene (1560-1592), we find that gamesters call them- 
selves cheaters, " borrowing the term from the lawyers." The 
sense development is obscure, but it would seem to be due to the 
extortionate or fraudulent demands made by legal " escheators." 
mathematician, was born at Borovsk on the 26th of May 1821. 
He was educated at the university of Moscow, and in 1859 
became professor of mathematics in the university of St Peters- 
burg, a position from which he retired in 1880. He was chosen 
a correspondent of the Institute of France in i860, and succeeded 
to the high honour of associi Mr anger in 1874. He was also a 
foreign member of the Royal Society of London. After N. I. 
Lobachevskiy he probably ranks as the most distinguished 
mathematician Russia has produced. In 1841 he published a 
valuable paper, " Sur la convergence de la serie de Taylor," in 
Crelle's Journal. His best-known papers, however, deal with 
prime numbers; in one of these ("Sur les nombres premiers," 
1850) he established the existence of limits within which must 
be comprised the sum of the logarithms of the primes inferior 
to a given number. Another question to which he devoted much 
attention was that of obtaining rectilinear motion by linkage. 
The parallel motion known by his name is a three-bar linkage, 
which gives a very close approximation to exact rectilinear 
motion, but in spite of all his efforts he failed to devise one that 
produced absolutely true rectilinear motion. At last, indeed, he 
came to the conclusion that to do so was impossible, and in that 
conviction set to work to find a rigorous proof of the impossibility. 
While he was engaged on this task the desired linkage, which 
moved the highest admiration of J. J. Sylvester, was discovered 
and exhibited to him by one of his pupils, named Lipkin, who, 
however, it was afterwards found, had been anticipated by 
A. Peaucellier. Chebiche'v further constructed an instrument 
for drawing large circles, and an arithmetical machine with 
continuous motion. His mathematical writings, which account 
for some forty entries in the Royal Society's catalogue of scien- 
tific papers, cover a wide range of subjects, such as the theory of 
probabilities, quadratic forms, theory of integrals, gearings, the 
construction of geographical maps, &c. He also published a 
Traite de la theorie des nombres. He died at St Petersburg on 
the 8th of December 1894. 

CHEBOYGAN, a city and the county-seat of Cheboygan 
county, Michigan, U.S.A., on South Channel (between Lakes 
Michigan and Huron), at the mouth of Cheboygan river, in the 
N. part of the lower peninsula. Pop. (1890) 6235; (1900) 
6489, of whom 2101 were foreign-born; (1004) 6730; (1910) 
6859. It is served by the Michigan Central and the Detroit & 
Mackinac railways, and by steamboat lines to Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, Detroit, Sault Ste Marie, Green Bay and other lake 
ports; and is connected by ferry with Mackinac and Pointe aux 
Pins. During a great part of the year small boats ply between 
Cheboygan and the head of Crooked Lake, over the " Inland 
Route." Cheboygan is situated in a fertile farming region, for 



which it is a trade centre, and it has lumber mills, tanneries, 
paper mills, boiler works, and other manufacturing establish- 
ments. The water-works are owned and operated by the munici- 
pality. The city, at first called Duncan, then Inverness, and 
finally Cheboygan, was settled in 1846, incorporated as a village 
in 1 87 1, reincorporated in 1877, and chartered as a city in 

CHECHENZES, Tchetchen, or Khists (Kisti), the last being 
the name by which they are known to the Georgians, a people 
of the eastern Caucasus occupying the whole of west Paghestan. 
They call themselves Nakhtche, " people." A wild, fierce people, 
they fought desperately against Russian aggression in the 18th 
century under Daud Beg and Oman Khan and Shamyl, and in 
the 19th under Khazi-Mollah, and even now some are inde- 
pendent in the mountain districts. On the surrender of the 
chieftain Shamyl to Russia in 1859 numbers of them migrated 
into Armenia. In physique the Chechenzes resemble the Cir- 
cassians, and have the same haughtiness of carriage. They are 
of a generous temperament, very hospitable, but quick to re- 
venge. They are fond of fine clothes, the women wearing rich 
robes with wide, pink silk trousers, silver bracelets and yellow 
sandals. Their houses, however, are mere hovels, some dug 
out of the ground, others formed of boughs and stones. Before 
their subjection to Russia they were remarkable for their inde- 
pendence of spirit and love of freedom. Everybody was equal, 
and they had no slaves except prisoners of war. Government 
in each commune was by popular assembly, and the adminis- 
tration of justice was in the hands of the wronged. Murder and 
robbery with violence could be expiated only by death, unless 
the criminal allowed his hair to grow and the injured man 
consented to shave it himself and take an oath of brotherhood 
on the Koran. Otherwise the law of vendetta was fully carried 
out with curious details. The wronged man, wrapped in a white 
woollen shroud, and carrying a coin to serve as payment to a 
priest for saying the prayers for the dead, started out in search 
of his enemy. When the offender was found he must fight to a 
finish. A remarkable custom among one tribe is that if a 
betrothed man or woman dies on the eve of her wedding, the 
marriage ceremony is still performed, the dead being formally 
united to the living before witnesses, the father, in case it is the 
girl who dies, never failing to pay her dowry. The religion of 
the Chechenzes is Mahommedanism, mixed, however, with 
Christian doctrines and observances. Three churches near Kistin 
in honour of St George and the Virgin are visited as places of 
pilgrimage, and rams are there offered as sacrifices. The 
Chechenzes number upwards of 200,000. They speak a distinct 
language, of which there are said to be twenty separate dialects. 

See Ernest Chanter, Recherches anthropologiques dans le Caucase 
(Lyon, 1885-1887) ; D. G. Brinton, Races of Man (1890) ; Hutchinson, 
Living Races of Mankind (London, 1901). 

CHECKERS, the name by which the game of draughts (q.v.) 
is known in America. The origin of the name is the same as that 
of " chess " {q.v.). 

CHEDDAR, a small town in the Wells parliamentary division 
of Somersetshire, England, 22 m. S.W. of Bristol by a branch 
of the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 1975. The town, 
with its Perpendicular church and its picturesque market-cross, 
lies below the south-western face of the Mendip Hills, which rise 
sharply from 600 to 800 ft. To the west stretches the valley of 
the river Axe, broad, low and flat. A fine gorge opening from 
the hills immediately upon the site of the town is known as 
Cheddar cliffs from the sheer walls which flank it; the contrast 
of its rocks and rich vegetation, and the falls of a small stream 
traversing it, make up a beautiful scene admired by many 
visitors. Several stalactitical caverns are also seen, and pre- 
historic British and Roman relics discovered in and near them 
are preserved in a small museum. The two caverns most fre- 
quently visited are called respectively Cox's and Gough's; in 
each, but especially in the first, there is a remarkable collection 
of fantastic and beautiful stalactitical forms. There are other 
caverns of greater extent but less beauty, but their extent is not 
completely explored. The remains discovered in the caves give 

evidence of British and Roman settlements at Cheddar (Cedre, 
Chedare), which was a convenient trade centre. The manor of 
Cheddar was a royal demesne in Saxon times, and the witenage- 
mot was held there in 966 and 968. It was granted by John in 
1 204 to Hugh, archdeacon of Wells, who sold it to the bishop of 
Bath and Wells in 1229, whose successors were overlords until 
I SS3> when the bishop granted it to the king. It is now owned 
by the marquis of Bath. By a charter of 1 23 1 extensive liberties 
in the manor of Cheddar were granted to Bishop Joceline, who 
by a charter of 1235 obtained the right to hold a weekly market 
and fair. By a charter of Edward III. (1337) Cheddar was 
removed from the > king's forest of Mendip. The market wag 
discontinued about 1690. Fairs are now held on the 4th of May 
and the 29th of October under the original grants. The name 
of Cheddar is given to a well-known species of cheese (see Dairy), 
the manufacture of which began in the 17th century in the 
town and neighbourhood. 

CHEDUBA, or Man-aung, an island in the Bay of Bengal, 
situated 10 m. from the coast of Arakan, between 18° 40' and 
18 56' N. lat., and between 93 31' and 93 50' E. long. It 
forms part of the Kyaukpyu district of Arakan. It extends 
about 20 m. in length from N. to S., and 17 m. from E. to W., 
and its area of 220 sq. m. supports a population of 26,899 (in 
1901). The channel between the island and the mainland is 
navigable for boats, but not for large vessels. The surface of the 
interior is richly diversified by hill and dale, and in the southern 
portion some of the heights exceed a thousand feet in elevation. 
There are various indications of former volcanic activity, and 
along the coast are earthy cones covered with green-sward, from 
which issue springs of muddy water emitting bubbles of gas. 
Copper, iron and silver ore have been discovered; but the 
island is chiefly noted for its petroleum wells, the. oil derived 
from which is of excellent quality, and is extensively used in the 
composition of paint, as it preserves wood from the ravages of 
insects. Timber is not abundant, but the gamboge tree and 
the wood-oil tree are found of a good size. Tobacco, cotton, 
sugar-cane, hemp and indigo are grown, and the staple article 
is rice, which is of superior quality, and the chief article of export. 
The inhabitants of the island are mainly Maghs. Cheduba fell 
to the Burmese in the latter part of the 18th century. From 
them it was captured in 1824 by the British, whose possession 
of it was confirmed in 1826 by the treaty concluded with the 
Burmese at Yandaboo. 

CHEERING, the uttering or making of sounds encouraging, 
stimulating or exciting to action, indicating approval of acclaim- 
ing or welcoming persons, announcements of events and the 
like. The word " cheer " meant originally face, countenance, 
expression, and came through the O. Fr. into Mid. Eng. in the 
13th century from the Low Lat. cara, head; this is generally 
referred to the Gr. /capa. Cara is used by the 6th-century poet 
Flavius Cresconius Corippus, " Postquam venere verendam 
Caesaris ante caram " (In Laudem Justini Minoris). " Cheer " 
was at first qualified with epithets, both of joy and gladness and 
of sorrow; compare " She thanked Dyomede for alle ... his 
gode chere " (Chaucer, Troylus) with " If they sing . . . 'tis 
with so dull a cheere " (Shakespeare, Sonnets, xcvii.). An early 
transference in meaning was to hospitality or entertainment, 
and hence to food and drink, " good cheer." The sense of a 
shout of encouragement or applause is a late use. Defoe {Captain 
Singleton) speaks of it as a sailor's word, and the meaning does 
not appear in Johnson. Of the different words or rather sounds 
that are used in cheering, " hurrah," though now generally 
looked on as the typical British form of cheer, is found in various 
forms in German, Scandinavian, Russian (urd), French (houra). 
It is probably onomatopoeic in origin; some connect it with 
such words as " hurry," " whirl "; the meaning would then be 
" haste," to encourage speed or onset in battle. The English 
" hurrah " was preceded by " huzza," stated to be a sailor's 
word, and generally connected with " heeze," to hoist, probably 
being one of the cries that sailors use when hauling or hoisting. 
The German hoch, seen in full in hoch lebe der Kaiser, &c, the 
French vive, Italian and Spanish viva, ewiva, are cries rather 



of acclamation than encouragement. The Japanese shout 
banzai became familiar during the Russo-Japanese War. In 
reports of parliamentary and other debates the insertion of 
" cheers " at any point in a speech indicates that approval was 
shown by members of the House by emphatic utterances of 
" hear hear." Cheering may be tumultuous, or it may be 
conducted rhythmically by prearrangement, as in the case of 
the " Hip-hip-hip " by way of introduction to a simultaneous 
" hurrah." 

Rhythmical cheering has been developed to its greatest 
extent in America in the college yells, which may be regarded as 
a development of the primitive war-cry; this custom has no 
real analogue at English schools and universities, but the New 
Zealand football team in 1907 familiarized English crowds at 
their matches with a similar sort of war-cry adopted from the 
Maoris. In American schools and colleges there is usually one 
cheer for the institution as a whole and others for the different 
classes. The oldest and simplest are those of the New England 
colleges. The original yells of Harvard and Yale are identical 
in form, being composed of rah (abbreviation of hurrah) nine 
times repeated, shouted in unison with the name of the university 
at the end. The Yale cheer is given faster than that of Harvard. 
Many institutions have several different yells, a favourite 
variation being the name of the college shouted nine times in a 
slow and prolonged manner. The best known of these variants 
is the Yale cheer, partly taken from the Frogs of Aristophanes, 
which runs thus: 

" Brekekekex, ko-ax, ko-ax, 
Brekekekex, ko-ax, ko-ax, 
O-op, O-op, parabalou, 
Yale, Yale, Yale, 

Rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, rah, rah. 
Yale! Yale! Yale!" 

The regular cheer of Princeton is: 

" H'ray, h'ray, h'ray, tiger, 
Siss, boom, ah; Princeton!" 

This is expanded into the " triple cheer ": 
" H'ray, h'ray, h'ray, 
Tiger, tiger, tiger, 
Siss, siss, siss, 
Boom, boom, boom, 
Ah, ah, ah, 
Princeton, Princeton, Princeton ! " 

The " railroad cheer " is like the foregoing, but begun very 
slowly and broadly, and gradually accelerated to the end, which 
is enunciated as fast as possible. Many cheers are formed 
like that of Toronto University: 

" Varsity, varsity, 
V-a-r-s-i-t-y (spelled) 
VARSIT-Y (spelled staccato) 
Rah, rah, rah ! " 

Another variety of yell is illustrated by that of the School 
of Practical Science of Toronto University: 

" Who are we ? Can't you~guess ? 
We are from the S.P.S. ! " 

The cheer of the United States Naval Academy is an imita- 
tion of a nautical syren. The Amherst cheer is: 

" Amherst ! Amherst ! Amherst ! Rah ! Rah ! 
Amherst ! Rah ! Rah ! 
Rah ! Rah ! Rah ! Rah ! Rah ! Rah ! Amherst !" 

Besides the cheers of individual institutions there are some 
common to all, generally used to compliment some successful 
athlete or popular professor. One of the oldest examples of 
these personal cheers is : 

" Who was George Washington? 
First in war, 
First in peace, 
First in the hearts of his countrymen," 

followed by a stamping on the floor in the same rhythm. 

College yells are used particularly at athletic contests. In 
any large college there are several leaders, chosen by the students, 
who stand in front and call for the different songs and cheers, 

directing with their arms in the fashion of an orchestral con- 
ductor. This cheering and singing form one of the distinctive 
features of inter-collegiate and scholastic athletic contests in 

CHEESE (Lat. caseus), a solidified preparation from milk, the 
essential constituent of which is the proteinous or nitrogenous 
substance casein. All cheese contains in addition some proportion 
of fatty matter or butter, and in the more valuable varieties the 
butter present is often greater in amount than the casein. Cheese 
being thus^a compound substance of no definite composition is 
found in commerce of many different varieties and qualities; 
and such qualities are generally recognized by the names of the 
localities in which they are manufactured. The principal dis- 
tinctions arise from differences in the composition and condition 
of the milk operated upon, from variations in the method of 
preparation and curing, and from the use of the milk of other 
animals besides the cow, as, for example, the goat and the ewe, 
from the milk of both of which cheese is manufactured on a 
commercial scale. For details about different cheeses and cheese- 
making, see Dairy. From the Urdu chiz ("thing") comes the 
slang expression " the cheese," meaning " the perfect thing," 
apparently from Anglo-Indian usage. 

A useful summary of the history and manufacture of all sorts of 
cheeses, under their different names, is given in Bulletin 105 of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry (United States Dep. of Agriculture), 
Varieties of Cheese, by C. F. Doane and H. W. Lawson (Washington, 

CHEESE CLOTH, the name given to cloth, usually made from 
flax or tow yarns, of an open character, resembling a fine riddle 
or sieve, used for wrapping cheese. A finer quality and texture 
is made for women's gowns. A similar cloth is used for inside 
linings in the upholstery trade, and for the ground of embroidery. 

CHEETA (Chita), or Hunting-Leopard (Cynaelurus jubatus, 
formerly known as Gueparda jubata), a member of the family 
Felidae, distinguished by its claws being only partially retractile 
(see Carnivora). The cheeta attains a length of 3 to 4 ft.; 
it is of a pale fulvous colour, marked with numerous spots of 
black on the upper surface and sides, and is nearly white beneath. 
The fur is somewhat crisp, altogether lacking the sleekness which 
characterizes the fur of the typical cats, and the tail is long and 
somewhat bushy at the extremity. In confinement the cheeta 
soon becomes fond of those who are kind to it, and gives evidence 
of its attachment in an open, dog-like manner. The cheeta is 
found throughout Africa and southern Asia, and has been em- 
ployed for centuries in India and Persia in hunting antelopes 
and other game. According to Sir W. Jones, this mode of 
hunting originated with Hushing, king of Persia, 865 B.C., and 
afterwards became so popular that certain of the Mongol 
emperors were in the habit of being accompanied in their sport- 
ing expeditions by a thousand hunting leopards. In prosecuting 
this sport at the present day the cheeta is conveyed to the field 
in a low car without sides, hooded and chained like hunting- 
birds in Europe in the days of falconry. When a herd of deer 
or antelopes is seen, the car, which bears a close resemblance to 
the ordinary vehicles used by the peasants, is usually brought 
within 200 yds. of the game before the latter takes alarm; the 
cheeta is then let loose and the hood removed from its eyes. No 
sooner does it see the herd, than dropping from the car on the side 
remote from it sprey, it approaches stealthily, making use of 
whatever means of concealment the nature of the ground permits, 
until observed, when making a few gigantic bounds, it generally 
arrives in the midst of the herd and brings down its victim with 
a stroke of its paw. The sportsman then approaches, draws off 
a bowl of the victim's blood, and puts it before the cheeta, which 
is again hooded and led back to the car. Should it not succeed 
in reaching the herd in the first few bounds, it makes no further 
effort to pursue, but retires seemingly dispirited to the car. In 
Africa the cheeta is only valued for its skin, which is worn by 
chiefs and other people of rank. It should be added that in 
India the name cheeta (chita) is applied also to the leopard. 

CHEFFONIER, properly Chiffonier, a piece of furniture 
differentiated from the sideboard by its smaller size and by the 


enclosure of the whole of the front by doors. Its name (which 
comes from the French for a rag-gatherer) suggests that it was 
originally intended as a receptacle for odds and ends which had 
no place elsewhere, but it now usually serves the purpose of a 
sideboard. It is a remote and illegitimate descendant of the 
cabinet; it has rarely been elegant and never beautiful. It was 
one of the many curious developments of the mixed taste, at 
once cumbrous and bizarre, which prevailed in furniture during 
the Empire period in England. The earliest cheffoniers date 
from that time; they are usually of rosewood — the favourite 
timber of that moment; their " furniture " (the technical name 
for knobs, handles and escutcheons) was most commonly of 
brass, and there was very often a raised shelf with a pierced brass 
gallery at the back. The doors were well panelled and often 
edged with brass-beading, while the feet were pads or claws, or, 
in the choicer examples, sphinxes in gilded bronze. Cheffoniers 
are still made in England in cheap forms and in great number. 

CHEH-KIANG, an eastern province of China, bounded N. by 
the province of Kiang-su, E. by the sea, S. by the province of 
Fu-kien, and W. by the provinces of Kiang-si and Ngan-hui. 
It occupies an area of about 36,000 sq. m., and contains a popu- 
lation of 11,800,000. With the exception of a small portion of 
the great delta plain, which extends across the frontier from the 
province of Kiang-su, and in which are situated the famous 
cities of Hu Chow, Ka-hing, Hang-chow, Shao-Sing and Ning-po, 
the province forms a portion of the Nan-shan of south-eastern 
China, and is hilly throughout. The Nan-shan ranges run 
through the centre of the province from south-west to north- 
east, and divide it into a northern portion, the greater part of 
which is drained by the Tsien-t'ang-kiang, and a southern 
portion which is chiefly occupied by the Ta-chi basin. The 
valleys enclosed between the mountain ranges are numerous, 
fertile, and for the most part of exquisite beauty. The hilly 
portion of the province furnishes large supplies of tea, and in the 
plain which extends along the coast, north of Ning-po, a great 
quantity of silk is produced. In minerals the province is poor. 
Coal and iron are occasionally met with, and traces of copper 
ore are to be found in places, but none of these minerals exists 
in sufficiently large deposits to make mining remunerative. The 
province, however, produces cotton, rice, ground-nuts, wheat, 
indigo, tallow and beans in abundance. The principal cities 
are Hang-chow, which is famed for the beauty of its surroundings, 
Ning-po, which has been frequented by foreign ships ever since 
the Portuguese visited it in the 16th century, and Wenchow. 
Opposite Ning-po, at a distance of about 50 m., lies the island of 
Chusan, the largest of a group bearing that general name. This 
island is 21 m. long, and about 50 m. in circumference. It is 
very mountainous, and is surrounded by numerous islands and 
islets. On its south side stands the walled town of Ting-hai, 
in front of which is the principal harbour. The population is 
returned as 50,000. 

CHEKE, SIR JOHN (1514-1557), English classical scholar, 
was the son of Peter Cheke, esquire-bedell of Cambridge Univer- 
sity. He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, where 
he became a fellow in 1529. While there he adopted the prin- 
ciples of the Reformation. His learning gained him an exhibition 
from the king, and in 1540, on Henry VIII. 's foundation of the 
regius professorships, he was elected to the chair of Greek. 
Amongst his pupils at St John's were Lord Burghley, who married 
Cheke's sister Mary, and Roger Ascham, who in The School- 
master gives Cheke the highest praise for scholarship and 
character. Together with Sir Thomas Smith, he introduced 
a new method of Greek pronunciation very similar to that com- 
monly used in England in the 19th century. It was strenuously 
opposed in the University, where the continental method 
prevailed, and Bishop Gardiner, as chancellor, issued a decree 
against it (June 1542); but Cheke ultimately triumphed. On 
the 10th of July 1554, he was chosen as tutor to Prince Edward, 
and after his pupil's accession to the throne he continued his in- 
structions. Cheke took a fairly active share in public life; he 
sat, as member for Bletchingley, for the parliaments of 1 547 and 
ISS2-ISS3; he was made provost of King's College, Cambridge 


(April 1, 1548), was one of the commissioners for visiting that 
university as well as Oxford and Eton, and was appointed with 
seven divines to draw up a body of laws for the governance 
of the church. On the nth of October 1551 he was knighted; 
in 1553 he was made one of the secretaries of state, and sworn 
of the privy council. His zeal for Protestantism induced him 
to follow the duke of Northumberland, and he filled the office 
of secretary of state for Lady Jane Grey during her nine days' 
reign. In consequence Mary threw him into the Tower (July 27, 
J553), and confiscated his wealth. He was, however, released 
on the 13th of September 1554, and granted permission to travel 
abroad. He went first to Basel, then visited Italy, giving 
lectures in Greek at Padua, and finally settled at Strassburg, 
teaching Greek for his living. In the spring of 1556 he visited 
Brussels to see his wife; on his way back, between Brussels and 
Antwerp, he and Sir Peter Carew were treacherously seized 
(May 1 5) by order of Philip of Spain, hurried over to England, 
and imprisoned in the Tower. Cheke was visited by two priests 
and by Dr John Feckenham, dean of St Paul's, whom he had 
formerly tried to convert to Protestantism, and, terrified by a 
threat of the stake, he gave way and was received into the Church 
of Rome by Cardinal Pole, being cruelly forced to make two 
public recantations. Overcome with shame, he did not long sur- 
vive, but died in London on the 13th of September 1557, carry- 
ing, as T. Fuller says {Church History), " God's pardon and all 
good men's pity along with him." About 1547 Cheke married 
Mary, daughter of Richard Hill, sergeant of the wine-cellar to 
Henry VIII., and by her he had three sons. The descendants 
of one of these, Henry, known only for his translation of an 
Italian morality play Freewyl (Tragedio del Liber Arbitrio) by 
Nigri de Bassano, settled at Pyrgo in Essex. 

Thomas Wilson, in the epistle prefixed to his translation of the 
Olynthiacs of Demosthenes (1570), has a long and most interesting 
eulogy of Cheke; and Thomas Nash, in To the Gentlemen Students, 
prefixed to Robert Greene's Menaphon (1589), calls him " the 
Exchequer of eloquence, Sir Ihon Cheke, a man of men, super- 
naturally traded in all tongues." Many of Cheke's works are still 
in MS., some have been altogether lost. One of the most interesting 
from a historical point of view is the Hurt of Sedition how greueous 
it is to a Communewelth (1549), written on the occasion of Ket's 
rebellion, republished in 1569, 1576 and 1641, on the last occasion 
with a life of the author by Gerard Langbaine. Others are D. 
Joannis Chrysostomi homiliae duae (1543), D. Joannis Chrysostomi de 
procidentia Dei (1545), The Gospel according to St Matthew . . . 
translated (c. 1550; ed. James Goodwin, 1843), De obilu Martini 
Buceri (1551), (Leo VI. 's) de Apparatu bellico (Basel, 1554; but 
dedicated to Henry VIII., 1544), Carmen Heroicum, aut epitaphium 
in Antonium Deneium (1551), De pronuntiatione Graecae . . . linguae 
(Basel, 1555). He also translated several Greek works, and lectured 
admirably upon Demosthenes. 

His Life was written by John Strype (1821); additions by J. 
Gough Nichols in Archaeologia (i860), xxxviii. 98, 127. 

CHELLIAN, the name given by the French anthropologist 
G. de Mortillet to the first epoch of the Quaternary period when 
the earliest human remains are discoverable. The word is 
derived from the French town Chelles in the department of 
Seine-et-Marne. The climate of the Chellian epoch was warm 
and humid as evidenced by the wild growth of fig-trees and 
laurels. The animals characteristic of the epoch are the Elepkas 
antiquus, the rhinoceros, the cave-bear, the hippopotamus and 
the striped hyaena. Man existed and belonged to the Neander- 
thal type. The implements characteristic of the period are flints 
chipped into leaf-shaped forms and held in the hand when used. 
The drift-beds of St Acheul (Amiens) , of Menchecourt (Abbeville) , 
of Hoxne (Suffolk) , and the detrital laterite of Madras are con- 
sidered by de Mortillet to be synchronous with the Chellian beds. 

See Gabriel de Mortillet, Le Prehistorique (1900) ; Lord Avebury, 
Prehistoric Times (1900). % 

1878), lord chancellor of England, was the third son of Charles 
Thesiger, and was born in London on the 15th of April 1794. 
His father, collector of customs at St Vincent's, was the son of 
a Saxon gentleman who had migrated to England and become 
secretary to Lord Rockingham, and was the brother of Sir 
Frederic Thesiger, naval A.D.C. to Nelson at Copenhagen. 
Young Frederic Thesiger was originally destined for a naval 



career, and he served as a midshipman on board the " Cambrian " 
frigate in 1807 at the second bombardment of Copenhagen. His 
only surviving brother, however, died about this time, and he 
became entitled to succeed to a valuable estate in the West 
Indies, so it was decided that he should leave the navy and 
study law, with a view to practising in the West Indies and 
eventually managing his property in person. Another change 
of fortune, however, awaited him, for a volcano destroyed the 
family estate, and he was thrown back upon his prospect of a 
legal practice in the West Indies. He proceeded to enter at 
Gray's Inn in 18 13, and was called on the .18th of November 
1818, another change in his prospects being brought about by 
the strong advice of Godfrey Sykes, a special pleader in whose 
chambers he had been a pupil, that he should remain to try his 
fortune in England. He accordingly joined the home circuit, 
and soon got into good practice at the Surrey sessions, while he 
also made a fortunate purchase in buying the right to appear 
in the old palace court (see Lord Steward). In 1824 he dis- 
tinguished himself by his defence of Joseph Hunt when on his 
trial at Hertford with John Thurtell for the murder of Wm. 
Weare; and eight years later at Chelmsford assizes he won a 
hard-fought action in an ejectment case after three trials, to 
which he attributed so much of his subsequent success that when 
he was raised to the peerage he assumed the title Lord Chelms- 
ford. In 1834 he was made king's counsel, and in 1835 was 
briefed in the Dublin election inquiry which unseated Daniel 
O'Connell. In 1840 he was elected M.P. for Woodstock. In 
1844 he became solicitor-general, but having ceased to enjoy 
the favour of the duke of Marlborough, lost his seat for Wood- 
stock and had to find another at Abingdon. In 1845 he became 
attorney-general, holding the post until the fall of the Peel 
administration on the 3rd of July 1846. Thus by three days 
Thesiger missed being chief justice of the common pleas, for on 
the 6th of July Sir Nicholas Tindal died, and the seat on the 
bench, which would have been Thesiger's as of right, fell to 
the Liberal attorney-general, Sir Thomas Wilde. Sir Frederic 
Thesiger remained in parliament, changing his seat, however, 
again in 1852, and becoming member for Stamford. During 
this period he enjoyed a very large practice at the bar, being 
employed in many causes cMebres. On Lord Derby coming into 
office for the second time in 1858, Sir Frederic Thesiger was 
raised straight from the bar to the lord chancellorship (as were 
Lord Brougham, Lord Selborne and Lord Halsbury). In the 
following year Lord Derby resigned and his cabinet was broken 
up. Againin 1866, on Lord Derby cominginto office for the third 
time, Lord Chelmsford became lord chancellor for a short period. 
In 1868 Lord Derby retired, and Disraeli, who took his place as 
prime minister, wished for Lord Cairns as lord chancellor. Lord 
Chelmsford was very sore at his supersession and the manner 
of it, but, according to Lord Malmesbury he retired under a 
compact made before he took office. Ten years later Lord 
Chelmsford died in London on the 5th of October 1878. Lord 
Chelmsford had married in 1822 Anna Maria Tinling. He left 
four sons and three daughters, of whom the eldest, Frederick 
Augustus, 2nd Baron Chelmsford (1827-1905), earned distinction 
as a soldier, while the third, Alfred Henry Thesiger (183 8- 1880) 
was made a lord justice of appeal and a privy councillor in 1877, 
at the early age of thirty-nine, but died only three years later. 

See Lives of the Chancellors (1908), by J. B. Atlay, who has had the 
advantage of access to an unpublished autobiography of Lord 

CHELMSFORD, a market town and municipal borough, and 
the county town of Essex, England, in the Chelmsford parlia- 
mentary division, 30 m. E.N.E. from London by the Great 
Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 12,580. It is situated in the 
valley of the Chelmer, at the confluence of the Cann, and has 
communication by the river with Maldon and the Blackwater 
estuary n m. east. Besides the parish church of St Mary, a 
graceful Perpendicular edifice, largely rebuilt, the town has 
a grammar school founded by Edward VI., an endowed charity 
school and a museum. It is the seat of the county assizes and 
quarter sessions, and has a handsome shire hall; the county gaol 

is near the town. Its corn and cattle markets are among the 
largest in the county; for the first a fine exchange is provided. 
In the centre of the square in which the corn exchange is situated 
stands a bronze statue of Lord Chief-Justice Tindal (1776-1846), 
a native of the parish. There are agricultural implement and 
iron foundries, large electric light and engineering works, 
breweries, tanneries, makings and extensive corn mills. There 
is a race-course 2 m. south of the town. The borough is under 
a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area 2308 acres. 

A place of settlement since Palaeolithic times, Chelmsford 
(Chilmersford, Chelmeresford, Chelmesfard) owed its importance 
to its posi on on the road from London to Colchester. It con- 
sisted of two manors: that of Moulsham, which remained in the 
possession of Westminster Abbey from Saxon times till the reign 
of Henry VIII., when it was granted to Thomas Mildmay; and 
that of Bishop's Hall, which was held by the bishops of London 
from the reign of Edward the Confessor to 1545, when it passed 
to the crown and was granted to Thomas Mildmay in 1563. The 
medieval history of Chelmsford centred round the manor of 
Bishop's Hall. Early in the 12th century Bishop Maurice built 
the bridge over the Chelmer which brought the road from London 
directly through the town, thus making it an important stopping- 
place. The town was not incorporated until 1888. In 1225 
Chelmsford was made the centre for the collection of fifteenths 
from the county of Essex, and in 1227 it became the regular seat 
of assizes and quarter-sessions. Edward I. confirmed Bishop 
Richard de Gravesend in his rights of frank pledge in Chelmsford 
in 1290, and in 1395 Richard II. granted the return of writs to 
Bishop Robert de Braybroke. In 1377 writs were issued for the 
return of representatives from Chelmsford to parliament, but 
no return of members has been found. In n 99 the bishop 
obtained the grant of a weekly market at the yearly rent of one 
palfrey, and in 1201 that of an annual fair, now discontinued, 
for four days from the feast of St Philip and St James. 

CHELSEA, a western metropolitan borough of London, 
England, bounded E. by the city of Westminster, N.W. by 
Kensington, S.W. by Fulham, and S. by the river Thames. 
Pop. (1901) 73,842. Its chief thoroughfare is Sloane Street, 
containing handsome houses and good shops, running south from 
Knightsbridge to Sloane Square. Hence King's Road leads 
west, a wholly commercial highway, named in honour of Charles 
II., and recalling the king's private road from St James's Palace 
to Fulham, which was maintained until the reign of George IV. 
The main roads south communicate with the Victoria or Chelsea, 
Albert and Battersea bridges over the Thames. The beautiful 
Chelsea embankment, planted with trees and lined with fine 
houses and, in part, with public gardens, stretches between 
Victoria and Battersea bridges. The better residential portion 
of Chelsea is the eastern, near Sloane Street and along the river; 
the western, extending north to Fulham Road, is mainly a poor 

Chelsea, especially the riverside district, abounds in historical 
associations. At Cealchythe a synod was held in 785. A 
similar name occurs in a Saxon charter of the nth century and 
in Domesday; in the 16th century it is Chelcith. The later 
termination ey or ea was associated with the insular character of 
the land, and the prefix with a gravel bank (ceosol; cf. Chesil 
Bank, Dorsetshire) thrown up by the river; but the early 
suffix hythe is common in the meaning of a haven. The manor 
was originally in the possession of Westminster Abbey, but its 
history is fragmentary until Tudor times. It then came into 
the hands of Henry VIII., passed from him to his wife Catharine 
Parr, and thereafter had a succession of owners, among whom 
were the Howards, to whom it was granted by Queen Elizabeth, 
and the Cheynes, from whom it was purchased in 171 2 by Sir 
Hans Sloane, after which it passed to the Cadogans. The 
memorials which crowd the picturesque church and churchyard 
of St Luke near the river, commonly known as the Old Church, 
to a great extent epitomize the history of Chelsea. Such are 
those of Sir Thomas More (d. 1535); Lord Bray, lord of the 
manor (1539), his father and son; Lady Jane Guyldeford, 
duchess of Northumberland, who died " at her maner of Chelse " 



in 1555! Lord and Lady Dacre (1594-1595); Sir John Lawrence 
(1638)-, Lady Jane Cheyne (1698); Francis Thomas, "director 
of the china porcelain manufactory, Lawrence Street, Chelsea " 
(1770); Sir Hans Sloane (1753); Thomas Shadwell, poet 
laureate (1602); Woodfall the printer of Junius (1844), and 
many others. More's tomb is dated 1532, as he set it up himself, 
though it is doubtful whether he lies beneath it. His house was 
near the present Beaufort Street. In the 18th and 19th centuries 
Chelsea, especially the parts about the embankment and Cheyne 
Walk, was the home of many eminent men, particularly of 
writers and artists, with whom this pleasant quarter has long 
been in favour. Thus in the earlier part of the period named, 
Atterbury and Swift lived in Church Lane, Steele and Smollett 
in Monmouth House. Later, the names of Turner, Rossetti, 
Whistler, Leigh Hunt, Carlyle (whose house in Cheyne Row 
is preserved as a public memorial), Count D'Orsay, and Isambard 
Brunei, are intimately connected with Chelsea. At Lindsey 
House Count Zinzendorf established a Moravian Society (c. 1750). 
Sir Robert Walpole's residence was extant till 1810; and till 1824 
the bishops of Winchester had a palace in Cheyne Walk. Queen's 
House, the home of D. G. Rossetti (when it was called Tudor 
House), is believed to take name from Catharine of Braganza. 

Chelsea was noted at different periods for two famous places 
of entertainment, Ranelagh (q.v.) in the second half of the 18th 
century, and Cremorne Gardens (q.v.) in the middle of the 19th. 
Don Saltero's museum, which formed the attraction of a popular 
coffee-house, was formed of curiosities from Sir Hans Sloane's 
famous collections. It was Sloane who gave to the Apothecaries' 
Company the ground which they had leased in 1673 for the 
Physick Garden, which is still extant, but ceased in 1902 to be 
maintained by the Company. At Chelsea Sir John Danvers 
(d. 1655) introduced the Italian style of gardening which was 
so greatly admired by Bacon and soon after became prevalent 
in England. Chelsea was formerly famous for a manufacture 
of buns; the original Chelsea bun-house, claiming royal patron- 
age, stood until 1839, and one of its successors until 1888. The 
porcelain works existed for some 25 years before 1769, when 
they were sold and removed to Derby. Examples of the original 
Chelsea ware (see Ceramics) are of great value. 

Of buildings and institutions the most notable is Chelsea 
Royal Hospital for invalid soldiers, initiated by Charles II. 
(according to tradition on the suggestion of Nell Gwynne), and 
opened in 1694. The hospital itself accommodates upwards of 
500 men, but a system of out-pensioning was found necessary 
from the outset, and now relieves large numbers throughout 
the empire. The picturesque building by Wren stands in exten- 
sive grounds, which include the former Ranelagh Gardens. A 
theological college (King James's) formerly occupied the site; 
it was founded in 1610 and was intended to be of great size, but 
the scheme was unsuccessful, and only a small part of the build- 
ings was erected. In the vicinity are the Chelsea Barracks 
(not actually in the borough). The Royal Military Asylum for 
boys, commonly called the Duke of York's school, founded in 
1801 by Frederick, duke of York, for the education of children 
connected with the army, was removed in 1909 to new quarters 
at Dover. Other institutions are the Whitelands training 
college for school-mistresses, in which Ruskin took deep interest; 
the St Mark's college for school-masters; the Victoria and the 
Cheyne hospitals for children, a cancer hospital, the South- 
western polytechnic, and a public library containing an excellent 
collection relative to loqal history. 

The parliamentary borough of Chelsea returns one member, 
and includes, as a detached portion, Kensal Town, north of 
Kensington. The borough council consists of a mayor, 6 alder- 
men and 36 councillors. Area, 659-6 acres. 

CHELSEA, a city of Suffolk county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 
a suburb of Boston. Pop. (1890) 27,909; (1900) 34,072, of 
whom 11,203 were foreign-born; (1910) 32,452. It is situ- 
ated on a peninsula between the Mystic and Chelsea rivers, 
and Charlestown and East Boston, and is connected with 
East Boston and Charlestown by bridges. It is served by the 
Boston & Maine and (for freight) by the Boston & Albany 

railways. The United States maintains here naval and marine 
hospitals, and the state a soldiers' home. Chelsea's interests 
are primarily industrial. The value of the city's factory products 
in 1905 was $13,879,159, the principal items being rubber and 
elastic goods ($3,635,211) and boots and shoes ($2,044,250.) 
The manufacture of stoves, and of mucilage and paste are 
important industries. Flexible tubing for electric wires (first 
made at Chelsea 1889) and art tiles are important products. 
The first settlement was established in 1624 by Samuel Maverick 
(c. 1602-c. 1670), the first settler (about 1629) of Noddle's 
Island (or East Boston), and one of the first slave-holders in 
Massachusetts; a loyalist and Churchman, in 1664 he was 
appointed with three others by Charles II. on an important 
commission sent to Massachusetts and the other New England 
colonies (see Nicorxs, Richard), and spent the last years of 
his life in New York. Until 1739, under the name of Winnisim- 
met, Chelsea formed a part of Boston, but in that year it was 
made a township; it became a city in 1857. In May 1775 a 
British schooner in the Mystic defended by a force of marines 
was taken by colonial militia under General John Stark and 
Israel Putnam, — one of the first conflicts of the War of Inde- 
pendence. A terrible fire swept the central part of the city on 
the 1 2th of April 1908. 

See Mellen Chamberlain (and others), History of Chelsea(2 vols., 
Boston, 1908), published by the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

CHELTENHAM, a municipal and parliamentary borough of 
Gloucestershire, England, 109 m. W. by N. of London by the 
Great Western railway; served also by the west and north 
line of the Midland railway. Pop. (1901) 49,439. The town is 
well situated in the valley of the Chelt, a small tributary of the 
Severn, under the high line of the Cotteswold Hills to the east, 
and is in high repute as a health resort. Mineral springs were 
accidentally discovered in 1716. The Montpellier and Pittville 
Springs supply handsome pump rooms standing in public 
gardens, and are the property of the corporation. The Mont- 
pellier waters are sulphated, and are valuable for their diuretic 
effect, and as a stimulant to the liver and alimentary canal. The 
alkaline-saline waters of Pittville are efficacious against diseases 
resulting from excess of uric acid. The parish church of St Mary 
dates from the 14th century, but is almost completely modern- 
ized. The town, moreover, is wholly modern in appearance. 
Assembly rooms opened in 181 5 by the duke of Wellington were 
removed in 1901. A new town hall, including a central spa and 
assembly rooms, was opened in 1903. There are numerous other 
handsome buildings, especially in High Street, and the Promen- 
ade forms a beautiful broad thoroughfare, lined with trees. 
The town is famous as an educational centre. Cheltenham 
College (1842) provides education for boys in three departments, 
classical, military and commercial; and includes a preparatory 
school. The Ladies' College (1854), long conducted by Miss 
Beale (q.v.), is one of the most successful in England. The 
Normal Training College was founded in 1846 for the training 
of teachers, male and female, in national and parochial schools. 
A free grammar school was founded in 1568 by Richard Pate, 
recorder of Gloucester. The art gallery and museum may be 
mentioned also. The parliamentary borough returns one 
member. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen 
and 18 councillors. Area, 4726 acres. The urban district of 
Charlton Kings (pop. 3806) forms a south-eastern suburb of 

The site of a British village and burying-ground, Cheltei ham 
(Celtanhomme, Chiltham, Chelteham) was a village with a church 
in 803. The manor belonged to the crown; it was granted to 
Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford, late in the 12th century, but 
in 1 199 was exchanged for other lands with the king. It was 
granted to William de Longespee, earl of Salisbury, in 12 19, but 
resumed on his death and granted in dower to Eleanor of Pro- 
vence in 1243. In 1252 the abbey of Fecamp purchased the 
manor, and it afterwards belonged to the priory of Cormeille, 
but was confiscated in 1415 as the possession of an alien priory, 
and was granted in 146 1 to the abbey of Lyon, by which it was 
held until, once more returning to the crown at the Dissolution, 



it was granted to the family of Dutton. The town is first men- 
tioned in 1223, when William de Longespee leased the benefit 
of the markets, fairs and hundred of Cheltenham to the men of 
the town for three years; the lease was renewed by Henry III. 
in 1226, and again in 1230 for ten years. A market town in the 
time of Camden, it was governed by commissioners from the 
18th century in 1876, when it was incorporated; it became a 
parliamentary borough in 183 2. Henry III. in 1 230 had granted 
to the men of Cheltenham a market on each Thursday, and a fair 
on the vigil, feast and morrow of St James. Although Camden 
mentions a considerable trade in malt, the spinning of woollen 
yarn was the only industry in 1779. After the discovery of 
springs in 1 7 1 6, and the erection of a pump-room in 1 738, Chelten- 
ham rapidly became fashionable, the visit of George III. and the 
royal princesses in 1788 ensuring its popularity. 

SeeS. Moreau, A Tour to Cheltenham Spa (Bath, 1738). 

CHELYABINSK, a town of Russia, in the Orenburg govern- 
ment, at the east foot of the Urals, is the head of the Siberian 
railway, 624 m. by rail E.N.E. of Samara and 154 m. by rail 
S.S.E. of Ekaterinburg. Pop. (1900) 25,505. It has tanneries 
and distilleries, and is the centre of the trade in corn and pro- 
duce of cattle for the Ural iron-works. The town was founded 
in 1658. 

CHELYS (Gr. x^ w . tortoise; Lat. testudo), the common lyre 
of the ancient Greeks, which had a convex back of tortoise- 
shell or of wood shaped like the shell. The word chelys was used 
in allusion to the oldest lyre of the Greeks which was said to 
have been invented by Hermes. According to tradition he was 
attracted by sounds of music while walking on the banks of the 
Nile, and found they proceeded from the shell of a tortoise across 
which were stretched tendons which the wind had set in vibration 
(Homeric Hymn to Hermes, 47-51). The word has been applied 
arbitrarily since classic times to various stringed instruments, 
some bowed and some twanged, probably owing to the back 
being much vaulted. Kircher (Musurgia, i. 486) applied the 
name of chelys to a kind of viol with eight strings. Numerous 
representations of the chelys lyre or testudo occur on the Greek 
vases, in which the actual tortoiseshell is depicted; a good illus- 
tration is given in Le AntichitA di Ercolano (vol. i. pi. 43). Pro- 
pertius (iv. 6) calls the instrument the lyra testudinea. Scaliger 
(on Manilius, Astronomicon, Proleg. 420) was probably the first 
writer to draw attention to the difference, between chelys and 
cithara (q.v.). (K. S.) 

CHEMICAL ACTION, the term given to any process in which 
change in chemical composition occurs. Such processes may be 
set up by the application of some form of energy (heat, light, 
electricity, &c.) to a substance, or by the mixing of two or more 
substances together. If two or more substances be mixed one of 
three things may occur. First, the particles may be mechani- 
cally intermingled, the degree of association being dependent 
upon the fineness of the particles, &c. Secondly, the substances 
may intermolecularly penetrate, as in the case of gas-mixtures 
and solutions. Or thirdly they may react chemically. The 
question whether, in any given case, we have to deal with a 
physical mixture or a chemical compound is often decided by 
the occurrence of very striking phenomena. To take a simple 
example: — oxygen and hydrogen are two gases which may be 
mixed in all proportions at ordinary temperatures, and it is easy 
to show that the properties of the products are simply those of 
mixtures of the two free gases. If, however, an electric spark 
be passed through the mixtures, powerful chemical union ensues, 
with its concomitants, great evolution of heat and consequent 
rise of temperature, and a compound, water, is formed which 
presents physical and chemical properties entirely different from 
those of its constituents. 

In general, powerful chemical forces give rise to the evolution 
of large quantities of heat, and the properties of the resulting sub- 
stance differ vastly more from those of its components than is the 
case with simple mixtures. This constitutes a valuable criterion 
as to whether mere mixture is involved on the one hand, or strong 
chemical union on the other. When, however, the chemical 
forces are weak and the reaction, being incomplete, leads to a 

state of chemical equilibrium, in which all the reacting substances 
are present side by side, this criterion vanishes. For example, the 
question whether a salt combines with water molecules when 
dissolved in water cannot be said even yet to be fully settled, 
and, although there can be no doubt that solution is, in many 
cases, attended by chemical processes, still we possess as yet no 
means of deciding, with certainty, how many molecules of 
water have bound themselves to a single molecule of the dissolved 
substance (solute) . On the other hand, we possess exact methods 
of testing whether gases or solutes in dilute solution react one 
with another and of determining the equilibrium state which is 
attained. For if one solute react with another on adding the 
latter to its solution, then corresponding to the decrease of its 
concentration there must also be a decrease of vapour pressure, 
and of solubility in other solvents; further, in the case of a 
mixture of gases, the concentration of each single constituent 
follows from its solubility in some suitable solvent. We thus 
obtain the answer to the question: whether the concentration 
of a certain constituent has decreased during mixing, i.e. whether 
it has reacted chemically. 

When a compound can be obtained in a pure state, analysis 
affords us an important criterion of its chemical nature, for 
unlike mixtures, the compositions of which are always variable 
within wider or narrower limits, chemical compounds present 
definite and characteristic mass-relations, which find full expres- 
sion in the atomic theory propounded by Dal ton (see Atom). 
According to this theory a mixture is the result of the mutual 
interpenetration of the molecules of substances, which remain 
unchanged as such, whilst chemical union involves changes more 
deeply seated, inasmuch as new molecular species appear. 
These new substances, if well-defined chemical compounds, have 
a perfectly definite composition and contain a definite, generally 
small, number of elementary atoms, and therefore the law of 
constant proportions follows at once, and the fact that only an 
integral number of atoms of any element may enter into the 
composition of any molecule determines the law of multiple 

These considerations bring us face to face with the task of 
more closely investigating the nature of chemical 
forces, in other words, of answering the question: Nature of 
what forces guide the atoms in the formation of a new fy^^" 1 
molecular species? This problem is still far from 
being completely answered, so that a few general remarks must 
suffice here. 

It is remarkable that among the most stable chemical com- 
pounds, we find combinations of atoms of one and the same 
element. Thus, the stability of the di-atomic molecule N2 is 
so great, that no trace of dissociation has yet been proved even 
at the highest temperatures, and as the constituent atoms of the 
molecule N 2 must be regarded as absolutely identical, it is clear 
that " polar " forces cannot be the cause of all chemical action. 
On the other hand, especially powerful affinities are also 
at work when so-called electro-positive and electro-negative 
elements react. The forces which here come into play appear to 
be considerably greater than those just mentioned; for instance, 
potassium fluoride is perhaps the most stable of all known 

It is also to be noticed that the combinations of the electro- 
negative elements (metalloids) with one another exhibit a 
metalloid character, and also we find, in the mutual combinations 
of metals, all the characteristics of the metallic state; but in 
the formation of a salt from a metal and a metalloid we have an 
entirely new substance, quite different from its components; 
and at the same time, the product is seen to be an electrolyte, 
i.e. to have the power of splitting up into a positively and a 
negatively charged constituent when dissolved in some solvent. 
These considerations lead to the conviction that forces of a 
" polar " origin play an important part here, and indeed we may 
make the general surmise that in the act of chemical combination 
forces of both a non-polar and polar nature play a part, and that 
the latter are in all probability identical with the electric forces. 

It now remains to be asked — what are the laws which govern 



the action of these forces? This question is of fundamental 
importance, since it leads directly to those laws which regulate 
the chemical process. Besides the already mentioned funda- 
mental law of chemical combination, that of constant and 
multiple proportions, there is the law of chemical mass-action, 
discovered by Guldberg and Waage in 1867, which we will now 
develop from a kinetic standpoint. 

Kinetic Basis of the Law of Chemical Mass-action. — We will 
assume that the molecular species A 1; A 2 , . . . A'i, A' 2 , . . . 
are present in a homogeneous system, where they can react on 
each other only according to the scheme 

A 1 +A 2 + ...^±A' 1 +A' 2 + ...; 
this is a special case of the general equation 

»iAi+»2A 2 +. . . ^± re'iA'i+re' 2 A' 2 +. . ., 
in which only one molecule of each substance takes part in the 
reaction. The reacting substances may be either gaseous or 
form a liquid mixture, or be dissolved in some selected solvent; 
but in each case we may state the following considerations 
regarding the course of the reaction. For a transformation to 
take place from left to right in the sense of the reaction equation, 
all the molecules A 1; A 2 , . . . must clearly collide at one point; 
otherwise no reaction is possible, since we shall not consider 
side-reactions. Such a collision need not of course bring about 
that transposition of the atoms of the single molecules which 
constitutes the above reaction. Much rather must it be of such 
a kind as is favourable to that loosening of the bonds that bind 
the atoms in the separate molecules, which must precede this 
transposition. Of a large number of such collisions, therefore, 
only a certain smaller number will involve a transposition from 
left to right in the sense of the equation. But this number will 
be the same under the same external conditions, and the greater 
the more numerous the collisions; in fact a direct ratio must 
exist between the two. Bearing in mind now, that the number 
of collisions must be proportional to each of the concentrations 
of the bodies A x , A 2 , . . ., and therefore, on the whole, to the 
product of all these concentrations, we arrive at the conclusion 
that the velocity v of the transposition from left to right in the 
sense of the reaction equation is v=kc t c 2 . . ., in which c\, c 2 , 
. . . represent the spatial concentrations, i.e. the number of 
gram-molecules of the substances Ai, A 2 , . . . present in one 
litre, and k is, at a given temperature, a constant which may be 
called the velocity-coefficient. 

Exactly the same consideration applies to the molecules 
A'i, A' 2 . . . Here the velocity of the change from right to 
left in the sense of the reaction-equation increases with the 
number of collisions of all these molecules at one point, and this 
is proportional to the product of all the concentrations. If 
k! denotes the corresponding proportionality-factor, then the 
velocity v' of the change from right to left in the sense of the 
reaction-equation is v'~k'd\di . . . These spatial concentra- 
tions are often called the " active masses " of the reacting com- 
ponents. Hence the reaction-velocity in the sense of the reaction- 
equation from left to right, or the reverse, is proportional to the 
product of the " active-masses " of the left-hand or right-hand 
components respectively. 

Neither v nor v' can be separately investigated, and the 
measurements of the course of a reaction always furnish only 
the difference of these two quantities. The reaction- 
chemlcaJ velocity actually observed represents the difference 
statics. of these two partial reaction-velocities, whilst the 
amount of change observed during any period of time 
is equal to the change in the one direction, minus the change in 
the opposite direction. It must not be assumed, however, that 
on the attainment of equilibrium all action has ceased, but 
rather that the velocity of change in one direction has become 
equal to that in the opposite direction, with the result that no 
further total change can be observed, i.e. the system has reached 
equilibrium, for which the relation v— v' = o must therefore hold, 
or what is the same thing 

kcid . . . = k'c'ic'n . . . ; 
this is the fundamental law of chemical statics. 

The conception that the equilibrium is not to be attributed 
to absolute indifference between the reacting bodies, but that 
these continue to exert their mutual actions undiminished and 
the opposing changes now balance, is of fundamental significance 
in the interpretation of changes of matter in general. This is 
generally expressed in the form: the equilibrium in this and 
other analogous cases is not static but dynamic. This conception 
was a direct result of the kinetic-molecular considerations, and 
was applied with special success to the development of the kinetic 
theory of gases. Thus with Clausius, we conceive the equilibrium 
of water- vapour with water, not as if neither water vaporized 
nor vapour condensed, but rather as though the two processes 
went on unhindered in the equilibrium state, i.e. during contact 
of saturated vapour with water, in a given time, as many water 
molecules passed through the water surface in one direction as 
in the opposite direction. This view, as applied to chemical 
changes, was first advanced by A. W. Williamson (1851), and 
further developed by C. M. Guldberg and P. Waage and 

From the previous considerations it follows that the reaction- 
velocity at every moment, i.e. the velocity with 
which the chemical process advances towards the chemical 
equilibrium state, is given by the equation kinetics. 

V=v—v' = kciCi. . . —k'c'yc'i. . . ; 

this states the fundamental law of chemical kinetics. 

The equilibrium equation is simply a special case of this more 
general one, and results when the total velocity is written 
zero, just as in analytical mechanics the equilibrium conditions 
follow at once by specialization of the general equations of 

No difficulty presents itself in the generalization of the previous 
equations for the reaction which proceeds after the scheme 

MiAi+wA-t- . . . =w'iA'i+n' 2 A' 2 -|- .... 

where ti\, w 2 , . . ., n\, n\, . . . denote the numbers of molecules 
of the separate substances which take part in the reaction, and 
are therefore whole, mostly small, numbers (generally one or 
two, seldom three or more). Here as before, v and v' are to be 
regarded as proportional to the number of collisions at one point 
of all molecules necessary to the respective reaction, but now n\ 
molecules of Ai, « 2 molecules of A 2 , &c, must collide for the 
reaction to advance from left to right in the sense of the equation ; 
and similarly n\ molecules of A'i, n'% molecules of A' 2 , &c, 
must collide for the reaction to proceed in the opposite direction. 
If we consider the path of a single, arbitrarily chosen molecule 
over a certain time, then the number of its collisions with other 
similar molecules will be proportional to the concentration C 
of that kind of molecule to which it belongs. The number of 
encounters between two molecules of the kind in question, during 
the same time, will be in general C times as many, i.e. the number 
of encounters of two of the same molecules is proportional to 
the square of the concentration C; and generally, the number 
of encounters of n molecules of one kind must be regarded as 
proportional to the nth power of C, i.e. O. 

The number of collisions of n\ molecules of A 1( w 2 molecules 
of A 2 ... is accordingly proportional to Ci'CJ 2 . . . , and the 
reaction-velocity corresponding to it is therefore 


and similarly the opposed reaction-velocity is 

the resultant reaction-velocity, being the difference of these 
two partial velocities, is therefore 

V-r-u'-K^C? ^ ~, 

This is the most general expression of the law of chemical mass- 
action, for the case of homogeneous systems. 

Equating V to zero, we obtain the equation for the equilibrium 
state, viz. 

C"'C^ . . . /C[ n ''Cj"' 2 ...» klk' = K ; 

K is called the " equilibrium-constant." 

-&'C' ni C'"' 2 



These formulae hold for gases and for dilute solutions, but 
assume the system to be homogeneous, i.e. to be either a homo- 
Limita- geneous gas-mixture or a homogeneous dilute solution. 
tions and The case in which other states of matter share in the 
applies- equilibrium permits of simple treatment when the 
th"/aws substances in question may be regarded as pure, and 
consequently as possessing definite vapour-pressures 
or solubilities at a given temperature. In this case the molecular 
species in question, which is, at the same time, present in excess 
and is hence usually, called a Bodenkorper, must possess a constant 
concentration in the gas-space or solution. But since the left- 
hand side of the last equation contains only variable quantities, 
it is simplest and most convenient to absorb these constant 
concentrations into the equilibrium-constant; whence we have 
the rule: leave the molecular species present as Bodenkorper 
out of account, when determining the concentration-product. 
Guldberg and Waage expressed this in the form " the active 
mass of a solid substance is constant." The same is true of 
liquids when these participate in the pure state in the equilibrium, 
and possess therefore a definite vapour-pressure or solubility. 
When, finally, we are not dealing with a dilute solution but with 
any kind of mixture whatever, it is simplest to apply the law 
of mass-action to the gaseous mixture in equilibrium with this. 
The composition of the liquid mixture is then determinable 
when the vapour-pressures of the separate components are 
known. This, however, is not often the case; but in principle 
this consideration is important, since it involves the possibility 
of extending the law of chemical mass-action from ideal gas- 
mixtures and dilute solutions, for which it primarily holds, to 
any other system whatever. 

The more recent development of theoretical chemistry, as 
well as the detailed study of many chemical processes which 
have found technical application, leads more and more con- 
vincingly to the recognition that in the law of chemical mass- 
action we have a law of as fundamental significance as the law 
of constant and multiple proportions. It is therefore not without 
interest to briefly touch upon the development of the doctrine 
of chemical affinity. 

Historical Development of the Law of Mass-action. — The theory 
developed by Torbern Olof Bergman in 1775 must be regarded 
as the first attempt of importance to account for the mode of 
action of chemical forces. The essential principle of this may 
be stated as follows: — The magnitude of chemical affinity may 
be expressed by a definite number; if the affinity of the sub- 
stance A is greater for the substance B than for the substance 
C, then the latter (C) will be completely expelled by B from its 
compound with A, in the sense of the equation A-C+B = A-B + C. 
This theory fails, however, to take account of the influence of 
the relative masses of the reacting substances, and had to be 
abandoned as soon as such an influence was noticed. An 
attempt to consider this factor was made by Claude Louis 
Berthollet (1801), who introduced the conception of chemical 
equilibrium. The views of this French chemist may be summed 
up in the following sentence:— Different substances have differ- 
ent affinities for each other, which only come into play on im- 
mediate contact. The condition of equilibrium depends not only 
upon the chemical affinity, but also essentially upon the relative 
masses of the reacting substances. 

Essentially, Berthollet's idea is to-day the guiding principle 
of the doctrine of affinity. This is especially true of our con- 
ceptions of many reactions which, in the sense of Bergman's idea, 
proceed to completion, i.e. until the reacting substances are all 
used up; but only for this reason, viz. that one or more of the 
products of the reaction is removed from the reaction mixture 
(either by crystallization, evaporation or some other process), 
and hence the reverse reaction becomes impossible. Following 
Berthollet's idea, two Norwegian investigators, C. M. Guldberg 
and Peter Waage, succeeded in formulating the influence of the 
reacting masses in a simple law — the law of chemical mass-action 
already defined. The results of their theoretical and experi- 
mental studies were published at Christiania in 1867 (Uttudes sur 
les affiniUs chimiques); this work marks a new epoch in the 

history of chemistry. Even before this, formulae to describe tht 
progress of certain chemical reactions, which must be regarded 
as applications of the law of mass-action, had been put forward 
by Ludwig Wilhelmy (1850), and by A. G. Vernon-Harcourt 
and William Esson (1856), but the service of Guldberg and 
Waage in having grasped the law in its full significance and 
logically applied it in all directions, remains of course un- 
diminished. Their treatise remained quite unknown; and so 
it happened that John Hewitt Jellett (1873), J. H. van't Hoff 
(1877), and others independently developed the same law. 
The thermodynamic basis of the law of mass-action is primarily 
due to Horstmann, J. Willard Gibbs and van't Hoff. 

Applications. — Let us consider, as an example of the appli- 
cation of the law of mass-action, the case of the dissociation of 
water-vapour, which takes place at high temperatures in the 
sense of the equation 2H 2 = 2H 2 +0 2 . Representing the con- 
centrations of the corresponding molecular species by [H2], &c, 
the expression [Hj 2 [0 2 ]/[H 2 0] 2 must be constant at any given 
temperature. This shows that the dissociation is set back by 
increasing the pressure; for if the concentrations of all three 
kinds of molecules be increased by strong compression, say to 
ten times the former amounts, then the numerator is increased 
one thousand, the denominator only one hundred times. Hence 
if the original equilibrium-constant is to hold, the dissociation 
must go back, and, what is more, by an exactly determinable 
amount. At 2000 C. water-vapour is only dissociated to the 
extent of a few per cent; therefore, even when only a small 
excess of oxygen or hydrogen be present, the numerator in the 
foregoing expression is much increased, and it is obvious that in 
order to restore the equilibrium state, the concentration of the 
other component, hydrogen or oxygen as the case may be, must 
diminish. In the case of slightly dissociated substances, there- 
fore, even a relatively small excess of one component is sufficient 
to set back the dissociation substantially. 

Chemical Kinetics. — It has been already mentioned that the 
law of chemical mass-action not only defines the conditions for 
chemical equilibrium, but contains at the same time the prin- 
ciples of chemical kinetics. The previous considerations show 
indeed that the actual progress of the reaction is determined by 
the difference of the reaction-velocities in the one and the other 
(opposed) direction, in the sense of the corresponding reaction- 
equation. Since the reaction- velocity is given by the amount of 
chemical change in a small interval of time, the law of chemical 
mass-action supplies a differential equation, which, when in- 
tegrated, provides formulae which, as numerous experiments 
have shown, very happily summarize the course of the reaction. 
For the simplest case, in which a single species of molecule under- 
goes almost complete decomposition, so that the reaction- 
velocity in the reverse direction may be neglected, we have the 
simple equation 

dxldt = k{a-x), 
and if x — o when (=owe have by integration 
k=H\o S {a/(a-x)}. 

We will now apply these conclusions to the theory of the 
ignition of an explosive gas-mixture, and in particular to the 
combustion of " knallgas " (a mixture of hydrogen Theory a! 
and oxygen) to water-vapour. At ordinary tempera- expio- 
tures knallgas undergoes practically no change, and s,ve COt 
it might be supposed that the two gases, oxygen and us oa ' 
hydrogen, have no affinity for each other. This conclusion, 
however, is shown to be incorrect by the observation that it is 
only necessary to add some suitable catalyst such as platinum- 
black in order to immediately start the reaction. We must 
therefore conclude that even at ordinary temperatures strong 
chemical affinity is exerted between oxygen and hydrogen, but 
that at low temperatures this encounters great frictional resist- 
ances, or in other words that the reaction-velocity is very small. 
It is a matter of general experience that the resistances which 
the chemical forces have to overcome diminish with rising 
temperature, i.e. the reaction-velocity increases with temperature. 
Therefore, when we warm the knallgas, the number of collisions 
of oxygen and hydrogen molecules favourable to the formation 



of water becomes greater and greater, until at about 500° the 
gradual formation of water is observed, while at still higher 
temperatures the reaction-velocity becomes enormous. We 
are now in a position to understand what is the result of a strong 
'ocal heating of the knallgas, as, for example, by an electric spark. 
The strongly heated parts of the knallgas combine to form 
water-vapour with great velocity and the evolution of large 
amounts of heat, whereby the adjacent parts are brought to a 
high temperature and into a state of rapid reaction, i.e. we 
observe an ignition of the whole mixture. If we suppose the 
knallgas to be at a, very high temperature, then its combustion 
will be no longer complete owing to the dissociation of water- 
vapour, whilst at extremely high temperatures it would practi- 
cally disappear. Hence it is clear that knallgas appears to be 
stable at low temperatures only because the reaction-velocity 
is very small, but that at very high temperatures it is really 
stable, since no chemical forces are then active, or, in other 
words, the chemical affinity is very small. 

The determination of the question whether the failure of 
some reaction is due to an inappreciable reaction-velocity or to 
absence of chemical affinity, is of fundamental importance, and 
only in the first case can the reaction be hastened by catalysts. 

Many chemical compounds behave like knallgas. Acetylene 
is stable at ordinary temperatures, inasmuch as it only decom- 
poses slowly; but at the same time it is explosive, for the 
decomposition when once started is rapidly propagated, on 
account of the heat evolved by the splitting up of the gas into 
carbon and hydrogen. At very high temperatures, however, 
acetylene acquires real stability, since carbon and hydrogen 
then react to form acetylene. 

Many researches have shown that the combustion of an 
inflammable gas-mixture which is started at a point, e.g. by an 
electric spark, may be propagated in two essentially 
waves. "' different ways. The characteristic of the slower 
combustion consists in this, viz. that the high tempera- 
ture of the previously ignited layer spreads by conduction, 
thereby bringing the adjacent layers to the ignition-temperature; 
the velocity of the propagation is therefore conditioned in the 
first place by the magnitude of the conductivity for heat, and 
more particularly, in the second place, by the velocity with 
which a moderately heated layer begins to react chemically, 
and so to rise gradually in temperature, i.e. essentially by the 
change of reaction-velocity with temperature. A second 
entirely independent mode of propagation of the combustion 
lies at the basis of the phenomenon that an explosive gas-mixture 
can be ignited by strong compression or — more correctly — by 
the rise of temperature thereby produced. The increase of the 
concentrations of the reacting substances consequent upon this 
increase of pressure raises the reaction-velocity in accordance 
with the law of chemical mass-action, and so enormously favours 
the rapid evolution of the heat of combustion. 

It is therefore clear that such a powerful compression-wave 
can not only initiate the combustion, but also propagate it with 
extremely high velocity. Indeed a compression-wave of this 
kind passes through the gas-mixture, heated by the combustion 
to a very high temperature. It must, however, be propagated 
considerably faster than an ordinary compression-wave, for 
the result of ignition in the compressed (still unburnt) layer is 
the production of a very high pressure, which must in accordance 
with the principles of wave-motion increase the velocity of 
propagation. The absolute velocity of the explosion-wave 
would seem, in the light of these considerations, to be susceptible 
of accurate calculation. It is at least clear that it must be 
considerably higher than the velocity of sound in the mass of 
gas strongly heated by the explosion, and this is confirmed by 
actual measurements (see below) which show that the velocity 
of the explosion-wave is from one and a half times to double 
that of sound-waves at the combustion temperature. 

We are now in a position to form the following picture of the 
processes which follow upon the ignition of a combustible gas- 
mixture contained in a long tube. First we have the condition 
of slow combustion; the heat is conveyed by conduction to the 

adjacent layers, and there follows a velocity of propagation of 
a few metres per second. But since the combustion is accom- 
panied by a high increase of pressure, the adjacent, still unburnt 
layers are simultaneously compressed, whereby the reaction- 
velocity increases, and the ignition proceeds faster. This 
involves still greater compression of the next layers, and so if 
the mixture be capable of sufficiently rapid combustion, the 
velocity of propagation of the ignition must continually increase. 
As soon as the compression in the still unburnt layers becomes 
so great that spontaneous ignition results, the now much 
more pronounced compression-waves excited with simultaneous 
combustion must be propagated with very great velocity, i.e. 
we have spontaneous development of an " explosion-wave." 
M.P.E. Berthelot, who discovered the presence of such explosion- 
waves, proved their velocity of propagation to be independent 
of the pressure, the cross-section of the tubes in which the 
explosive gas-mixture is contained, as well as of the material 
of which these are made, and concluded that this velocity is a 
constant, characteristic of the particular mixture. The deter' 
mination of this velocity is naturally of the highest intereot. 

In the following table Berthelot's results are given along with 
the later (1891) concordant ones of H. B. Dixon, the velocities 
of propagation of explosions being given in metres per second. 

Velocity of Wave in 
Metres per second. 



Hydrogen and oxygen, H 2 + O . 
Hydrogen and nitrous oxide, H 2 -j-N 2 
Methane and oxygen, CH 4 +40 
Ethylene „ „ C2H1 + 6O 
Acetylene ,, „ C2H2+5O 
Cyanogen ,, ,, C 2 N 2 -f40 
Hydrogen and chlorine, H2+O2 
, 2H 2 +Cl2 





The maximum pressure of the explosion-wave possesses very 
high values; it appears that a compression of from 1 to 30-40 
atmospheres is necessary to produce spontaneous ignition of 
mixtures of oxygen and hydrogen. But since the heat evolved 
in the path of the explosion causes a rise of temperature of 
2ooo°-3odo°, i.e. a rise of absolute temperature about four 
times that directly following upon the initial compression, we are 
here concerned with pressures amounting to considerably more 
than 100 atmospheres. Both the magnitude of this pressure 
and the circumstance that it so suddenly arises are peculiar to 
the very powerful forces which distinguish the explosion-wave 
from the slow combustion-wave. 

Nascent Stale. — The great reactive power of freshly formed 
or nascent substances (status nascens) may be very simply 
referred to the principles of mass-action. As is well known, 
this phenomenon is specially striking in the case of hydrogen, 
which may therefore be taken as a typical example. The law 
of mass-action affirms the action of a substance to be the greater 
the higher its concentration, or, for a gas, the higher its partial- 
pressure. Now experience teaches that those metals which 
liberate hydrogen from acids are able to supply the latter under 
extremely high pressure, and we may therefore assume that the 
hydrogen which results, for example, from the action of zinc 
upon sulphuric acid is initially under very high pressures which 
are then afterwards relieved. Hence the hydrogen during 
liberation exhibits much more active powers of reduction than 
the ordinary gas. 

A deeper insight into the relations prevailing here is offered 
from the atomistic point of view. From this we are bound to 
conclude that the hydrogen is in the first instance evolved in 
the form of free atoms, and since the velocity of the reaction 
H+H = H 2 at ordinary temperatures, though doubtless very 
great, is not practically instantaneous, the freshly generated 
hydrogen will contain a remnant of free atoms, which are able to 
react both more actively and more rapidly. Similar considera- 
tions are of course applicable to other cases. 

Ion-reactions. — The application of the law of chemical masft 



action is much simplified in the case in which the reaction- 
velocity is enormously great, when practically an instantaneous 
adjustment of the equilibrium results. Only in this case can the 
state of the system, which pertains after mixing the different 
components, be determined merely from knowledge of the 
equilibrium-constant. This case is realized in the reactions 
between gases at very high temperatures, which have, however, 
been little investigated, and especially by the reactions between 
electrolytes, the so-called ion-reactions. In this latter case, 
which has been thoroughly studied on account of its fundamental 
importance for inorganic qualitative and quantitative analysis, 
the degrees of dissociation of the various electrolytes (acids, 
bases and salts) are for the most part easily determined by the 
aid of the freezing-point apparatus, or of measurements of the 
electric conductivity; and from these data the equilibrium- 
constant K may be calculated. Moreover, it can be shown 
that the state of the system can be determined when the equi- 
librium constants of all the electrolytes which are present in the 
common solution are known. If this be coupled with the law 
that the solubility of solid substances, as with vapour-pressures, 
is independent of the presence of other electrolytes, it is sufficient 
to know the solubilities of the electrolytes in question, in order 
to be able to determine which substances must participate in the 
equilibrium in the solid state, i.e. we arrive at the theory of the 
formation and solution of precipitates. 

As an illustration of the application of these principles, we 
shall deal with a problem of the doctrine of affinity, namely, 
that of the relative strengths of acids and bases. It 
of acids was q 11 * 16 an ear ly an d often repeated observation 
and bases, that the various acids and bases take part with very 
varying intensity or avidity in those reactions in 
which their acid or basic nature comes into play. No success 
attended the early attempts at giving numerical expression to 
the strengths of acids and bases, i.e. of finding a numerical 
coefficient for each acid and base, which should be the quantita- 
tive expression of the degree of its participation in those specific 
reactions characteristic of acids and bases respectively. Julius 
Thomsen and W: Ostwald attacked the problem in a far-seeing 
and comprehensive manner, and arrived at indisputable proof 
that the property of acids and bases of exerting their effects 
according to definite numerical coefficients finds expression not 
only in salt-formation but also in a large number of other, and 
indeed very miscellaneous, reactions. 

When Ostwald compared the order of the strengths of acids 
deduced from their competition for the same base, as determined 
by Thomsen's thermo-chemical or his own volumetric method, 
with that order in which the acids arrange themselves according 
to their capacity to bring calcium oxalate into solution, or to 
convert acetamide into ammonium acetate, or to split up 
methyl acetate into methyl alcohol and acetic acid catalytically, 
or to invert cane-sugar, or to accelerate the mutual action of 
hydriodic on bromic acid, he found that in all these well-investi- 
gated and very miscellaneous cases the same succession of acids 
in the order of their strengths is obtained, whichever one of the 
above chemical processes be chosen as measure of these strengths. 
It is to be noticed that all these chemical changes cited took 
place in dilute aqueous solution, consequently the above order 
of acids refers only to the power to react under these circum- 
stances. The order of acids proved to be fairly independent 
of temperature. While therefore the above investigations 
afforded a definite qualitative solution of the order of acids 
according to strengths, the determination of the quantitative 
relations offered great difficulties, and the numerical coefficients, 
determined from the separate reactions, often displayed great 
variations, though occasionally also surprising agreement. 
Especially great were the variations of the coefficients with the 
concentration, and in those cases in which the concentration 
of the acid changed considerably during the reaction, the calcu- 
lation was naturally quite uncertain. Similar relations were 
found in the investigation of bases, the scope of which, however, 
was much more limited. 

These apparently rather complicated relations were now 

cleared up at one stroke, by the application of the law of chemical 
mass-action on the lines indicated by S. Arrhenius in 1887, when 
he put forward the theory of electrolytic dissociation to explain 
that peculiar behaviour of substances in aqueous solution first 
recognized by van't Hoff in r885. The formulae which must 
be made use of here in the calculation of the equilibrium-relations 
follow naturally by simple application of the law of mass-action 
to the corresponding ion-concentrations. 

The peculiarities which the behaviour of acids and bases 
presents, and, according to the theory of Arrhenius, must 
present — peculiarities which found expression in the very early 
distinction between neutral solutions on the one hand, and acid 
or basic ones on the other, as well as in the belief in a polar 
antithesis between the two last — must now, in the light of the 
theory of electrolytic dissociation, be conceived as follows: — 

The reactions characteristic of acids in aqueous solution, 
which are common to and can only be brought about by acids, 
find their explanation in the fact that this class of bodies gives 
rise on dissociation to a common molecular species, namely, the 

positively charged hydrogen-ion (jj). The specific chemical 
actions peculiar to acids are therefore to be attributed to the 
hydrogen-ion just as the actions common to all chlorides are to 
be regarded as those of the free chlorine-ions. In like manner, 
the reactions characteristic of bases in solution are to be attri- 
buted to the negatively charged hydroxyl-ions (oh)i which 
result from the dissociation of this class of bodies. 

A solution has an acid reaction when it contains an excess of 
hydrogen-ions, and a basic reaction when it contains an excess 
of hydroxyl-ions. If an acid and an alkaline solution be brought 
together mutual neutralization must result, since the positive 
H-ions and the negative OH-ions cannot exist together in view 
of the extremely weak conductivity of pure water and its conse- 
quent slight electrolytic dissociation, and therefore they must at 
once combine to form electrically neutral molecules, in the sense 
of the equation + 

H+OH = H 2 0. 
In this lies the simple explanation of the " polar " difference 
between acid and basic solutions. This rests essentially upon the 
fact that the ion peculiar to acids and the ion peculiar to bases 
form the two constituents of water, i.e. of that solvent in which 
we usually study the course of the reaction. The idea of the 
" strength " of an acid or base at once arises. If we compare 
equivalent solutions of various acids, the intensity of those 
actions characteristic of them will be the greater the more free 
hydrogen-ions they contain; this is an immediate consequence 
of the law of chemical mass-action. The degree of electrolytic 
dissociation determines, therefore, the strength of acids, and a 
similar consideration leads to the same result for bases. 

Now the degree of electrolytic dissociation changes with 
concentration in a regular manner, which is given by the law of 
mass-action. For if C denote the concentration of the electrolyte 
and a its degree of dissociation, the above law states that 

C 2 a 2 /C(i -a) = Ca 2 /(i -a) =K. 

At very great dilutions the dissociation is complete, and equiva- 
lent solutions of the most various acids then contain the same 
number of hydrogen-ions, or, in other words, are equally strong; 
and the same is true of the hydroxyl-ions of bases. The dis- 
sociation also decreases with increasing concentration, but at 
different rates for different substances, and the relative 
" strengths " of acids and bases must hence change with concen- 
tration, as was indeed found experimentally. The dissociation- 
constant K is the measure of the variation of the degree of 
dissociation with concentration, and must therefore be regarded 
as the measure of the strengths of acids and bases. So that in 
this special case we are again brought to the result which was 
stated in general terms above, viz. that the dissociation-coefficient 
forms the measure of the reactivity of a dissolved electrolyte. 
Ostwald's series of acids, based upon the investigation of the 
most various reactions, should therefore correspond with the 
order of their dissociation-constants, and further with the 



order of their freezing-point depressions in equivalent solutions, 
since the depression of the freezing-point increases with the 
degree of electrolytic dissociation. Experience confirms this 
conclusion completely. The degree of dissociation of an acid, 
at a given concentration, for which its molecular conductivity 
is A, is shown by the theory of electrolytic dissociation to be 
a.=A/Ao«,; A„, the molecular conductivity at very great dilu- 
tion in accordance with the law of Kohlrausch, is u+v, where 
u and v are the ionic-mobilities (see Conduction, Electric). 
Since u, the ionic-mobility of the hydrogen ion, is generally 
more than ten times as great as v, the ionic-mobility of the 
negative acid-radical, A„ has approximately the same value 
(generally within less than 10 %) for the different acids, and the 
molecular-conductivity of the acids in equivalent concentration 
is at least approximately porportional to the degree of electrolytic 
dissociation, i.e. to the strength. 

In general, therefore, the order of conductivities is identical 
with that in which the acids exert their specific powers. This 
remarkable parallelism, first perceived by Arrhenius and Ostwald 
in 1885, was the happy development which led to the discovery 
of electrolytic dissociation (see Conduction, Electric; and 

Catalysis. — We have already mentioned the fact, early known 
to chemists, that many reactions proceed with a marked increase 
of velocity in presence of many foreign substances. With 
Berzelius we call this phenomenon " catalysis," by which we 
understand that general acceleration of reactions which also 
progress when left to themselves, in the presence of certain 
bodies which do not change in amount (or only slightly) during 
the course of the reaction. Acids and bases appear to act 
catalytically upon all reactions involving consumption or 
liberation of water, and indeed that action is proportional to the 
concentration of the hydrogen or hydroxyl-ions. Further, the 
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is " catalysed " by iodine- 
ions, the condensation of two molecules of benzaldehyde to 
benzoin by cyanogen-ions. One of the earliest known and 
technically most important instances of catalysis is that of the 
oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid by oxygen in the 
presence of oxides of nitrogen. Other well-known and remark- 
able examples are the catalysis of the combustion of hydrogen 
and of sulphur dioxide in oxygen by finely-divided platinum. 
We may also mention the interesting work of Dixon and Baker, 
which led to the discovery that a large number of gas-reactions, 
e.g. the combustion of carbon monoxide, the dissociation of 
sal-ammoniac vapour, and the action of sulphuretted hydrogen 
upon the salts of heavy metals, cease when water-vapour is 
absent, or at least proceed with greatly diminished velocity. 

" Negative catalysis," i.e. the retardation of a reaction by 
addition of some substance, which is occasionally observed, 
appears to depend upon the destruction of a " positive catalyte " 
by the body added. 

A catalyte can have no influence, however, upon the affinity 
of a process, since that would be contrary to the second law of 
thermodynamics, according to which affinity of an isothermal 
process, which is measured by the maximum work, only depends 
upon the initial and final states. The effect of a catalyte is 
therefore limited to the resistances opposing the progress of a 
reaction, and does not influence its driving-force or affinity. 
Since the catalyte takes no part in the reaction its presence has 
no effect on the equilibrium-constant. This, in accordance 
with the law of mass-action, is the ratio of the separate reaction- 
velocities in the two contrary directions. A catalyte must 
therefore always accelerate the reverse-reaction. If the velocity 
of formation of a body be increased by addition of some substance 
then its velocity of decomposition must likewise increase. We 
have an example of this in the well-known fact that the formation, 
and no less the saponification, of esters, proceeds with increased 
velocity in the presence of acids, while the observation that in 
absence of water-vapour neither gaseous ammonium chloride 
dissociates nor dry ammonia combines with hydrogen chloride 
becomes clear on the same grounds. 

A general theory of catalytic phenomena does not at present 

exist. The formation of intermediate products by the action 
of the reacting substance upon the catalyte has often been 
thought to be the cause of these. These intervening products, 
whose existence in many cases has been proved, then split up 
into the catalyte and the reaction-product. Thus chemists 
have sought to ascribe the influence of oxides of nitrogen on the 
formation of sulphuric acid to the initial formation of nitrosyl- 
sulphuric acid, S0 2 (OH)(N0 2 ), from the mixture of sulphur 
dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and air, which then reacted with water 
to form sulphuric and nitrous acids. When the velocity of such 
intermediate reactions is greater than that of the total change, 
such an explanation may suffice, but a more certain proof of this 
theory of catalysis has only been reached in a few cases, though 
in many others it appears very plausible. Hence it is hardly 
possible to interpret all catalytic processes on these lines. 

In regard to catalysis in heterogeneous systems, especially 
the hastening of gas-reactions by platinum, it is very probable 
that it is closely connected with the solution or absorption of the 
gases on the part of the metal. From the experiments of G. 
Bredig it seems that colloidal solutions of a metal act like the 
metal itself. The action of a colloidal-platinum solution on the 
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is still sensible even at a 
dilution of 1/70,000,000 grm.-mol. per litre; indeed the activity 
of this colloidal-platinum solution calls to mind in many ways 
that of organic ferments, hence Bredig has called it an " inorganic 
ferment." This analogy is especially striking in the change of 
their activity with time and temperature, and in the possibility, 
by means of bodies like sulphuretted hydrogen, hydrocyanic 
acid, &c, which act as strong poisons upon the latter, of "poison- 
ing " the former also, i.e. of rendering it inactive. In the case 
of the catalytic action of water-vapour upon many processes 
of combustion already mentioned, a part of the effect is prob- 
ably due to the circumstance, disclosed by numerous experi- 
ments, that the union of hydrogen and oxygen proceeds, 
between certain temperature limits at least, after the equation 
H 2 + 2 = H 2 2 , that is, with the preliminary formation of 
hydrogen peroxide, which then breaks down into water and 
oxygen, and further, above all, to the fact that this substance 
results from oxygen and water at high temperatures with great 
velocity, though indeed only in small quantities. 

The view now suggests itself, that, for example, in the com- 
bustion of carbon monoxide at moderately high temperatures, 
the reaction 

(I.) 2C0+0 2 =2C0 2 

advances with imperceptible speed, but that on the contrary the 
two stages 

(II.) 2H 2 0+0 2 =2H 2 2 , 

(IIL) 2CO+2H 2 2 =2C0 2 +2H 2 0, 

which together result in (I.), proceed rapidly even at moderate 

Temperature and Reaction-Velocity. — There are few natural 
constants which undergo so marked a change with temperature 
as those of the velocities of chemical changes. As a rule a rise 
of temperature of 10° causes a twofold or threefold rise of 
reaction- velocity. 

If the reaction-coefficient k, in the sense of the equation 
derived above, viz. k = t~ 1 log \a/(a-x)}, be determined for the 
inversion of cane-sugar by an acid of given concentration, the 
following values are obtained: — 

Temperature = 25° 40 45 50 55° 
k =97 73 139 268 491; 

here a rise of temperature of only 30 suffices to raise the speed of 
inversion fifty times. 

We possess no adequate explanation of this remarkable 
temperature influence; but some account of it is given by the 
molecular theory, according to which the energy of that motion 
of substances in homogeneous gaseous or liquid systems which 
constitutes heat increases with the temperature, and hence also 
the frequency of collision of the reacting substances. When we 
reflect that the velocity of motion of the molecules of gases, and 
in all probability those of liquids also, are proportional to the 
square root of the absolute temperature, and therefore rise by 



only $ % per degree at room-temperature, and that we must 
assume the number of collisions proportional to the velocity of 
the molecules, we cannot regard the actually observed increase 
of reaction-velocity, which often amounts to 10 or 1 2 % per degree, 
as exclusively due to the quickening of the molecular motion by 
heat. It is more probable that the increase of the kinetic energy 
of the atomic motions within the molecule itself is of significance 
here, as the rise of the specific heat of gases with temperature 
seems to show. The change of the reaction-coefficient k with 
temperature may be represented by the empirical equation 
log £= -AT"" 1 + B + CT, where A, B, C are positive constants. 
For low temperatures the influence of the last term is as a 
rule negligible, whilst for high temperatures the first term on the 
right side plays a vanishingly small part. 

Definition of Chemical Affinity. — We have still to discuss the 
question of what is to be regarded as the measure of chemical 
affinity. Since we are not in a position to measure directly the 
intensity of chemical forces, the idea suggests itself to determine 
the strength of chemical affinity from the amount of the work 
which the corresponding reaction is able to do. To a certain 
extent the evolution of heat accompanying the reaction is a 
measure of this work, and attempts have been made to measure 
chemical affinities thermo-chemically, though it may be easily 
shown that this definition was not well chosen. For when, as is 
clearly most convenient, affinity is so defined that it determines 
under all circumstances the direction of chemical change, the 
above definition fails in so far as chemical processes often take 
place with absorption of heat, that is, contrary to affinities so 
defined. But even in those cases in which the course of the 
reaction at first proceeds in the sense of the evolution of heat, 
it is often observed that the reaction advances not to com- 
pletion but to a certain equilibrium, or, in other words, stops 
before the evolution of heat is complete. 

A definition free from this objection is supplied by the second 
law of thermodynamics, in accordance with which all processes 
must take place in so far as they are able to do external work. 
When therefore we identify chemical affinity with the maximum 
work which can be gained from the process in question, we reach 
such a definition that the direction of the process is under all 
conditions determined by the affinity. Further, this definition 
has proved serviceable in so far as the maximum work in many 
cases may be experimentally measured, and moreover it stands 
in a simple relation to the equilibrium constant K. Thermo- 
dynamics teaches that the maximum work A may be expressed 
as A= RT log K, when R denotes the gas-constant, T the absolute 
temperature. In this it is further assumed that both the mole- 
cular species produced as well as those that disappear are present 
in unit concentration. The simplest experimental method of 
directly determining chemical affinity consists in the measure- 
ment of electromotive force. The latter at once gives us the work 
which can be gained when the corresponding galvanic element 
supplies the electricity, and, since the chemical exchange of one 
gram-equivalent from Faraday's law requires 96,540 coulombs, 
we obtain from the product of this number and the electromotive 
force the work per gram-equivalent in watt-seconds, and this 
quantity when multiplied by 0-23872 is obtained in terms of the 
usual unit, the gram-calorie. Experience teaches that, especially 
when we have to deal with strong affinities, the affinity so deter- 
mined is'for the most part almost the same as the heat-evolution, 
whilst in the case in which only solid or liquid substances in the 
pure state take part in the reaction at low temperatures, heat- 
evolution and affinity appear to possess a practically identical 

Hence it seems possible to calculate equilibria for low tem- 
peratures from heats of reaction, by the aid of the two equations 

A = Q, A = RTlogK; 
and since the change of A with temperature, as required by the 
principles of thermodynamics, follows from the specific heats of 
the reacting substances, it seems further possible to calculate 
chemical equilibria from heats of reaction and specific heats. 
The circumstance that chemical affinity and heat-evolution 
so nearly coincide »t low temperatures may be derived from the 

hypothesis that chemical processes are the result of foice? >ri 
attraction between the atoms of the different elements. If we 
may disregard the kinetic energy of the atoms, and this is 
legitimate for low temperatures, it follows that both heat-evolu- 
tion and chemical affinity are merely equal to the decrease of the 
potential energy of the above-mentioned forces, and it is at once 
clear that the evolution of heat during a reaction between only 
pure solid or pure liquid substances possesses special importance. 

More complicated is the case in which gases or dissolved sub- 
stances take part. This is simplified if we first consider the 
mixing of two mutually chemically indifferent gases. Thermo- 
dynamics teaches that external work may be gained by the mere 
mixing of two such gases (see Diffusion), and these amounts of 
work, which assume very considerable proportions at high 
temperatures, naturally affect the value of the maximum work 
and so also of the affinity, in that they always come into play 
when gases or solutions react. While therefore we regard as 
chemical affinity in the strictest sense the decrease of potential 
energy of the forces acting between the atoms, it is clear that the 
quantities here involved exhibit the simplest relations under the 
experimental conditions just given, for when only substances 
in a pure state take part in a reaction, all mixing of different 
kinds of molecules is excluded; moreover, the circumstance 
that the respective substances are considered at very low tempera- 
tures reduces the quantities of energy absorbed as kinetic 
energy by their molecules to the smallest possible amount. 

Chemical Resistance. — When we know the chemical affinity of 
a reaction, we are in a position to decide in which direction the 
process must advance, but, unless we know the reaction- velocity 
also, we can in many cases say nothing as to whether or not the 
reaction in question will progress with a practically inappreciable 
velocity so that apparent chemical indifference is the result. 
This question may be stated in the light of the law of mass- 
action briefly as follows: — From a knowledge of the chemical 
affinity we can calculate the equilibrium, i.e. the numerical 
value of the constant K = kjk'; but to be completely informed 
of the process we must know not only the ratio of the two 
velocity-constants k and k', but also the separate absolute values 
of the same. 

In many respects the following view is more comprehensive, 
though naturally in harmony with the one just expressed. 
Since the chemical equilibrium is periodically attained, it follows 
that, as in the case of the motion of a body or of the diffusion of 
a dissolved substance, it must be opposed by very great friction. 
In all these cases the velocity of the process at every instant is 
directly proportional to the driving-force and inversely pro- 
portional to the frictional resistance. We hence arrive at the 
result that an equation of the form 

reaction-velocity = chemical force I chemical resistance 
must also hold for chemical change; here we have an analogy 
with Ohm's law. The " chemical force " at every instant may 
be calculated from the maximum work (affinity); as yet little 
is known about " chemical resistance," but it is not improbable 
that it may be directly measured or theoretically deduced. 
The problem of the calculation of chemical reaction-velocity in 
absolute measure would then be solved; so far we possess indeed 
only a few general facts concerning the magnitude of chemical 
resistance. It is immeasurably small at ordinary temperatures 
for ion-reactions, and, on the other hand, fairly large for nearly all 
reactions in which carbon-bonds must be loosened (so-called 
" inertia of the carbon-bond ") and possesses very high values 
for most gas-reactions also. With rising temperature it always 
strongly diminishes; on the other hand, at very low tempera- 
tures its values are always enormous, and at the absolute zero 
of temperature may be infinitely great. Therefore at that 
temperature all reactions cease, since the denominator in the 
above expression assumes enormous values. 

It is a very remarkable phenomenon that the chemical resist- 
ance is often small in the case of precisely those reactions in 
which the affinity is also small; to this circumstance is to be 
traced the fact that in many chemical changes the most stable 
condition is not at once reached, but is preceded by the formation 



of more or less unstable intermediate products. Thus the un- 
stable ozone is very often first formed on the evolution of oxygen, 
whilst in the reaction between oxygen and hydrogen water is 
often not at once formed, but first the unstable hydrogen 
peroxide as an intermediate product. 

Let us now consider the chemical process in the light of the 

reaction-velocity = chemical force/ 'chemical resistance. 

Thermodynamics shows that at very low temperatures, i.e. 
in the immediate vicinity of the absolute zero, there is no 
equilibrium, but every chemical process advances to completion 
in the one or the other direction. The chemical forces therefore 
act in the one direction towards complete consumption of the 
reacting substance. But since the chemical resistance is now 
immensely great, they can produce practically no appreciable 

At higher temperatures the reaction always proceeds, at least 
in homogeneous systems, to a certain equilibrium, and as the 
chemical resistance now has finite values this equilibrium will 
always finally be reached after a longer or shorter time. Finally, 
at very high temperatures the chemical resistance is in every case 
very small, and the equilibrium is almost instantaneously 
reached; at the same time, the affinity of the reaction, as in the 
case of the mutual affinity between oxygen and hydrogen, may 
very strongly diminish, and we have then chemical indifference 
again, not because, as at low temperatures, the denominator 
of the previous expression becomes very great, but because the 
numerator now assumes vanishingly small values. (W. N.) 

CHEMISTRY (formerly "chymistry"; Gr. x^eia; for deri- 
vation see Alchemy), the natural science which has for its pro- 
vince the study of the composition of substances. In common 
with physics it includes the determination of properties or 
characters which serve to distinguish one substance from another, 
but while the physicist is concerned with properties possessed by 
all substances and with processes in which the molecules remain 
intact, the chemist is restricted to those processes in which the 
molecules undergo some change. For example, the physicist 
determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and 
thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c; the chemist, 
on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as 
may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or 
more substances are mixed. A further differentiation of the 
provinces of chemistry and physics is shown by the classifications 
of matter. To the physicist matter is presented in three leading 
forms — solids, liquids and gases; and although further sub- 
divisions have been rendered necessary with the growth of 
knowledge the same principle is retained, namely, a classification 
based on properties having no relation to composition. The 
fundamental chemical classification of matter, on the other 
hand, recognizes two groups of substances, namely, elements, 
which are substances not admitting of analysis into other 
substances, and compounds, which do admit of analysis into 
simpler substances and also of synthesis from simpler substances. 
Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in 
a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, 
which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical 
properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, 
with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular 

It may be convenient here to state how the whole subject of 
chemistry is treated in this edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
The present article includes the following sections: — 

I. History. — This section is confined to tracing the general trend 
of the science from its infancy to the foundations of the modern 
theory. The history of the alchemical period is treated in more 
detail in the article Alchemy, and of the iatrochemical in the article 
Medicine. The evolution of the notion of elements is treated under 
Element; the molecular hypothesis of matter under Molecule; 
and the genesis of, and deductions from, the atomic theory of 
Dalton receive detailed analysis in the article Atom. 

II. Principles. — This section treats of such subjects as nomen- 
clature, formulae, chemical equations, chemical change and similar 
subjects. It is intended to provide an introduction, necessarily 
brief, to the terminology and machinery of the chemist. 

VI. 2 

III. Inorganic Chemistry. — Here is treated "the history of descrip- 
tive inorganic chemistry; reference should be made to the articles 
on the separate elements for an account of their preparation, 
properties, &c. 

IV. Organic Chemistry. — This section includes a brief history of 
the subject, and proceeds to treat of the principles underlying the 
structure and interrelations of organic compounds. 

V. Analytical Chemistry. — This section treats of the qualitative 
detection and separation of the metals, and the commoner methods 
employed in quantitative analysis. The analysis of organic com- 
pounds is also noticed. 

VI. Physical Chemistry.-^This section is restricted to an account 
of the relations existing between physical properties and chemical 
composition. Other branches of this subject are treated in the 
articles Chemical Action; Energetics'; Solution; Alloys; 

I. History 

Although chemical actions must have been observed by man 
in the most remote times, and also utilized in such processes 
as the extraction of metals from their ores and in the arts of 
tanning and dyeing, there is no evidence to show that, beyond 
an unordered accumulation of facts, the early developments of 
these industries were attended by any real knowledge of the 
nature of the processes involved. All observations were the 
result of accident or chance, or possibly in some cases of experi- 
mental trial, but there is no record of a theory or even a general 
classification of the phenomena involved, although there is no 
doubt that the ancients -had a fair knowledge of the properties 
and uses of the commoner substances. The origin of chemistry 
is intimately bound up with the arts which we have indicated; 
in this respect it is essentially an experimental science. A 
unifying principle of chemical and physical changes was provided 
by metaphysical conceptions of the structure of matter. We 
find the notion of " elements," or primary qualities, which 
confer upon all species of matter their distinctive qualities by 
appropriate combination, and also the doctrine that 
matter is composed of minute discrete particles, ohtta- 
prevailing in the Greek schools. These " elements," sophy. 
however, had not the significance of the elements of 
to-day; they connoted physical appearances or qualities rather 
than chemical relations; and the atomic theory of the ancients 
is a speculation based upon metaphysical considerations, having, 
in its origin, nothing in common with the modern molecular 
theory, which was based upon experimentally observed properties 
of gases (see Element; Molecule). 

Although such hypotheses could contribute nothing directly 
to the development of a science which laid especial claim to 
experimental investigations, yet indirectly they stimulated 
inquiry into the nature of the " essence " with which the four 
" elements " were associated. This quinta essentia had been 
speculated upon by the Greeks, some regarding it as immaterial 
or aethereal, and others as material; and a school of philosophers 
termed alchemists arose who attempted the isolation of this 
essence. The existence of a fundamental principle, unalterable 
and indestructible, prevailing alike through physical and chemical 
changes, was generally accepted. Any change which a substance 
may chance to undergo was simply due to the discarding or 
taking up of some proportion of the primary " elements " or 
qualities: of these coverings "water," "air," "earth" and 
" fire " were regarded as clinging most tenaciously to the essence, 
while " cold," " heat," " moistness " and " dryness " were 
more easily cast aside or assumed. Several origins have been 
suggested for the word alchemy, and there seems to Ai c h emy . 
have been some doubt as to the exact nature and 
import of the alchemical doctrines. According to M. P. E. 
Berthelot, " alchemy rested partly on the industrial processes 
of the ancient Egyptians, partly on the speculative theories 
of the Greek philosophers, and partly on the mystical reveries 
of the Gnostics and Alexandrians." The search for this essence 
subsequently resolved itself into the desire to effect the trans- 
mutation of metals, more especially the base metals, into silver 
and gold. It seems that this secondary principle became the 
dominant idea in alchemy, and in this sense the word is used 
in Byzantine literature of the 4th century; Suidas, writing in 





the nth century, defines chemistry as the '" preparation of 
silver and gold " (see Alchemy). 

From the Alexandrians the science passed to the Arabs, 
who made discoveries and improved various methods of separat- 
ing substances, and afterwards, from the nth century, became 
seated in Europe, where the alchemical doctrines were assidu- 
ously studied until the 15th and 16th centuries. It is readily 
understood why men imbued with the authority of tradition 
should prosecute the search for a substance which would 
confer unlimited wealth upon the fortunate discoverer. Some 
alchemists honestly laboured to effect the transmutation and to 
discover the " philosopher's stone," and in many cases believed 
that they had achieved success, if we may rely upon writings 
assigned to them. The period, however, is one of literary 
forgeries; most of the MSS. are of uncertain date and authorship, 
and moreover are often so vague and mystical that they are of 
doubtful scientific value, beyond reflecting the tendencies of 
the age. The retaining of alchemists at various courts shows 
the high opinion which the doctrines had gained. It is really 
not extraordinary that Isaac Hollandus «was able to indicate 
the method of the preparation of the " philosopher's stone " 
from " adamic " or " virgin " earth, and its action when medicin- 
ally employed; that in the writings assigned to Roger Bacon, 
Raimon Lull, Basil Valentine and others are to be found the 
exact quantities of it to be used in transmutation; and that 
George Ripley, in the 15th century, had grounds for regarding 
its action as similar to that of a ferment. 

In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of 
matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents 
were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother 
of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the 
perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the 
forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to 
contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas 
in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different 
colour. From an analogy instituted between the healthy human 
being and gold, the most perfect of the metals, silver, mercury, 
copper, iron, lead and tin, were regarded in the light of lepers 
that required to be healed. 

Notwithstanding the false idea which prompted the researches 
of the alchemists, many advances were made in descriptive 
chemistry, the metals and their salts receiving much 
chemistry, attention, and several of our important acids being 
discovered. Towards the 16th century the failure 
of the alchemists to achieve their cherished purpose, and the 
general increase of medical knowledge, caused attention to be 
given to the utilization of chemical preparations as medicines. 
As early as the 15th century the alchemist Basil Valentine had 
suggested this application, but the great exponent of this 
doctrine was Paracelsus, who set up a new definition: " The 
true use of chemistry is not to make gold but to prepare medi- 
cines." This relation of chemistry to medicine prevailed until 
the 17th century, and what in the history of chemistry is termed 
the iatrochemical period (see Medicine) was mainly fruitful 
in increasing the knowledge of compounds; the contributions 
to chemical theory are of little value, the most important con- 
troversies ranging over the nature of the " elements," which were 
generally akin to those of Aristotle, modified so as to be more 
in accord with current observations. At the same time, 
however, there were many who, opposed to the Paracelsian 
definition of chemistry, still laboured at the problem of the 
alchemists, while others gave much attention to the chemical 
industries. Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting 
and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree 
explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics 
was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as 
an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experi- 
ments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general 
technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber. 1 

1 The more notable chemists of this period were Turquet de 
Mayerne(l 573-1665) , a physician of Paris, who rejected the Galenian 
doctrines and accepted the exaggerations of Paracelsus; Andreas 

The second half of the 17th century witnessed remarkable 
transitions and developments in all branches of natural science, 
and the facts accumulated by preceding generations 
during their generally unordered researches were re- ye ' 

placed by a co-ordination of experiment and deduction. From 
the mazy and incoherent alchemical and iatrochemical doctrines, 
the former based on false conceptions of matter, the latter on 
erroneous views of life processes and physiology, a new science 
arose — the study of the composition of substances. The formula- 
tion of this definition of chemistry was due to Robert Boyle. 
In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing 
scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that 
true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application 
of the principles of experiment and deduction. Boyle's masterly 
exposition of this method is his most important contribution to 
scientific progress. At the same time he clarified the conception 
of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the 
four elements of the " vulgar Peripateticks " and the three 
principles of the " vulgar Stagyrists," and defining an element 
as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound 
as composed of two or more elements. He explained chemical 
combination on the hypotheses that matter consisted of minute 
corpuscles, that by the coalescence of corpuscles of different sub- 
stances distinctly new corpuscles of a compound were formed, and 
that each corpuscle had a certain affinity for other corpuscles. 

Although Boyle practised the methods which he expounded, 
he was unable to gain general acceptance of his doctrine of 
elements; and, strangely enough, the theory which 
next dominated chemical thought was an alchemical th J£jy " 
invention, and lacked the lucidity and perspicuity 
of Boyle's views. This theory, named the phlogistic theory, 
was primarily based upon certain experiments on combustion 
and calcination, and in effect reduced the number of the 
alchemical principles, while setting up a new one, a principle 
of combustibility, named phlogiston (from (jikoyurrbs, burnt). 
Much discussion had centred about fire or the "igneous principle." 
On the one hand, it had been held that when a substance was 
burned or calcined, it combined with an " air "; on the other 
hand, the operation was supposed to be attended by the destruc- 
tion or loss of the igneous principle. Georg Ernst Stahl, following 
in some measure the views held by Johann Joachim Becher, as, 
for instance, that all combustibles contain a " sulphur " (which 
notion is itself of older date than Becher's terra pinguis), regarded 
all substances as capable of resolution into two components, 
the inflammable principle phlogiston, and another element — 
" water," " acid " or " earth." The violence or completeness 
of combustion was proportional to the amount of phlogiston 
present. Combustion meant the liberation of phlogiston. 
Metals on calcination gave calces from which the metals could 
be recovered by adding phlogiston, and experiment showed that 
this could generally be effected by the action of coal or carbon, 
which was therefore regarded as practically pure phlogiston; 
the other constituent being regarded as an acid. At the hands 
of Stahl and his school, the phlogistic theory, by exhibiting a 
fundamental similarity between all processes of combustion 
and by its remarkable flexibility, came to be a general theory 
of chemical action. The objections of the antiphlogistonists, 
such as the fact that calces weigh more than the original metals 
instead of less as the theory suggests, were answered by postulat- 
ing that phlogiston was a principle of levity, or even completely 
ignored as an accident, the change of qualities being regarded 
as the only matter of importance. It is remarkable that this 
theory should have gained the esteem of the notable chemists 
who flourished in the 18th century. Henry Cavendish, a care- 
ful and accurate experimenter, was a phlogistonist, as were 
J. Black, K. W. Scheele, A. S. Marggraf, J. Priestley and many 
others who might be mentioned. 

Libavius (d. 1616), chiefly famous for his Opera Omnia Medico- 
chymica (.1595) ; Jean Baptiste van Helmont (1 577-1644), celebrated 
for his researches on gases ; F. de la Boe Sylvius (1614-1672), who 
regarded medicine as applied chemistry; and Otto Tachenius, who 
elucidated the nature of salts. 




Descriptive chemistry was now assuming considerable pro- 
portions; the experimental inquiries suggested by Boyle were 
, . . being assiduously developed; and a wealth of observa- 
tions was being accumulated, for the explanation of 
which the resources of the dominant theory were sorely taxed. 
To quote Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, "... chemists have 
turned phlogiston into a vague principle, . . . which conse- 
quently adapts itself to all the explanations for which it may be 
required. Sometimes this principle has weight, and sometimes 
it has not; sometimes it is free fire and sometimes it is fire 
combined with the earthy element; sometimes it passes through 
the pores of vessels, sometimes these are impervious to it; it 
explains both causticity and non-causticity, transparency and 
opacity, colours and their absence; it is a veritable Proteus 
changing in form at each instant." Lavoisier may be justly 
regarded as the founder of modern or quantitative chemistry. 
First and foremost, he demanded that the balance must be used 
in all investigations into chemical changes. He established as 
fundamental that combustion and calcination were attended 
by an increase of weight, and concluded, as did Jean Rey and 
John Mayow in the 17th century, that the increase was due to 
the combination of the metal with the air. The problem could 
obviously be completely solved only when the composition of the 
air, and the parts played by its components, had been determined. 
At all times the air had received attention, especially since van 
Helmont made his far-reaching investigations on gases. Mayow 
had suggested the existence of two components, a spiritus nilro- 
aerus which supported combustion, and a spiritus iiitri acidi 
which extinguished fire; J. Priestley and K. W. Scheele, 
although they isolated oxygen, were fogged by the phlogistic 
tenets; and H. Cavendish, who had isolated the nitrogen 
of the atmosphere, had failed to decide conclusively what 
had really happened to the air which disappeared during 

Lavoisier adequately recognized and acknowledged how 
much he owed to the researches of others; to himself is due 
the co-ordination of these researches, and the welding of his 
results into a doctrine to which the phlogistic theory ultimately 
succumbed. He burned phosphorus in air standing over 
mercury, and showed that (1) there was a limit to the amount 
of phosphorus which could be burned in the confined air, (2) 
that when no more phosphorus could be burned, one-fifth of the 
air had disappeared, (3) that the weight of the air lost was nearly 
equal to the difference in the weights of the white solid produced 
and the phosphorus burned, (4) that the density of the residual 
air was less than that of ordinary air. The same results were 
obtained with lead and tin; and a more elaborate repetition 
indubitably established their correctness. He also showed that 
on heating mercury calx alone an " air " was liberated which 
differed from other " airs," and was slightly heavier than ordinary 
air; moreover, the weight of the " air "set free from a given 
weight of the calx was equal to the weight taken up in forming 
the calx from mercury, and if the calx be heated with charcoal, 
the metal was recovered and a gas named " fixed air," the modern 
carbon dioxide, was formed. The former experiment had been 
performed by Scheele and Priestley, who had named the gas 
" phlogisticated air "; Lavoisier subsequently named it oxygen, 
regarding it as the " acid producer " (6£6s, sour). The theory 
advocated by Lavoisier came to displace the phlogistic concep- 
tion; but at first its acceptance was slow. Chemical literature 
was full of the phlogistic modes of expression — oxygen was 
" dephlogisticated air," nitrogen "phlogisticated air," &c. — 
and this tended to retard its promotion. Yet really the transition 
from the one theory to the other was simple, it being only 
necessary to change the " addition or loss of phlogiston " into 
the " loss or addition of oxygen." By his insistence upon the 
use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses 
involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to 
establish by his own investigations and the results achieved 
by others the principle now known as the " conservation of 
mass." Matter can neither be created nor destroyed; however 
a chemical system be changed, the weights before and after are 

equal. 1 To him is also due a rigorous examination of the nature 
of elements and compounds; he held the same views that were 
laid down by Boyle, and with the same prophetic foresight 
predicted that some of the elements which he himself accepted 
might be eventually found to be compounds. 

It is unnecessary in this place to recapitulate the many 
results which had accumulated by the end of the 18th century, 
or to discuss the labours and theories of individual workers 
since these receive attention under biographical headings; 
in this article only the salient features in the history of our 
science can be treated. The beginning of the 19th century 
was attended by far-reaching discoveries in the nature of the 
composition of compounds. Investigations proceeded in two 
directions: — (1) the nature of chemical affinity, (2) the laws 
of chemical combination. The first question has not 
yet been solved, although it has been speculated upon a mni^. 
from the earliest times. The alchemists explained 
chemical action by means of such phrases as " like attracts 
like," substances being said to combine when one "loved" 
the other, and the reverse when it " hated " it. Boyle rejected 
this terminology, which was only strictly applicable to intelligent 
beings; and he used the word " affinity " as had been previously 
done by Stahl and others. The modern sense of the word, viz. 
the force which holds chemically dissimilar substances together 
(and also similar substances as is seen in di-, tri-, and poly-atomic 
molecules), was introduced by Hermann Boerhaave, and made 
more precise by Sir Isaac Newton. The laws of chemical com- 
bination were solved, in a measure, by John Dalton, and the 
solution expressed as Dalton's " atomic theory." Lavoisier 
appears to have assumed that the composition of every chemical 
compound was constant, and the same opinion was the basis 
of much experimental inquiry at the hands of Joseph Louis 
Proust during 1801 to 1809, who vigorously combated the 
doctrine of Claude Louis Berthollet (Essai de statique chimique, 
1803), viz. that fixed proportions of elements and compounds 
combine only under exceptional conditions, the general rule 
being that the composition of a compound may vary continuously 
between certain limits. 2 

This controversy was unfinished when Dalton published the 
first part of his New System of Chemical Philosophy in 1808, 
although the per solium theory was the most popular. 
Led thereto by speculations on gases, Dalton assumed 
that matter was composed of atoms, that in the elements the 
atoms were simple, and in compounds complex, being composed 
of elementary atoms. Dalton furthermore perceived that the 
same two elements or substances may combine in different 
proportions, and showed that these proportions had always a 
simple ratio to one another. This is the " law of multiple 
proportions." He laid down the following arbitrary rules for 
determining the number of atoms in a compound: — if only one 
compound of two elements exists, it is a binary compound and 
its atom is composed of one atom of each element; if two 
compounds exist one is binary (say A + B) and the other ternary 
(say A + 2B) ; if three, then one is binary and the others may be 
ternary (A + 2B,and2A + B), and so on. More important is his 
deduction of equivalent weights, i.e. the relative weights of 
atoms. He took hydrogen, the lightest substance known, to 
be the standard. From analyses of water, which he regarded 
as composed of one atom of hydrogen and one of oxygen, he 

1 This dictum was questioned by the researches of H. Landolt, 
A. Heydweiller and others. In a series of 75 reactions it was found 
that in 61 there was apparently a diminution in weight, but in 1908, 
after a most careful repetition and making allowance for all experi- 
mental errors, Landolt concluded that no change occurred (see 

2 The theory of Berthollet was essentially mechanical, and he 
attempted to prove that the course of a reaction depended not on 
affinities alone but also on the masses of the reacting components. 
In this respect his hypothesis has much in common with the " law 
of mass-action " developed at a much later date by the Swedish 
chemists Guldberg and Waage, and the American, Willard Gibbs 
(see Chemical Action). In his classical thesis Berthollet vigorously 
attacked the results deduced by Bergman, who had followed in his 
table of elective attractions the path traversed by Stahl and S. F. 





deduced the relative weight of the oxygen atom to be 6-5; 
from marsh gas and olefiant gas he deduced carbon = 5, there 
being one atom of carbon and two of hydrogen in the former 
and one atom of hydrogen to one of carbon in the latter; 
nitrogen had an equivalent of 5, and so on. 1 

The value of Dalton's generalizations can hardly be over- 
estimated, notwithstanding the fact that in several cases they 
needed correction. The first step in this direction was effected 
by the co-ordination of Gay Lussac's observations on the 
combining volumes of gases. He discovered that gases always 
combined in volumes having simple ratios, and that the volume 
of the product had a simple ratio to the volumes of the reacting 
gases. For example, one volume of oxygen combined with two 
of hydrogen to form two volumes of steam, three volumes of 
hydrogen combined with one of nitrogen to give two volumes 
of ammonia, one volume of hydrogen combined with one of 
chlorine to give two volumes of hydrochloric acid. An immediate 
inference was that the Daltonian " atom " must have parts 
which enter into combination with parts of other atoms; in 
other words, there must exist two orders of particles, viz. (1) 
particles derived by limiting mechanical subdivision, the modern 
molecule, and (2) particles derived from the first class by chemical 
subdivision, i.e. particles which are incapable of existing alone, 
but may exist in combination. Additional evidence as to the 
structure of the molecule was discussed by Avogadro in 1811, 
and by Ampere in 1814. From the gas-laws of Boyle and J. A. C. 
Charles — viz. equal changes in temperature and pressure 
occasion equal changes in equal volumes of all gases and vapours 
— Avogadro deduced the law: — Under the same conditions 
of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain 
equal numbers of molecules; and he showed that the relative 
weights of the molecules are determined as the ratios of the 
weights of equal volumes, or densities. He established the 
existence of molecules and atoms as we have defined above, 
and stated that the number of atoms in the molecule is generally 
2, but may be 4, 8, &c. We cannot tell whether his choice of the 
powers of 2 is accident or design. 

Notwithstanding Avogadro's perspicuous investigation, and 
a similar exposition of the atom and molecule by A. M. Ampere, 
Berzelius tne v * ews therein expressed were ignored both by 
their own and the succeeding generation. In place 
of the relative molecular weights, attention was concentrated 
on relative atomic or equivalent weights. This may be due 
in some measure to the small number of gaseous and easily 
volatile substances then known, to the attention which the 
study of the organic compounds received, and especially to the 
energetic investigations of J. J. Berzelius, who, fired with 
enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of 
multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining 
ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds. 2 
He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as 
proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 
he had determined the combining ratios of about two thousand 
simple and compound substances. 

We may here notice the important chemical symbolism or notation 
introduced by Berzelius, which greatly contributed to the definite 
Chemical an< ^ conve nient representation of chemical composition 

. .. and the tracing of chemical reactions. The denotation of 

no a 1 a e i emen t s by symbols had been practised by the alchemists, 
and it is interesting to note that the symbols allotted to the well-known 
elements are identical with the astrological symbols of the sun and 
the other members of the solar system. Gold, the most perfect metal, 
had the symbol of the Sun, O ; silver, the semiperfect metal, had 
the symbol of the Moon, 5); copper, iron and antimony, the 
imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus $, 
Mars tf, and the Earth £ ; tin and lead, the imperfect metals of 
the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter QJ., and Saturn T? ; 
while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver 
class, had the symbol of the planet, § . Torbern Olof Bergman used 
an elaborate system in his Opuscula physica et chemica (1783); the 

1 Dalton's atomic theory is treated in more detail in the article Atom. 

1 Berzelius, however, appreciated the necessity of differentiating 
the atom and the molecule, and even urged Dalton to amend his 
doctrine, but without success. 

elements received symbols composed of circles, arcs of circles, and 

lines, while certain class symbols, such as ^\J for metals, _|-f oracids, 

@ for alkalies, Q for salts, N^ for calces, &c. , were used. Compounds 

were represented by copulating simpler symbols, e.g. mercury calx 

was ^ Q •* Bergman's symbolism was obviously cumbrous, and 

the system used in 1782 by Lavoisier was equally abstruse, since the 
forms gave no clue as t o composition; for instance water, oxygen, 

and nitric acid were\/ >£ft<, and f~~)\ • 

A partial clarification was suggested in 1787 by J. H. Hassenfratz 
and Adet, who assigned to each element a symbol, and to each com- 
pound a sign which should record the elements present and their 
relative quantities. Straight lines and semicircles were utilized for 
the non-metallic elements, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur 
(the " simple acidifiable bases " of Lavoisier), and circles enclosing 
the initial letters of their names for the metals. The " compound 
acidifiable bases," i.e. the hypothetical radicals of acids, were denoted 
by squares enclosing the initial letter of the base; an alkali was 
denoted by a triangle, and the particular alkali by inserting the 
initial letter. Compounds were denoted by joining the symbols of 
the components, and by varying the manner of joining compounds 
of the same elements were distinguished. The symbol V was used 
to denote a liquid, and a vertical line to denote a gas. As an 
example of the complexity of this system we may note the five 
oxides of nitrogen, which were symbolized as 

c r. f. v- and v_, 

the first three representing the gaseous oxides, and the last two the 
liquid oxides. 

A great advance was made by Dalton, who, besides introducing 
simpler symbols, regarded the symbol as representing not only the 
element or compound but also one atom of that element or com- 
pound; in other words, his symbol denoted equivalent weights. 4 
This system, which permitted the correct representation of molecular 
composition, was adopted by Berzelius in 1814, who, having replaced 
the geometric signs of Dalton by the initial letter (or letters) of the 
Latin names of the elements, represented a compound by placing a 
plus sign between the symbols of its components, and the number of 
atoms of each component (except in the case of only one atom) by 
placing Arabic numerals before the symbols; for example, copper 
oxide was Cu+O, sulphur trioxide S-j-30. If two compounds com- 
bined, the + signs of the free compounds were discarded, and the 
number of atoms denoted by an Arabic index placed after the 
elements, and from these modified symbols the symbol of the new 
compound was derived in the same manner as simple compounds 
were built up from their elements. Thus copper sulphate was 
CuO+SO 3 , potassium sulphate 2S0 3 -)-PoO 2 (the symbol Po for 
potassium was subsequently discarded in favour of K from kaliuni). 
At a later date Berzelius denoted an oxide by dots, equal in number to 
the number of oxygen atoms present, placed over the element ; this 
notation survived longest in mineralogy. He also introduced barred 
symbols, i.e. letters traversed by a horizontal bar, todenote the double 
atom (or molecule). Although the system of Berzelius has been 
modified and extended, its principles survive in the modern notation. 

In the development of the atomic theory and the deduction 
of the atomic weights of elements and the formulae of compounds, 
Dalton's arbitrary rules failed to find complete accept- Extension 
ance. Berzelius objected to the hypothesis that if of the 
two elements form only one compound, then the atomlc 
atoms combine one and one; and although he agreed eory ' 
with the adoption of simple rules as a first attempt at representing 
a compound, he availed himself of other data in order to gain 
further information as to the structure of compounds. For 
example, at first he represented ferrous and ferric oxides by the 
formulae Fe02, Fe03, and by the analogy of zinc and other 
basic oxides he regarded these substances as constituted similarly 
to Fe02, and the acidic oxides alumina and chromium oxide as 
similar to Fe0 3 . He found, however, that chromic acid, which 
he had represented as Cr06, neutralized a base containing -§ the 

3 The following symbols were also used by Bergman : — 

0. d). Q. 6, I ~ 30. V V, A 

which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic, 
platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston. 

4 The following are the symbols employed by Dalton : — 

o. 0. •. o;ts>, e, ©, ©, 0, 0, 0, o, ©. 

which represent in order, . hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, 
phosphorus, sulphur, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, strontia, baryta, 
mercury; iron, zinc, copper, lead, silver, platinum, and gold were 
represented by circles enclosing the initial letter of the element. 




quantity of oxygen. He inferred that chromic acid must 
contain only three atoms of oxygen, as did sulphuric acid S0 3 ; 
consequently chromic oxide, which contains half the amount 
of oxygen, must be Cr 2 3 , and hence ferric oxide must be Fe 2 3 . 
The basic oxides must have the general formula MO. To these 
results he was aided by the law of isomorphism formulated by 
E. Mitscherlich in 1820; and he confirmed his conclusions by 
showing the agreement with the law of atomic heat formulated 
by Dulong and Petit in 1819. 

While successfully investigating the solid elements and their 
compounds gravimetrically, Berzelius was guilty of several 
inconsistencies in his views on gases. He denied that gaseous 
atoms could have parts, although compound gases could. This 
attitude was due to his adherence to the " dualistic theory" 
of the structure of substances, which he deduced from electro- 
chemical researches. From the behaviour of substances on 
electrolysis (g.v.) he assumed that all substances had two com- 
ponents, one bearing a negative charge, the other a positive 
charge. Combination was associated with the coalescence of 
these charges, and the nature of the resulting compound showed 
the nature of the residual electricity. For example, positive 
iron combined with negative oxygen to form positive ferrous 
oxide; positive sulphur combined with negative oxygen to 
form negative sulphuric acid; positive ferrous oxide combined 
with negative sulphuric acid to form neutral ferrous sulphate. 
Berzelius elevated this theory to an important position in the 
history of our science. He recognized that if an elementary 
atom had parts, his theory demanded that these parts should 
carry different electric charges when they entered into reaction, 
and the products of the reaction should vary according as a 
positive or negative atom entered into combination. For 
instance if the reaction 2H 2 +0 2 =H 2 0-r-H 2 be true, the 
molecules of water should be different, for a negative oxygen 
atom would combine in one case, and a positive oxygen atom 
in the other. Hence the gaseous atoms of hydrogen and oxygen 
could not have parts. A second inconsistency was presented 
when he was compelled by the researches of Dumas to admit 
Avogadro's hypothesis; but here he would only accept it for 
the elementary gases, and denied it for other substances. It is 
to be noticed that J. B. Dumas did not adopt the best methods 
for emphasizing his discoveries. His terminology was vague 
and provoked caustic criticism from Berzelius; he assumed 
that all molecules contained two atoms, and consequently the 
atomic weights deduced from vapour density determinations of 
sulphur, mercury, arsenic, and phosphorus were quite different 
from those established by gravimetric and other methods. 

Chemists gradually tired of the notion of atomic weights on 
account of the uncertainty which surrounded them; and the 
suggestion made by W. H. Wollaston as early as 1814 to deal 
only with " equivalents," i.e. the amount of an element which 
can combine with or replace unit weight of hydrogen, came 
into favour, being adopted by L. Gmelin in his famous text-book. 

Simultaneously with this discussion of the atom and molecule, 
great controversy was ranging over the constitution of com- 
Atomlc pounds, more particularly over the carbon or organic 
and mole- compounds. This subject is discussed in section IV., 
cuiar Organic Chemistry. The gradual accumulation of data 

weights. referring to organic compounds brought in its train a 
revival of the discussion of atoms and molecules. A. Laurent 
and C. F. Gerhardt attempted a solution by investigating chemical 
reactions. They assumed the atom to be the smallest part of 
matter which can exist in combination, and the molecule to be 
the smallest part which can enter into a chemical reaction. 
Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one 
assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be 
that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights 
of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equiva- 
lents accepted by Gmelin, making H=l, 0=16, and C=12, 
thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values 
given by Berzelius to many metals. Laurent generally agreed, 
except when the theory compelled the adoption of formulae 
containing fractions of atoms; in such cases he regarded the 

molecular weight as the weight occupying a volume equal to 
four unit weights of hydrogen. The bases upon which Gerhardt 
and Laurent founded their views were not sufficiently well 
grounded to lead to the acceptance of their results; Gerhardt 
himself returned to Gmelin's equivalents in his Lehrbuch der 
Chemie (1853) as they were in such general use. 

In i860 there prevailed such a confusion of hypotheses as to 
the atom and molecule that a conference was held at Karlsruhe 
to discuss the situation. At the conclusion of the sitting, 
Lothar Meyer obtained a paper written by Stanislas Cannizzaro 
in 1858 wherein was found the final link required for the deter- 
mination of atomic weights. This link was the full extension 
of Avogadro's theory to all substances, Cannizzaro showing that 
chemical reactions in themselves would not suffice. He chose 
as his unit of reference the weight of an atom of hydrogen, i.e. 
the weight contained in a molecule of hydrochloric acid, thus 
differing from Avogadro who chose the weight of a hydrogen 
molecule. From a study of the free elements Cannizzaro showed 
that an element may have more than one molecular weight; for 
example, the molecular weight of sulphur varied with the tem- 
perature. And from the study of compounds he showed that 
each element occurred in a definite weight or in some multiple 
of this weight. He called this proportion the " atom," since 
it invariably enters compounds without division, and the weight 
of this atom is the atomic weight. This generalization was of 
great value inasmuch as it permitted the deduction of the 
atomic weight of a non-gasifiable element from a study of the : 
densities of its gasifiable compounds. 

From the results obtained by Laurent and Gerhardt and their 
predecessors it immediately followed that, while an element could 
have but one atomic weight, it could have several equivalent 
weights. From a detailed study of organic compounds Ger- 
hardt had promulgated a " theory of types " which represented 
a fusion of the older radical and type theories. This theory 
brought together, as it were, the most varied compounds, and 
stimulated inquiry into many fields. According to this theory, 
an element in a compound had a definite saturation capacity, 
an idea very old in itself, being framed in the law of multiple 
proportions. These saturation capacities were assidu- . 

ously studied by Sir Edward Frankland, who from 
the investigation, not of simple inorganic compounds, but of the 
organo-metallic derivatives, determined the kernel of the theory 
of valency. Frankland showed that any particular element 
preferentially combined with a definite number (which might 
vary between certain limits) of other atoms; for example, some 
atoms always combined with one atom of oxygen, some with two, 
while with others two atoms entered into combination with one 
of oxygen. If an element or radical combined with one atom 
of hydrogen, it was termed monovalent; if with two (or with 
one atom of oxygen, which is equivalent to two atoms of hydrogen) 
it was divalent, and so on. The same views were expressed by 
Cannizzaro, and also by A. W. von Hofmann, who materially 
helped the acceptance of the doctrine by the lucid exposition in 
his Introduction to Modern Chemistry, 1865. 

The recognition of the quadrivalency of carbon by A. Kekule 
was the forerunner of his celebrated benzene theory in particular, 
and of the universal application of structural formulae to the 
representation of the most complex organic compounds equally 
lucidly as the representation of the simplest salts. Alexander 
Butlerow named the " structure theory," and contributed much 
to the development of the subject. He defined structure " as the 
manner of the mutual linking of the atoms in the molecule," 
but denied that any such structure could give information as to 
the orientation of the atoms in space. He regarded the chemical 
properties of a substance as due to'(i) the chemical atoms 
composing it, and (2) the structure, and he asserted that while 
different compounds might have the same components (isomer- 
ism), yet only one compound could have a particular structure. 
Identity in properties necessitated identity in structure. 

While the principle of varying valency laid down by Frankland 
is still retained, Butlerow's view that structure had no spatial 
significance has been modified. The researches of L. Pasteur, 






J. A. Le Bel, J. Wislicenus, van't Hoff and others showed that 
substances having the same graphic formulae vary in properties 
and reactions, and consequently the formulae need modification in 
order to exhibit these differences. Such isomerism, named stereo- 
isomerism^.!).), hasbeen assiduously developedduringrecentyears; 
it prevails among many different classes of organic compounds 
and many examples have been found in inorganic chemistry. 

The theory of valency as a means of showing similarity of 
properties and relative composition became a dominant feature 
of chemical theory, the older hypotheses of types, radicals, &c 
being more or- less discarded. We have seen how its 
utilization in the " structure theory " permitted great 
clarification, and attempts were not wanting for the 
deduction of analogies or a periodicity between elements. Frank- 
land had recognized the analogies existing between the chemical 
properties of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, 
noting that they act as tri- or penta-valent. Carbon was joined 
with silicon, zirconium and titanium, while boron, being tri- 
valent, was relegated to another group. A general classification 
of elements, however, was not realized by Frankland, nor even by 
Odling, who had also investigated the question from the valency 
standpoint. The solution came about by arranging the elements 
in the order of their atomic weights, tempering the arrangement 
with the results deduced from the theory of valencies and 
experimental observations. Many chemists contributed to the 
establishment of such a periodicity, the greatest advances being 
made by John Newlands in England, Lothar Meyer in Germany, 
and D. J. Mendeleeff in St Petersburg. For the development of 
this classification see Element. 

In the above sketch we have briefly treated the history of the 
main tendencies of our science from the earliest times to the 
establishment of the modern laws and principles. We 
have seen that the science took its origin in the arts 
practised by the Egyptians, and, having come under the influence 
of philosophers, it chose for its purpose the isolation of the 
quinta essentia, and subsequently the " art of making gold and 
silver." This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded 
" chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation 
which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded 
it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition 
which adequately fits the science to-day. We have seen how 
his classification of substances into elements and compounds, 
and the definitions which he assigned to these species, have 
similarly been retained; and how Lavoisier established the law 
of the " conservation of mass," overthrew the prevailing phlogistic 
theory, and became the founder of modern chemistry by the 
overwhelming importance which he gave to the use of the balance. 
The development of the atomic theory and its concomitants — 
the laws of chemical combination and the notion of atoms and 
equivalents — at the hands of Dalton and Berzelius, the extension 
to the modern theory of the atom and molecule, and to atomic 
and molecular weights by Avogadro, Ampere, Dumas, Laurent, 
Gerhardt, Cannizzaro and others, have been noted. The 
structure of the molecule, which mainly followed investigations 
in organic compounds, Frankland's conception of valency, and 
finally the periodic law, have also been shown in their chrono- 
logical order. The principles outlined above constitute the 
foundations of our science; and although it may happen that 
experiments may be made with which they appear to be not in 
complete agreement, yet in general they constitute a body of 
working hypotheses of inestimable value. 

Chemical Education. — It is remarkable that systematic in- 
struction in the theory and practice of chemistry only received 
earnest attention in our academic institutions during the opening 
decades of the 19th century. Although for a long time lecturers 
and professors had been attached to universities, generally their 
duties had also included the study of physics, mineralogy and 
other subjects, with the result that chemistry received scanty 
encouragement. Of practical instruction there was none other 
than that to be gained in a few private laboratories and in the 
shops of apothecaries. The necessity for experimental demon- 
stration and practical instruction, in addition to academic 

lectures, appears to have been urged by the French chemists 
L. N. Vauquelin, Gay Lussac, Thenard, and more especially by 
A. F. Fourcroy and G. F. Rouelle, while in England Humphry 
Davy expounded the same idea in the experimental demonstra- 
tions which gave his lectures their brilliant charm. But the real 
founder of systematic instruction in our science was Justus von 
Liebig, who, having accepted the professorship at Giessen in 
1824, made his chemical laboratory and course of instruction 
the model of all others. He emphasized that the practical 
training should include (1) the qualitative and quantitative 
analysis of mixtures, (2) the preparation of substances according 
to established methods, (3) original research—a course which has 
been generally adopted. The pattern set by Liebig at Giessen 
was adopted by F. Wohler at Gottingen in 1836, by R. W. 
Bunsen at Marburg in 1840, and by 0. L. Erdmann at Leipzig 
in 1843; and during the 'fifties and 'sixties many other labora- 
tories were founded. A new era followed the erection of the 
laboratories at Bonn and Berlin according to the plans of A. W. 
von Hofmann in 1867, and of that at Leipzig, designed by Kolbe 
in 1868. We may also mention the famous laboratory at Munich 
designed by A. von Baeyer in 1875. 

In Great Britain the first public laboratory appears to have 
been opened in 1817 by Thomas Thomson at Glasgow. But the 
first important step in providing means whereby students could 
systematically study chemistry was the foundation of the College 
of Chemistry in 1845. This institution was taken over by the 
Government in 18 S3, becoming the Royal College of Chemistry, 
and incorporated with the Royal School of Mines; in 1881 the 
names were changed to the Normal School of Science and Royal 
School of Mines, and again in 1890 to the Royal College of 
Science. In 1907 it was incorporated in the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology. Under A. W. von Hofmann, who 
designed the laboratories and accepted the professorship in 1845 
at the instigation of Prince Albert, and under his successor (in 
1864) Sir Edward Frankland, this institution became one of 
the most important centres of chemical instruction. Oxford 
and Cambridge sadly neglected the erection of convenient 
laboratories for many years, and consequently we find technical 
schools and other universities having a far better equipment and 
offering greater facilities. In the provinces Victoria University 
at Manchester exercised the greater impetus, numbering among 
its professors Sir W. H. Perkin and Sir Henry Roscoe. 

In America public laboratory instruction was first instituted at 
Yale College during the professorship of Benjamin Silliman. To 
the great progress made in recent years F. W. Clarke, W. Gibbs, 
E. W. Morley, Ira Remsen, and T. W. Richards have especially 

In France the subject was almost entirely neglected until 
late in the 19th century. The few laboratories existing in the 
opening decades were ill-fitted, and the exorbitant fees con- 
stituted a serious bar to general instruction, for these institutions 
received little government support. In 1869 A. Wurtz reported 
the existence of only one efficient laboratory in France, namely 
the Ecole Ndrmale Superieure, under the direction of H. Sainte 
Claire Deville. During recent years chemistry has become 
one of the most important subjects in the curriculum of technical 
schools and universities, and at the present time no general 
educational institution is complete until it has its full equip- 
ment of laboratories and lecture theatres. 

Chemical Literature. — The growth of chemical literature since the 
publication of Lavoisier's famous Traite de chimie in 1789, and of 
Berzelius' Lehrbuch der Chemie in 1 808-1 8 1 8, has been enormous. 
These two works, and especially the latter, were the models followed 
by Thenard, Liebig, Strecker, Wohler and many others, including 
Thomas Graham, upon whose Elements of Chemistry was founded 
Otto's famous Lehrbuch der Chemie, to which H. Kopp contributed 
the general theoretical part, Kolbe the organic, and Buff and 
Zamminer the physico-chemical. Organic chemistry was especially 
developed by the publication of Gerhard.t's Traite de chimie organique 
in 1 853-1 856, and of Kekule's Lehrbuch, der organischen Chemie in 
1861-1882. General theoretical and physical chemistry was treated 
with conspicuous acumen by Lothar Meyer in his Moderne Theorien, 
by W. Ostwald in his Lehrbuch der allgem. Chemie (1884-1887), and 
by Nernst in his Theoretische Chemie. In English, Roscoe and 
Schorlemmer's Treatise on Chemistry is a standard work; it records 




a successful attempt to state the theories and facts of chemistry, 
not in condensed epitomes, but in an easily read form. - The Tratte 
de chimie minerale, edited by H. Moissan, and the Handbuch der 
anorganischen Chemie, edited by Abegg, are of the same type. 
O. Dammer's Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie and F. Beilstein's 
Handbuch der organischen Chemie are invaluable works of reference. 
Of the earlier encyclopaedias we may notice the famous Hand- 
worterbuch der reinen und angewandten Chemie, edited by Liebig; 
Fremy's Encyclopedic de chimie, Wurtz's Dictionnaire de chimie 
pure et appliquee, Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry, and Ladenburg's 
Handworterbuch der Chemie. 

The number of periodicals devoted to chemistry has steadily 
increased since the early part of the 19th century. In England the 
most important is the Journal- of the 1 Chemical Society of London, 
first published in 1848. Since 187 1 abstracts of papers appearing 
in the other journals have been printed. In 1904 a new departure 
was made in issuing Annual Reports , containing resumes of the most 
important researches of the year. The Chemical News, founded by 
Sir W. Crookes in i860, may also be noted. In America the chief 
periodical is the American Chemical Journal, founded in 1879. 
Germany is provided with a great number of magazines. The 
Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, published by the 
Berlin Chemical Society, the Chemisches Centralblatt, which is con- 
fined to abstracts of papers appearing in other journals, the Zeitschrift 
fur-Chemie, and Liebig's Annalen der Chemie are the most important 
of the general magazines. Others devoted to special phases are the 
Journal fur praktische Chemie, founded by Erdmann in 1834, the 
Zeitschrift fur anorganische Chemie and the Zeitschrift fur physi- 
kalische Chemie. Mention may also be made of the invaluable 
Jahresberichte and the Jahrbuch der Chemie. In France, the most 
important journals are the Annates de chimie et de physique, founded 
in 1789 with the title Annates de chimie, and the Comptes rendus, 
published weekly by the Academie frangaise since 1835. 

II. General Principles 

The substances with which the chemist has to deal admit of 
classification into elements and compounds. Of the former 
about eighty may be regarded as well characterized, although 
many more have been described. 

Elements. — The following table gives the names, symbols 
and atomic weights of the perfectly characterized elements: — 

International Atomic Weights, 1910. 

Name. Symbol. 


. . Al 


. Sb 


. A 


. As 

Barium .. 

. Ba 

Beryllium or 




Bismuth ■ 

. Bi 


. B 

Bromine . 

. Br 


. Cd 

Caesium . 

. Cs 

Calcium . 

. Ca 

Carbon . 

. C 

Cerium . 

. Ce 

Chlorine . 

. CI 


. Cr 

Cobalt . 

. Co 


. Cb 

or Niobiurr 

1 . Nb 

Copper . 

. Cu 


■ Dy 

Erbium . 

. Er 


. Eu 

Fluorine . 

. F 


. Gd 

Gallium . 

. Ga 


. Ge 

Gold . . 

. Au 


. He 


. H 

Indium . 

. In 


. I 

Iridium . 

. Ir 

Iron . 

. Fe 

Krypton . 

. Kr 


. La 

Lead . 

. Pb 

Lithium . 

. Li 


. Lu 


. Mg 


. Mn 

27-1 . 
















7 2 -5 



Name. Symbol. 




Neon . 










Radium . 

Rhodium , 





Selenium . 



Sodium . 


Sulphur . 



Terbium . 

Thallium . 

Thorium . 

Thulium . 

Tin . . 

Titanium . 

Tungsten . 

Uraniurn . 



Ytterbii^ji (Neo- 

Yttrium . 
Zinc . 








































= 16. 















181 -o 







48- 1 



The elements are usually divided into two classes, the metallic 
and the non-metallic elements; the following are classed as 
non-metals, and the remainder as metals: — 

Hydrogen Oxygen Boron Neon 

Chlorine Sulphur Carbon Krypton 

Selenium Silicon Xenon 







Of these hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, 
neon, krypton, xenon and helium are gases, bromine is a liquid, 
and the remainder are solids. All the metals are solids at ordinary 
temperatures with the exception of mercury, which is liquid. 
The metals are mostly bcdies of high specific gravity; they 
exhibit, when polished, a peculiar brilliancy or metallic lustre, 
and they are good conductors of heat and electricity; the non- 
metals, on the other hand, are mostly bodies of low specific 
gravity, and bad conductors of heat and electricity, and do not 
exhibit metallic lustre. The non-metallic elements are also 
sometimes termed metalloids, but this appellation, which signifies 
metal-like substances (Gr. elSos, like), strictly belongs to certain 
elements which do not possess the properties of the true metals, 
although they more closely resemble them than the non-metals 
in many respects; thus, selenium and tellurium, which are 
closely allied to sulphur in their chemical properties, although 
bad conductors of heat and electricity, exhibit metallic lustre 
and have relatively high specific gravities. But when the 
properties of the elements are carefully contrasted together it 
is found that no strict line of demarcation can be drawn dividing 
them into two classes; and if they are arranged in a series, 
those which are most closely allied in properties being placed 
next to each other, it is observed that there is a more or less 
regular alteration in properties from term to term in the series. 

When binary compounds, or compounds of two elements, are 
decomposed by an electric current, the two elements make their 
appearance at opposite poles. Those elements which are dis- 
engaged at the negative pole are termed electro-positive, or 
positive, or basylous elements, whilst those disengaged at the 
positive pole are termed electro-negative, or negative, pr chlorous 
elements. But the difference between these two classes of 
elements is one of degree only, and they gradually merge into 
each other; moreover the electric relations of elements are not 
absolute, but vary according to the state of combination in 
which they exist, so that it is just as impossible to divide the 
elements into two classes according to this property as it is to 
separate them into two distinct classes of metals and non-metals. 
The following, however, are negative towards the remaining 
elements which are more or less positive: — Fluorine, chlorine, 
bromine, iodine, oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium. 

The metals may be arranged in a series according to their 
power of displacing one another in salt solutions, thus Cs, Rb, 
K, Na„Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cd, Tl, Fe, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, (H), Sb, Bi, 
As, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au. 

Elements which readily enter into reaction with each other, 
and which develop a large amount of heat on combination, are 
said to have a powerful affinity for each other. The tendency 
of positive elements to unite with positive elements, or of negative 
elements to unite with negative elements, is much less than that 
of positive elements to unite with negative elements, and the 
greater the difference in properties between two elements the 
more powerful is their affinity for each other. Thus, the affinity 
of hydrogen and oxygen for each other is extremely powerful, 
much heat being developed by the combination of these two 
elements; when binary compounds of oxygen are decomposed 
by the electric current, the oxygen invariably appears at the 
positive pole, being negative to all other elements, but the 
hydrogen of hydrogen compounds is always disengaged at the 
negative pole. Hydrogen and oxygen are, therefore, of very 
opposite natures, and this is well illustrated by the circumstance 
that oxygen combines, with very few exceptions, with all the 
remaining elements, whilst compounds of only a limited number 
with hydrogen have been obtained. 

Compounds.— A chemical compound contains two or more 




elements; consequently it should be possible to analyse it, 
i.e. separate it into its components, or to synthesize it, i.e. build 
it up from its components. In general, a compound has pro- 
perties markedly different from those of the elements of which 
it is composed. 

Laws of Chemical Combination. — A molecule may be defined 
as the smallest part of a substance which can exist alone; an 
atom as the smallest part of a substance which can exist in com- 
bination. The molecule of every compound must obviously 
contain at least two atoms, and generally the molecules of the 
elements are also polyatomic, the elements with monatomic 
molecules (at moderate temperatures) being mercury and the 
gases of the argon group. The laws of chemical combination are 
as follows: — 

i. Law of Definite Proportions. — The same compound always 
contains the same elements combined together in the same mass 
proportion. Silver chloride, for example, in whatever manner 
it may be prepared, invariably consists of chlorine and silver 
in the proportions by weight of 35-45 parts of the former and 
107-03 of the latter. 

2. Law of Multiple Proportions. — When the same two elements 
combine together to form more than one compound, the different 
masses of one of the elements which unite with a constant mass 
of the other, bear a simple ratio to one another. Thus, 1 part 
by weight of hydrogen unites with 8 parts by weight of oxygen, 
forming water, and with 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen, forming 
hydrogen peroxide. Again, in nitrous oxide we have a compound 
of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric oxide 
a compound of 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; 
in nitrous anhydride a compound of 24 or 8 X 3 parts of oxygen 
and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric peroxide a compound of 32 or 8 X 4 
parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; and lastly, in nitric anhy- 
dride a compound of 40 or 8X5 parts of oxygen and 14 of 

3. Law of Reciprocal Proportions. — The masses of different 
elements which combine separately with one and the same mass 
of another element, are either the same as, or simple multiples 
of, the masses of these different elements which combine with 
each other. For instance, 35-45 parts of chlorine and 79-96 
parts of bromine combine with 107-93 parts of silver; and when 
chlorine and bromine unite it is in the proportion of 35-45 parts 
of the former to 79-96 parts of the latter. Iodine unites with 
silver in the proportion of 126-97 parts to 107-93 parts of the 
latter, but it combines with chlorine in two proportions, viz. in 
the proportion of 126-97 parts either to 35-45 or to three times 
35-45 parts of chlorine. 

There is a fourth law of chemical combination which only 
applies to gases. This law states that: — gases combine with one 
another in simple proportions by volume, and the volume of the 
product (if gaseous) has a simple ratio to the volumes of the 
original mixtures; in other words, the densities of gases are 
simply related to their combining weights. 

Nomenclature. — If a compound contains two atoms it is 
termed a binary compound, if three a ternary, if four a quaternary, 
and so on. Its systematic name is formed by replacing the last 
syllable of the electro-negative element by ide and prefixing 
the name of the other element. For example, compounds of 
oxygen are oxides, of chlorine, chlorides, and so on. If more than 
one compound be formed from the same two elements, .the 
difference is shown by prefixing such words as mono-, di-, tri-, 
sesqui-, per-, sub-, &c, to the last part of the name, or the 
suffixes -ous and -ic may be appended to the name of the first 
element. For example take the oxides of nitrogen, N 2 0, NO, 
N2O3, NO2, N2O5; these are known respectively as nitrous oxide, 
nitric oxide, nitrogen trioxide, nitrogen peroxide and nitrogen 
pentoxide. The affixes -ous and sub- refer to the compounds 
containing more of the positive element, -ic and per- to those 
containing less. 

An acid (q.v.) is a compound of hydrogen, which element can 
be replaced by metals, the hydrogen being liberated, giving 
substances named salts. An alkali or base is a substance which 
neutralizes an acid with the production of salts but with no 

evolution of hydrogen. A base may be regarded as water in 
which part of the hydrogen is replaced by a metal, or by a 
radical which behaves as a metal. (The term radical is given 
to a group of atoms which persist in chemical changes, behaving 
as if the group were an element; the commonest is the 
ammonium group, NH4, which forms salts similar to the salts 
of sodium and potassium.) If the acid contains no oxygen it is a 
hydracid, and its systematic name is formed from the prefix 
hydro- and the name of the other element or radical, the last 
syllable of which has been replaced by the termination -ic. For 
example, the acid formed by hydrogen and chlorine is termed 
hydrochloric acid (and sometimes hydrogen chloride). If an 
acid contains oxygen it is termed an oxyacid. The nomenclature 
of acids follows the same general lines as that for binary com- 
pounds. If one acid be known its name is formed by the ter- 
mination -ic, e.g. carbonic acid; if two, the one containing the 
less amount of oxygen takes the termination -ous and the other 
the termination -ic, e.g. nitrous acid, HNO2, nitric acid, HN0 3 . 
If more than two be known, the one inferior in oxygen content 
has the prefix hypo- and the termination -ous, and the one 
superior in oxygen content has the prefix per- and the termination 
-ic. This is illustrated in the four oxyacids of chlorine, HCIO, 
HCIO2, HCIO3, HCIO4, which have the names hypochlorous, 
chlorous, chloric and perchloric acids. An acid is said to be 
monobasic, dibasic, tribasic, &c, according to the number of 
replaceable hydrogen atoms; thus HN0 3 is monobasic, sulphuric 
acid H 2 S0 4 dibasic, phosphoric acid H3PO4 tribasic. 

An acid terminating in -ous forms a salt ending in -ite, and an 
oxyacid ending in -ic forms a salt ending in -ate. Thus the 
chlorine oxyacids enumerated above form salts named respec- 
tively hypochlorites, chlorites, chlorates and perchlorates. Salts 
formed from hydracids terminate in -ide, following the rule 
for binary compounds. An acid salt is one in which the whole 
amount of hydrogen has not been replaced by metal; a normal 
salt is one in which all the hydrogen has been replaced ; and a 
basic salt is one in which part of the acid of the normal salt has 
been replaced by oxygen. 

Chemical Formulae. — Opposite the name of each element in 
the second column of the above table, the symbol is given which 
is always employed to represent it. This symbol, however, not- 
only represents the particular element, but a certain definite 
quantity of it. Thus, the letter H always stands for 1. atom or 
1 part by weight of hydrogen, the letter N for 1 atom or 14 parts 
of nitrogen, and the symbol CI for 1 atom or 35-5 parts of chlor- 
ine. 1 Compounds are in like manner represented by writing the 
symbols of their constituent elements side by side, and if more 
than one atom of each element be present, the number is indicated 
by a numeral placed on the right of the symbol of the element 
either below or above the line. Thus, hydrochloric acid is 
represented by the formula HC1, that is to say, it is a compound 
of an atom of hydrogen with an atom of chlorine, or of 1 part 
by weight of hydrogen with 35-5 parts by weight of chlorine; 
again, sulphuric acid is represented by the formula H2SO4, which 
is a statement that it consists of 2 atoms of hydrogen, 1 of sulphur, 
and 4 of oxygen, and consequently of certain relative weights of 
these elements. A figure placed on the right of a symbol only 
affects the symbol to which it is attached, but when figures are 
placed in front of several symbols all are affected by it, thus 
2H1SO4 means H2SO4 taken twice. 

The distribution of weight in chemical change is readily 
expressed in the form of equations by the aid of these symbols; 
the equation 

2HCl+Zn = ZnCl 2 -|-H 2 , 

for example, is to be read as meaning that from 73 parts of 
hydrochloric acid and 65 parts of zinc, 136 parts of zinc chloride 
and 2 parts of hydrogen are produced. The + sign is invariably 
employed in this way either to express combination or action 
upon, the meaning usually attached to the use of the sign = being 
that from such and such bodies such and such other bodies 
are formed. 

1 Approximate values of the atomic weights are employed here. 




Usually, when the symbols of the elements are written or 
printed with a figure to the right, it is understood that this 
indicates a molecule of the element, the symbol alone representing 
an atom. Thus, the symbols H 2 and P 4 indicate that the mole- 
cules of hydrogen and phosphorus respectively contain 2 and 4 
atoms. Since, according to the molecular theory, in all cases 
of chemical change the action is between molecules, such symbols 
as these ought always to be employed. Thus, the formation of 
hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine is correctly 
represented by the equation 

H 2 +C1 2 =2HC1; 
that is to say, a molecule of hydrogen and a molecule of chlorine 
give rise to two molecules of hydrochloric acid; whilst the 
following equation merely represents the relative weights of the 
elements which enter into reaction, and is not a complete ex- 
pression of what is supposed to take place: — 

H+C1 = HC1. 
In all cases it is usual to represent substances by formulae 
which to the best of our knowledge express their molecular 
composition in the state of gas, and not merely the relative 
number of atoms which they contain; thus, acetic acid consists 
of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of one atom 
of carbon, two of hydrogen, and one of oxygen, but its molecular 
weight corresponds to the formula C 2 rL|0 2 , which therefore is 
always employed to represent acetic acid. When chemical 
change is expressed with the aid of molecular formulae not 
only is the distribution of weight represented, but by the mere 
inspection of the symbols it is possible to deduce from the law 
of gaseous combination mentioned above, the relative volumes 
which the agents and resultants occupy in the state of gas if 
measured at the same temperature and under the same pressure. 
Thus, the equation 

2H 2 +0 2 =2H 2 
not only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen 
and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound 
which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, 
the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same 
temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen 
is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting 
water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen. 
In other words, 2 volumes of oxygen and 4 volumes of hydrogen 
furnish 4 volumes of water-gas. A simple equation like this, 
therefore, when properly interpreted, affords a large amount of 
information. One other instance may be given; the equation 

2NH 3 = N 2 +3H 2 
represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and 
hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys 
the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, 
consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, 
is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and 
nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half 
the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume 
of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of 
the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia 
the volume becomes doubled. 

Formulae which merely express the relative number of atoms 
of the different elements present in a compound are termed 
empirical formulae, and the formulae of all compounds whose 
molecular weights are undetermined are necessarily empirical. 
The molecular formula of a compound, however, is always a 
simple multiple of the empirical formula, if not identical with it; 
thus, the empirical formula of acetic acid is CH 2 0, and its 
molecular formula is C 2 Hi0 2 , or twice CH 2 0. In addition to 
empirical and molecular formulae, chemists are in the habit of 
employing various kinds of rational formulae, called structural, 
constitutional or graphic formulae, &c, which not only express 
the molecular composition of the compounds to which they 
apply, but also embody certain assumptions as to the manner 
in which the constituent atoms are arranged, and convey more 
or less information with regard to the nature of the compound 
itself, viz. the class to which it belongs, the manner in which 

it is formed, and the behaviour it will exhibit under various 
circumstances. Before explaining these formulae it will be 
necessary, however, to consider the differences in combining 
power exhibited by the various elements. 

Valency. — It is found that the number of atoms of a given 
element, of chlorine, for example, which unite with an atom of 
each of the other elements is very variable. Thus, hydrogen 
unites v/ith but a single atom of chlorine, zinc with two, boron 
with three, silicon with four, phosphorus with five and tungsten 
with six. Those elements which are equivalent in combining 
or displacing power to a single atom of hydrogen are said to be 
univalent or monad elements; whilst those which are equivalent 
to two atoms of hydrogen are termed bivalent or dyad elements; 
and those equivalent to three, four, five or six atoms of hydrogen 
triad, tetrad, pentad or hexad elements. But not only is the 
combining power orvalency (atomicity) of the elements different, 
it is also observed that one element may combine with another 
in several proportions, or that its valency may vary; for example, 
phosphorus forms two chlorides represented by the formulae 
PCI3 and PCI5, nitrogen the series of oxides represented by the 
formulae N 2 0, NO, (N 2 3 ), N 2 4 , N 2 5 , molybdenum forms the 
chlorides M0CI2, M0CI3, M0CI4, M0CI5, MoCl 8 (?), and tungsten 
the chlorides WC1 2 , WCI4, WC1 5 , WC1 6 . 

In explanation of these facts it is supposed that each element 
has a certain number of "units of affinity," which may be 
entirely, or only in part, engaged when it enters into combination 
with other elements; and in those cases in which the entire 
number of units of affinity are not engaged by other elements, 
it is supposed that those which are thus disengaged neutralize 
each other, as it were. For example, in phosphorus penta- 
chloride the five units of affinity possessed by the phosphorus 
atom are satisfied by the five monad atoms of chlorine, but in 
the trichloride two are disengaged, and, it may be supposed, 
satisfy each other. Compounds in which all the units of affinity 
of the contained elements are engaged are said to be saturated, 
whilst those in which the affinities of the contained elements are 
not all engaged by other elements are said to be unsaturated. 
According to this view, it is necessary to assume that, in all 
unsaturated compounds, two, or some even number of affinities 
are disengaged; and also that all elements which combine 
with an even number of monad atoms cannot combine with an 
odd number, and vice versa, — in other words, that the number 
of units of affinity active in the case of any given element must 
be always either an even or an odd number, and that it cannot 
be at one time an even and at another an odd number. There 
are, however, a few remarkable exceptions to this " law." 
Thus, it must be supposed that in nitric oxide, NO, an odd 
number of affinities are disengaged, since a single atom of dyad 
oxygen is united with a single atom of nitrogen, which in all its 
compounds with other elements acts either as a triad or pentad. 
When nitric peroxide, N 2 4 , is converted into gas, it decomposes, 
and at about 180° C. its vapour entirely consists of molecules 
of the composition NO>; while at temperatures between this 
and o° C. it consists of a mixture in different proportions of the 
two kinds of molecules, N 2 4 and N0 2 . The oxide N0 2 must 
be regarded as another instance of a compound in which an odd 
number of affinities of one of the contained elements are dis- 
engaged, since it contains two atoms of dyad oxygen united with 
a single atom of triad or pentad nitrogen. Again, when tungsten 
hexachloride is converted into vapour it is decomposed into 
chlorine and a pentachloride, having a normal vapour density, 
but as in the majority of its compounds tungsten acts as a hexad, 
we apparently must regard its pentachloride as a compound 
in which an odd number of free affinities are disengaged. Hither- 
to no explanation has been given of these exceptions to what 
appears to be a law of almost universal application, viz. that the 
sum of the units of affinity of all the atoms in a compound is 
an even number. 

The number of units of affinity active in the case of any 
particular element is largely dependent, however, upon the 
nature of the element or elements with which it is associated. 
Thus, an atom of iodine only combines with one of hydrogen, 




but may unite with three of chlorine, which never combines 
with more than a single atom of hydrogen; an atom of phos- 
phorus unites with only three atoms of hydrogen, but with five 
of chlorine, or with four of hydrogen and one of iodine; and the 
chlorides corresponding to the higher oxides of lead, nickel, 
manganese and arsenic, Pb0 2 , Ni 2 03, Mn0 2 and As 2 06 do not 
exist as stable compounds, but the lower chlorides, PbCI 2 , NiCl 2 , 
MnCl 2 and AsCl 3 , are very stable. 

The valency of an element is usually expressed by dashes 
or Roman numerals placed on the right of its symbol, thus: 
H', O", B'", C' v , P v , Mo VI ; but in constructing graphic formulae 
the symbols of the elements are written with as many lines 
attached to each symbol as the element which it represents 
has units of affinity. 

The periodic law (see Element) permits a grouping of the 
elements according to their valency as follows: — Group O: 
helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon appear to be devoid of 
valency. Group I.: the alkali metals Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and 
also Ag, monovalent; Cu, monovalent and divalent; Au, 
monovalent and trivalent. Group II. : the alkaline earth metals 
Ca, Sr, Ba, andalso Be (Gl) , Mg, Zn, Cd, divalent; Hg, monovalent 
and divalent. Group III.: B, trivalent; Al, trivalent, but 
possibly also tetra-or penta-valent ; Ga, divalent and trivalent; 
In, mono-, di- and tri-valent; Tl, monovalent and trivalent. 
Group IV.: C, Si, Ge, Zr, Th, tetravalent; Ti, tetravalent and 
hexavalent; Sn, Pb, divalent and tetravalent; Ce, trivalent 
and tetravalent. Group V. : N, trivalent and pentavalent, but 
divalent in nitric oxide; P, As, Sb, Bi, trivalent and pentavalent, 
the last being possibly divalent in BiO and BiCl 2 . Group VI. : 
O, usually divalent, but tetravalent and possibly hexavalent in 
oxonium and other salts; S, Se, Te, di-, tetra- and hexa-valent; 
Cr, di-, tri- and hexa-valent; Mo, W, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and 
hexa-valent. Group VII.: H (?), monovalent; the halogens F, 
Gl, Br, I, usually monovalent, but possibly also tri- and penta- 
valent; Mn, divalent and trivalent, and possibly heptavalent 
in permanganates. Group VIII.: Fe, Co, divalent and trivalent; 
Ni, divalent; Os, Ru, hexavalent and octavalent; Pd, Pt, 
divalent and tetravalent; Ir, tri-, tetra- and hexa-valent. 
(See also Valency.) 

Constitutional Formulae. — Graphic or constitutional formulae 
are employed to express the manner in which the constituent 
atoms of compounds are associated together; for example, the 
trioxide of sulphur is usually regarded as a compound of an 
atom of hexad sulphur with three atoms of dyad oxygen, and 
this hypothesis is illustrated by the graphic formula 


When this oxide is brought into contact with water it combines 
with it forming sulphuric acid, H 2 S0 4 . 

In this compound only two of the oxygen atoms are wholly 
associated with the sulphur atom, each of the remaining oxygen 
atoms being united by one of its affinities to the sulphur atoms, 
and by the remaining affinity to an atom of hydrogen; 
thus — 


The graphic formula of a sulphate is readily deduced by re- 
membering that the hydrogen atoms are partially or entirely 
replaced. Thus acid sodium sulphate, normal sodium sulphate, 
and zinc sulphate have the formulae 

N H a :8>s< L a :8>< *<8>s«o 

Again, the reactions of acetic acid, C2H 4 2 , show that the four 
atoms of hydrogen which it contains have not all the same 
function, and also that the two atoms of oxygen have different 
functions; the graphic formula which we are led to assign to 
acetic acid, viz. 

H 'C-C<g. H 

serves in a measure to express this, three of the atoms of hydrogen 
being represented as associated with one of the atoms of carbon, 

whilst the fourth atom is associated with an atom of oxygen 
which is united by a single affinity to the second atom of carbon, 
to which, however, the second atom of oxygen is united by both 
of its affinities. It is not to be supposed that there are any 
actual bonds of union between the atoms; graphic formulae 
such as these merely express the hypothesis that certain of the 
atoms in a compound come directly within the sphere of attrac- 
tion of certain other atoms, and only indirectly within the 
sphere of attraction of others,— an hypothesis to which chemists 
are led by observing that it is often possible to separate a group 
of elements from a compound, and to displace it by other elements 
or groups of elements. 

Rational formulae of a much simpler description than these 
graphic formulae are generally employed. For instance, sulphuric 
acid is usually represented by the formula S0 2 (OH) 2 , which 
indicates that it may be regarded as a compound of the group 
S0 2 with twice the group OH, > Each of these OH groups is 
equivalent in combining or displacing power to a monad element, 
since it consists of an atom of dyad oxygen associated with a 
single atom of monad hydrogen, so that in this case the S0 2 
group is equivalent to an atom of a dyad element. This formula 
for sulphuric acid, however, merely represents such facts as that 
it is possible to displace an atom of hydrogen and an atom of 
oxygen in sulphuric acid by a single atom of chlorine, thus 
forming the compound S0 3 HC1; and that by the action of 
water on the compound S0 2 C1 2 twice the group OH, or water 
minus an atom of hydrogen, is introduced in place of the two 
monad atoms of chlorine — 

S0 2 C1 2 +2H0H = S0 2 (OH) 2 +2HC1. 
Water. Sulphuric acid. 

Constitutional formulae like these, in fact, are nothing more 
than symbolic expressions of the character of the compounds 
which they represent, the arrangement of symbols in a certain 
definite manner being understood to convey certain information 
with regard to the compounds represented. 

Groups of two or more atoms like S0 2 and OH, which are 
capable of playing the part of elementary atoms (that is to say, 
which can be transferred from compound to compound), are 
termed compound radicals, the elementary atoms being simple 
radicals. Thus, the atom of hydrogen is a monad simple radical, 
the atom of oxygen a dyad simple radical, whilst the group OH 
is a monad compound radical. 

It is often convenient to regard compounds as formed upon 
certain types; alcohol, for example, may be said to be a com- 
pound formed upon the water type, that is to say, a compound 
formed from water by displacing one of the atoms of hydrogen 
by the group of elements C 2 H S , thus — 

H ^<,C 2 H 5 







Constitutional formulae become of preponderating importance 
when we consider the more complicated inorganic and especially 
organic compounds. Their full significance is treated in the 
section of this article dealing with organic chemistry, and in the 
articles Isomerism and Stereoisomerism. 

Chemical Action. — Chemical change or chemical action may 
be said to take place whenever changes occur which involve an 
alteration in the composition of molecules, and may be the 
result of the action of agents such as heat, electricity or 
light, or of two or more elements or compounds upon each 

Three kinds of changes are to be distinguished, viz. changes 
which involve combination, changes which involve decomposi- 
tion or separation, and changes which involve at the same time 
both decomposition and combination. Changes of the first and 
second kind, according to our views of the constitution of mole- 
cules, are probably of very rare occurrence; in fact, chemical 
action appears almost always to involve the occurrence of both 
these kinds of change, for, as already pointed out, we must 
assume that the molecules of hydrogen, oxygen and several 
other elements are diatomic, or that they consist of two atoms. 
Indeed, it appears probable that with few exceptions the elements 




are all compounds of similar atoms united together by one or 
more units of affinity, according to their valencies. If this be 
the case, however, it is evident that there is no real distinction 
between the reactions which take place when two elements 
combine together and when an element in a compound is dis-< 
placed by another. The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, 
of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in 
potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be Cited as 
examples; if these reactions are represented, as such feactions 
very commonly are, by equations which merely express the 
relative weights of the bodies which enter, into reaction, and of 
the products, thus — 

H + CI = HC1 

Hydrogen. Chlorine. Hydrochloric acid. 

KI + CI = KC1 + I 

Potassium iodide. Chlorine. Potassium chloride. Iodine. 

they appear to differ in character; but if they are correctly 
represented by molecular equations, or equations which express 
the relative number of molecules which enter into reaction and 
which result from the reaction, it will be obvious th^t the 
character of the reaction is substantially the same in both cases, 
and that both are instances of the occurrence of what is ordinarily 
termed double decomposition — 

H 2 + Cl 2 = 2HC1 
Hydrogen. Chlorine. Hydrochloric acid. 
2KI + Cl 2 = 2KC1 + I 2 . 

Potassium iodide. Chlorine. Potassium chloride. Iodine. 

In all cases of chemical change energy in the form of heat is 
either developed or absorbed, and the amount of heat developed 
or absorbed in a given reaction is as definite as are the weights 
of the substance engaged in the reaction. Thus, in the production 
of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories 
are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from 
hydrogen and bromine, however, only 844ocaloriesaredeveloped; 
and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and 
iodine 6040 calories are absorbed. 

This difference in behaviour of the three elements, chlorine, 
bromine and iodine, which in many respects exhibit considerable 
resemblance, may be explained in the following manner. We 
may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid 
from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation 

H 2 +C1 2 -=HC1+HC1, 
a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms 
of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine 
in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is 
developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with 
the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the 
union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended 
in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the 
chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the 
two elements upon each other is the development of heat, — 'the 
amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference 
between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary mole- 
cules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of 
chlorine and hydrogen. In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic 
acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen — 

H 2 +Br 2 = HBr+HBr, 
in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen 
and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting 
the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably 
less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and 
hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so 
that the amount of heat finally.developed is much less than is 
developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid. Lastly, in 
the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and 
solid iodine — 

H 2 +I 2 = HI+HI, 

so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen 
and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the 
gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is 
developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms 
is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is 

therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic 
acid from its elements to apply heat continuously. 

These compounds also afford examples of the fact that, 
generally speaking, those compounds are most readily formed, 
and are most stable, in the formation of which the most heat is 
developed. Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, 
and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more 
readily than bromine ; and hydrochloric acid is a far more 
stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being 
greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability. Com- 
pounds formed with the evolution of heat are termed exothermic, 
while those formed with an absorption are termed endothermic. 
Explosives are the commonest examples of endothermic com- 

When two substances which by their action upon each other 
develop much heat enter into reaction, the reaction is usually 
complete without the employment of an excess of either; for 
example, when a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, in the pro- 
portions to form water— 

2H 2 +Oj=20H 2 , 
is exploded, it is entirely converted into water. This is also 
the case if two substances are brought together in solution, by 
the action of which upon each other a third body is formed 
which is insoluble in the solvent employed, and which also does 
not tend to react upon any of the substances present ; for 
instance, when a solution of a chloride is added to a solution of 
a silver salt, insoluble silver chloride is precipitated, and almost 
the whole of the silver is removed from solution, even if the 
amount of the chloride employed be not in excess of that 
theoretically required. 

But if there be no tendency to form an insoluble compound, 
Or one which is not liable to react upon any of the other substances 
present, this is no longer the case. For example, when a solution 
of a ferric salt is added to a solution of potassium thiocyanate, 
a deep red coloration is produced, owing to the formation of 
ferric thiocyanate. Theoretically the reaction takes place in 
the case of ferric nitrate in the manner represented by the 

Fe(N0 3 ) 3 + 3KCNS = Fe(CNS) 3 + 3KN0 3 ; 

Ferric nitrate. Potassium thiocyanate. Ferric thiocyanate. Potassium nitrate. 

but it is found that even when more than sixty times the amount 
of potassium thiocyanate required by this equation is added, 
a portion of the ferric nitrate still remains unconverted, doubtless 
owing to the occurrence of the reverse change— 

Fe(CNS) , +3KNO s = Fe(N0 3 ) , +3KCNS. 

In this, as in most other cases in which substances act upon one 
another under such circumstances that the resulting compounds 
are free to react, the extent to which the different kinds of action 
which may occur take place is dependent upon the mass of the 
substances present in the mixture. As another instance of this 
kind, the decomposition of bismuth chloride by water may be 
cited. If a very large quantity of water be added, the chloride 
is entirely decomposed in the manner represented by ' the 1 
equation — 

BiCl 3 + OH 2 = BiOCl + 2HC1, 
Bismuth chloride. Bismuth oxychloride. 

the oxychloride being precipitated; but if smaller quantities 
of water be added the decomposition is incomplete, and it is 
found that the extent to which decomposition takes place is 
proportional to the quantity of water employed, the decom- 
position being incomplete, except in presence of large quantities 
of water, because of the occurrence of the reverse action — 

BiOCl-j-2HCl = BiCl 3 +OH 2 . 

Chemical change which merely involves simple decomposition 
is thus seen to be influenced by the masses of the reacting sub- 
stances and the presence of the products of decomposition; in 
other words the system of reacting substances and resultants 
form a mixture in which chemical action has apparently ceased, 
or the system is in equilibrium. Such reactions are termed 
reversible (see Chemical Action). 




III. Inorganic Chemistry 

Inorganic chemistry is concerned with the descriptive study 
o f the elements and their compounds, except those of carbon. 
Reference should be made to the separate articles on the different 
elements and the more important compounds for their prepara- 
tion, properties and uses. In this article the development of 
this branch of the science is treated historically. 

The earliest discoveries in inorganic chemistry are to be found 
in the metallurgy, medicine and chemical arts of the ancients. 
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, 
either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is men- 
tioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.). The manufacture of glass, 
also practised in Egypt, demanded a knowledge of sodium or 
potassium carbonates; the former occurs as an efflorescence 
on the shores of certain lakes; the latter was obtained from 
wood ashes. Many substances were used as pigments: Pliny 
records white lead, cinnabar, verdigris and red oxide of iron; 
and the preparation of coloured glasses and enamels testifies to 
the uses to which these and other substances were put. Salts of 
ammonium were also known; while alum was used as a mordant 
in dyeing. Many substances were employed in ancient medicine: 
galena was the basis of a valuable Egyptian cosmetic and drug; 
the arsenic sulphides, realgar and orpiment, litharge, alum, 
saltpetre, iron rust were also used. Among the Arabian and 
later alchemists we find attempts made to collate compounds by 
specific properties, and it is to these writers that we are mainly 
indebted for such terms as "alkali," "sal," &c. The mineral 
acids, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, and also aqua 
regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) were discovered, 
and the vitriols, alum, saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, ammonium 
carbonate, silver nitrate (lunar caustic) became better known. 
The compounds of mercury attracted considerable attention, 
mainly on account of their medicinal properties; mercuric 
oxide and corrosive sublimate were known to pseudo-Geber, and 
the nitrate and basic sulphate to " Basil Valentine." Antimony 
and its compounds formed the subject of an elaborate treatise 
ascribed to this last writer, who also contributed to our knowledge 
of the compounds of zinc, bismuth and arsenic. All the com- 
monly occurring elements and compounds appear to have 
received notice by the alchemists; but the writings assigned 
to the alchemical period are generally so vague and indefinite 
that it is difficult to determine the true value of the results 

In the succeeding iatrochemical period, the methods of the 
alchemists were improved and new ones devised. Glauber 
showed how to prepare hydrochloric acid, spiritus salts, by 
heating rock-salt with sulphuric acid, the method in common 
use to-day;' and also nitric acid from saltpetre and arsenic 
trioxide. Libavius obtained sulphuric acid from many sub- 
stances, e.g. alum, vitriol, sulphur and nitric acid, by distillation. 
The action of these acids on many metals was also studied; 
Glauber obtained zinc, stannic, arsenious and cuprous chlorides 
by dissolving the metals in hydrochloric acid, compounds 
hitherto obtained by heating the metals with corrosive sublimate, 
and consequently supposed to contain mercury. The scientific 
study of salts dates from this period, especial interest being 
taken in those compounds which possessed a medicinal or 
technical value. In particular, the salts of potassium, sodium 
and ammonium were carefully investigated, but sodium and 
potassium salts were rarely differentiated. 1 The metals of the 
alkaline-earths were somewhat neglected; we find Georg 
Agricola considering gypsum (calcium sulphate) as a compound 
of lime, while calcium nitrate and chloride became known at 
about the beginning of the 17th century. Antimonial, bismuth 
and arsenical compounds were assiduously studied, a direct 
consequence of their high medicinal importance; mercurial 
and silver compounds were investigated for the same reason. 
The general tendency of this period appears to have taken the 
form of improving and developing the methods of the alchemists; 

1 The definite distinction between potash and soda was first 
established by Duhamel de Monceau (1700-1781). 

few new fields were opened, and apart from a more complete 
knowledge of the nature of salts, no valuable generalizations 
were attained. 

The discovery of phosphorus by Brand, a Hamburg alchemist, 
in 1669 excited chemists to an unwonted degree; it was also 
independently prepared by Robert Boyle and J. Kunckel, 
Brand having kept his process secret. Towards the middle of 
the 1 8th century two new elements were isolated: cobalt by 
G. Brandt in 1742, and nickel by A. F. Cronstedt in 1750. These 
discoveries were followed by Daniel Rutherford's isolation of 
nitrogen in 1772, and by K. Scheele's isolation of chlorine and 
oxygen in 1774 (J. Priestley discovered oxygen independently 
at about the same time), and his investigation of molybdic and 
tungstic acids in the following year; metallic molybdenum 
was obtained by P. J. Hjelm in 1783, and tungsten by Don 
Fausto d'Elhuyar; manganese was isolated by J. G. Gahn in 
1774. In 1 784 Henry Cavendish thoroughly examined hydrogen, 
establishing its elementary nature; and he made the far-reaching 
discovery that water was composed of two volumes of hydrogen 
to one of oxygen. 

The phlogistic theory, which pervaded the chemical doctrine 
of this period, gave rise to continued study of the products of 
calcination and combustion; it thus happened that the know- 
ledge of oxides and oxidation products was considerably 
developed. The synthesis of nitric acid by passing electric 
sparks through moist air by Cavendish is a famous piece of 
experimental work, for in the first place it determined the 
• composition of this important substance, and in the second 
place the minute residue of air which would not combine, although 
ignored for about a century, was subsequently examined by 
Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay, who showed that it 
consists of a mixture of elementary substances — argon, krypton, 
neon and xenon (see Argon). 

The 1 8th century witnessed striking developments in 
pneumatic chemistry, or the chemistry of gases, which had 
been begun by van Helmont, Mayow, Hales and Boyle. Gases 
formerly considered to be identical came to be clearly distin- 
guished, and many new ones were discovered. Atmospheric 
air was carefully investigated by Cavendish, who showed that 
it consisted of two elementary constituents: nitrogen, which 
was isolated by Rutherford in 1772, and oxygen, isolated in 
1774; and Black established the presence, in minute quantity, 
of carbon dioxide (van Helmont's gas sylvestre). Of the many 
workers in this field, Priestley occupies an important position. 
A masterly device, initiated by him, was to collect gases over 
mercury instead of water; this enabled him to obtain gases 
previously only known in solution, such as ammonia, hydro- 
chloric acid, silicon fluoride and sulphur dioxide. Sulphuretted 
hydrogen and nitric oxide were discovered at about the 
same time. 

Returning to the history of the discovery of the elements and 
their more important inorganic compounds, we come in 1789 to 
M. H. Klaproth's detection of a previously unknown constituent 
of the mineral pitchblende. He extracted a substance to which 
he assigned the character of an element, naming it uranium 
(from Ovpavos, heaven) ; but it was afterwards shown by E. M. 
Peligot, who prepared the pure metal, that Klaproth's product 
was really an oxide. This element was investigated at a later 
date by Sir Henry Roscoe, and more thoroughly and successfully 
by C. Zimmermann and Alibegoff. Pitchblende attained con- 
siderable notoriety towards the end of the 19th century on 
account of two important discoveries. The first, made by Sir 
William Ramsay in 1896, was that the mineral evolved a peculiar 
gas when treated with sulphuric acid; this gas, helium (q.v.), 
proved to be identical with a constituent of the sun's atmosphere, 
detected as early as 1868 by Sir Norman Lockyer during a 
spectroscopic examination of the sun's chromosphere. The 
second discovery, associated with the Curies, is that of the 
peculiar properties exhibited by the impure substance, and due 
to a constituent named radium. The investigation of this 
substance and its properties (see Radioactivity) has proceeded 
so far as to render it probable that the theory of the unalterability 




of elements, and also the hitherto accepted explanations of 
various celestial phenomena — the source of solar energy and 
the appearances of the tails of comets — may require recasting. 

In the same year as Klaproth detected uranium, he also 
isolated zirconia or zirconium oxide from the mineral variously 
known as zircon, hyacinth, jacynth and jargoon ; but he failed 
to obtain the metal, this being first accomplished some years 
later by Berzelius, who decomposed the double potassium 
zirconium fluoride with potassium. In the following year, 1795, 
Klaproth announced the discovery of a third new element, 
titanium; its isolation (in a very impure form), as in the case of 
zirconium, was reserved for Berzelius. 

Passing over the discovery of carbon disulphide by W. A. 
Lampadius in 1796, of chromium by L. N. Vauquelin in 1797, and 
Klaproth's investigation of tellurium in 1798, the next important 
series of observations was concerned with platinum and the 
allied metals. Platinum had been described by Antonio de Ulloa 
in 1748, and subsequently discussed by H. T. Scheffer in 1752. 
In 1803 W. H. Wollaston discovered palladium, especially 
interesting for its striking property of absorbing (" occluding ") 
as much as 376 volumes of hydrogen at ordinary temperatures, 
and 643 volumes at 90°. In the following year he discovered 
rhodium; and at about the same time Smithson Tennant added 
two more to the list — iridium and osmium; the former was 
so named from the changing tints of its oxides (i'prt, rainbow), 
and the latter from the odour of its oxide (oa/xri, smell). The 
most recently discovered " platinum metal," ruthenium, 
was recognized by C. E. Claus in 1845. The great number 
and striking character of the compounds of this group of 
metals have formed the subject of many investigations, and 
already there is a most voluminous literature. Berzelius was 
an early worker in this field; he was succeeded by Bunsen, 
and Deville and Debray, who worked out the separation of 
rhodium; and at a later date by P. T. Cleve, the first to make 
a really thorough study of these elements and their compounds. 
Of especial note are the curious compounds formed by the union 
of carbon monoxide with platinous chloride, discovered by Paul 
Schutzenberger and subsequently investigated by F. B. Mylius 
and F. Foerster and by Pullinger; the phosphoplatinic com- 
pounds formed primarily from platinum and phosphorus penta- 
chloride; and also the " ammino " compounds, formed by the 
union of ammonia with the chloride, &c, of these metals, which 
have been studied by many chemists, especially S. M. Jorgensen. 
Considerable uncertainty existed as to the atomic weights of 
these metals, the values obtained by Berzelius being doubtful. 
K. F. O. Seubert redetermined this constant for platinum, 
osmium and iridium; E. H. Keiser for palladium, and A. A. 
Joly for ruthenium. 

The beginning of the 19th century witnessed the discovery 
of certain powerful methods for the analysis of compounds and 
the isolation of elements. Berzeliusfe investigation of the 
action of the electric current on salts clearly demonstrated 
the invaluable assistance that electrolysis could render to the 
isolator of elements; and the adoption of tlus method by Sir 
Humphry Davy for the analysis of the hydrates of the metals of 
the alkalis and alkaline earths, and the results which he thus 
achieved, established its potency. In 1808 Davy isolated 
sodium and potassium; he then turned his attention to the 
preparation of metallic calcium, barium, strontium and mag- 
nesium. Here he met with greater difficulty, and it is to be 
questioned whether he obtained any of these metals even in an 
approximately pure form (see Electrometallurgy). The 
discovery of boron by Gay Lussac and Davy in 1809 led 
Berzelius to investigate silica (silex). In the following year he 
announced that silica was the oxide of a hitherto unrecognized 
element, which he named siiicium, considering it to be a metal. 
This has proved to be erroneous; it is non-metallic in character, 
and its name was altered to silicon, from analogy with carbon 
and boron. At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, 
in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron 
in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first 
accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating 

double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium. The 
success which attended his experiments in the case of silicon led 
him to apply it to the isolation of other elements. In 1824 he 
obtained zirconium from potassium zirconium fluoride; the 
preparation of (impure) titanium quickly followed, and in 1828 
he obtained thorium. A similar process, and equally efficacious, 
was introduced by F. Wohler in 1827. It consisted in heating 
metallic chlorides with potassium, and was first applied to 
aluminium, which was isolated in 1827; in the following year, 
beryllium chloride was analysed by the same method, beryllium 
oxide (berylla or glucina) having been known since 1798, when 
it was detected by L. N. Vauquelin in the gem-stone beryl. 

In 1812 B. Courtois isolated the element iodine from " kelp," 
the burnt ashes of marine plants. The chemical analogy of this 
substance to chlorine was quickly perceived, especially after 
its investigation by Davy and Gay Lussac. Cyanogen, a 
compound which in combination behaved very similarly to 
chlorine and iodine, was isolated in 181 5 by Gay Lussac. This 
discovery of the first of the then-styled " compound radicals " 
exerted great influence on the prevailing views of chemical 
composition. Hydrochloric acid was carefully investigated 
at about this time by Davy, Faraday and Gay Lussac, its 
composition and the elementary nature of chlorine being thereby 

In 181 7 F. Stromeyer detected a new metallic element, cad- 
mium, in certain zinc ores; it was rediscovered at subsequent 
dates by other observers and its chemical resemblance to zinc 
noticed. In the same year Berzelius discovered selenium in a 
deposit from sulphuric acid chambers, his masterly investigation 
including a study of the hydride, oxides and other compounds. 
Selenic acid was discovered by E. Mitscherlich, who also observed 
the similarity of the crystallographic characters of selenates 
and sulphates, which afforded valuable corroboration of his doc- 
trine of isomorphism. More recent and elaborate investigations 
in this direction by A. E. H. Tutton have confirmed this view. 

In 18 1 8 L. J. Thenard discovered hydrogen dioxide, one of 
the most interesting inorganic compounds known, which has 
since been carefully investigated by H. E. Schone, M. Traube, 
Wolfenstein and others. About the same time, J. A. Arfvedson, 
a pupil of Berzelius, detected a new element, which he named 
lithium, in various minerals — notably petalite. Although 
unable to isolate the metal, he recognized its analogy to sodium 
and potassium; this was confirmed by R. Bunsen and A. 
Matthiessen in 1855, who obtained the metal by electrolysis 
and thoroughly examined it and its compounds. Its crimson 
flame-coloration was observed by C. G. Gmelin in 1818. 

The discovery of bromine in 1826 by A. J. Balard completed 
for many years Berzelius's group of " halogen " elements; the 
remaining member, fluorine, notwithstanding many attempts, 
remained unisolated until 1886, when Henri Moissan obtained 
it by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride dissolved in hydro- 
fluoric acid. Hydrobromic and hydriodic acids were investigated 
by Gay Lussac and Balard, while hydrofluoric acid received 
considerable attention at the hands of Gay Lussac, Thenard 
and Berzelius. We may, in fact, consider that the descriptive 
study of the various halogen compounds dates from about this 
time. Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigat- 
ing its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypo- 
chlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleach- 
ing-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture 
in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypo- 
chlorite, with a little calcium hydrate. Gay Lussac investigated 
chloric acid; Stadion discovered perchloric acid, since more 
fully studied by G. S. Serullas and Roscoe; Davy and Stadion 
investigated chlorine peroxide, formed by treating potassium 
chlorate with sulphuric acid. Davy also described and partially 
investigated the gas, named by him " euchlorine," obtained 
by heating potassium chlorate with hydrochloric acid; this 
gas has been more recently examined by Pebal. The oxy-acids 
of iodine were investigated by Davy and H. G. Magnus; periodic 
acid, discovered by the latter, is characterized by the striking 
complexity of its salts as pointed out by Kimmins. 




In 1830 N. G. Sefstrom definitely proved the existence of a 
metallic element vanadium, which had been previously detected 
(in 1801) in certain lead ores by A. M. del Rio; subsequent 
elaborate researches by Sir Henry Roscoe showed many in- 
accuracies in the conclusions of earlier workers (for instance, the 
substance considered to be the pure element was in reality an 
oxide) and provided science with an admirable account of this 
element and its compounds. B. W. Gerland contributed to our 
knowledge of vanadyl salts and the vanadic acids. Chemically 
related to vanadium are the two elements tantalum and colum- 
bium or niobium. These elements occur in the minerals colum- 
bite and tantalite, and their compounds became known in the 
early part of the 19th century by the labours of C. Hatchett, 
A. G. Ekeberg, W. H. Wollaston and Berzelius. But the 
knowledge was very imperfect; neither was it much clarified 
by H. Rose, who regarded niobium oxide as the element. The 
subject was revived in 1866 by C. W. Blomstrand and J. C. 
Marignac, to whom is due the credit of first showing the true 
chemical relations of these elements. Subsequent researches by 
Sainte Claire Deville and L. J. Troost, and by A. G. Kriiss and 
L. E. Nilson, and subsequently (1904) by Hall, rendered notable 
additions to our knowledge of these elementsand their compounds. 
Tantalum has in recent years been turned to economic service, 
being employed, in the same manner as tungsten, for the pro- 
duction of the filaments employed in incandescent electric 

In 1833 Thomas Graham, following the paths already traced 
out by E. D. Clarke, Gay Lussac and Stromeyer, published his 
masterly investigation of the various phosphoric acids and 
their salts, obtaining results subsequently employed by J. von 
Liebig in establishing the doctrine of the characterization and 
basicity of acids. Both phosphoric and phosphorous acids 
became known, although imperfectly, towards the end of the 
18th century; phosphorous acid was first obtained pure by 
Davy in 181 2, while pure phosphorous oxide, the anhydride 
of phosphorous acid, remained unknown until T. E. Thorpe's 
investigation of the products of the slow combustion of phos- 
phorus. Of other phosphorus compounds we may here notice 
Gengembre's discovery of phosphuretted hydrogen (phosphine) 
in 1783, the analogy of which to ammonia was first pointed out 
by Davy and supported at a later date by H. Rose; liquid 
phosphuretted hydrogen was first obtained by Thenard in 
1838; and hypophosphorous acid was discovered by Dulong 
in 1816. Of the halogen compounds of phosphorus, the tri- 
chloride was discovered by Gay Lussac and Thenard, while the 
pentachloride was obtained by Davy. The oxychloride, bro- 
mides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; 
here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride 
and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of 
especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of 
normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentava- 
lent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide 
dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus 

In 1840 C. F. Schonbein investigated ozone, a gas of peculiar 
odour (named from the Gr. o^uv, to smell) observed in 1785 by 
Martin van Marum to be formed by the action of a silent electric 
discharge on the oxygen of the air; he showed it to be an 
allotropic modification of oxygen, a view subsequently confirmed 
by Marignac, Andrews and Soret. In 1845 a further contribution 
to the study of allotropy was made by Anton Schrotter, who 
investigated the transformations of yellow and red phosphorus, 
phenomena previously noticed by Berzelius, the inventor Of the 
term " allotropy." The preparation of crystalline boron in 1856 
by W5hler and Sainte Claire Deville showed that this element 
also existed in allotropic forms, amorphous boron having been 
obtained simultaneously and independently in 1809 by Gay 
Lussac and Davy. Before leaving this phase of inorganic 
chemistry, we may mention other historical examples of allo- 
tropy. Of great importance is the chemical identity of the 
diamond, graphite and charcoal, a fact demonstrated in part by 
Lavoisier in 1773, Smithson Tennant in 1796, and by Sir George 

Steuart-Mackenzie (1780-1848), who showed that equal weights 
of these three substances yielded the same weight of carbon 
dioxide on combustion. The allotropy of selenium was first 
investigated by Berzelius; and more fully in 1851 by J. W. 
Hittorf, who carefully investigated the effects produced by heat; 
crystalline selenium possesses a very striking property, viz. 
when exposed to the action of light its electric conductivity 
increases. Another element occurring in allotropic forms is 
sulphur, of which many forms have been described. E. Mit- 
scherlich was an early worker in this field. A modification 
known as " black sulphur," soluble in water, was announced 
by F. L. Knapp in 1848, and a colloidal modification was 
described by H. Debus. The dynamical equilibrium between 
rhombic, liquid and monosymmetric sulphur has been worked 
out by H. W. Bakhuis Roozeboom. The phenomenon of allo- 
tropy is not confined to the non-metals, for evidence has been 
advanced to show that allotropy is far commoner than hitherto 
supposed. Thus the researches of Carey Lea, E. A. Schneider 
and others, have proved the existence of "colloidal silver"; 
similar forms of the metals gold, copper, and of the platinum 
metals have been described. The allotropy of arsenic and 
antimony is also worthy of notice, but in the case of the first 
element the variation is essentially non-metallic, closely resemb- 
ling that of phosphorus. The term allotropy has also been 
applied to inorganic compounds, identical in composition, but 
assuming different crystallographic forms. Mercuric oxide, 
sulphide arid iodide; arsenic trioxide; titanium dioxide and 
silicon dioxide may be cited as examples. 

The joint discovery in 1859 of the powerful method of spectrum 
analysis (see Spectroscopy) by G. R. Kirchhoff and R. W. 
Bunsen, and its application to the detection and the characteriza- 
tion of elements when in a state of incandescence, rapidly led 
to the discovery of many hitherto unknown elements. Within 
two years of the invention the authors announced the discovery 
of two metals, rubidium and caesium, closely allied to sodium, 
potassium and lithium in properties, in the mineral lepidolite 
and in the Dtirkheim mineral water. In 1 86 1 Sir William Crookes 
detected thallium (named from the Gr. 0d\Xos, a green bud, on 
account of a brilliant green line in its spectrum) in the selenious 
mud of the sulphuric acid manufacture; the chemical affinities 
of this element, on the one hand approximating to the metals 
of the alkalis, and on the other hand to lead, were mainly 
established by C. A. Lamy. Of other metals first detected by 
the spectroscope mention is to be made of indium, determined 
by F. Reich and H. T. Richter in 1863, and of gallium, detected 
in certain zinc blendes by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875. The 
spectroscope has played an all-important part in the character- 
ization of the elements, which, in combination with oxygen, 
constitute the group of substances collectively named the " rare 
earths." The substances occur, in very minute quantity, in a 
large number of sparingly-distributed and comparatively rare 
minerals — euxenite, samarksite, cerite, yttrotantalite, &c. 
Scandinavian specimens of these minerals were examined by 
J. Gadolin, M. H. Klaproth, and especially by Berzelius; these 
chemists are to be regarded as the pioneers in this branch of 
descriptive chemistry. Since their day many chemists have 
entered the lists, new and powerful methods of research have 
been devised, and several new elements definitely characterized. 
Our knowledge on many points, however, is very chaotic; great 
uncertainty and conflict of evidence circulate around many of 
the " new elements " which have been announced, so much so 
that P. T. Cleve proposed to divide the " rare earth " metals into 
two groups, (1) "perfectly characterized"; (2) "not yet 
thoroughly characterized." The literature of this subject is 
very large. The memorial address on J. C. G. de Marignac, a 
noted worker in this field, delivered by Cleve, a high authority 
on this subject, ■ before the London Chemical Society (/. C. S. 
Trans., 1895, p. 468), and various papers in the same journal 
by Sir William Crookes, Bohuslav Brauner and others should 
be consulted for details. 

In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture 
of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods 




generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipita- 
tion or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the com- 
pounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separa- 
tion by simple precipitation and filtration. The extraordinary 
patience requisite to a successful termination of such an analysis 
can only be adequately realized by actual research; an idea 
may be obtained from Crookes's Select Methods in Analysis. 
Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as 
precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; 
and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double 
salts which these metals form with compounds. The purity of 
the compounds thus obtained is checked by spectroscopic 
observations. Formerly the spark- and absorption-spectra 
were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced 
by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic 
sulphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo j 
and investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically. 
By such a study in the ultra-violet region of a fraction prepared 
from crude yttria he detected a new element victorium, and 
subsequently by elaborate fractionation obtained the element 

The first earth of this group to be isolated (although in an 
impure form) was yttria, obtained by Gadolin in 1794 from the 
mineral gadolinite, which was named after its discoverer and 
investigator. Klaproth and Vauquelin also investigated this 
earth, but without detecting that it was a complex mixture — • 
a discovery reserved for C. G. Mosander. The next discovery, 
made independently and simultaneously in 1803 by Klaproth and 
by W. Hisinger and Berzelius, was of ceria, the oxide of cerium, 
in the mineral cerite found at Ridderhytta, Westmannland, 
Sweden. These crude earths, yttria and ceria, have supplied 
most if not all of the " rare earth " metals. In 1841 Mosander, 
having in 1839 discovered a new element lanthanum in the 
mineral cerite, isolated this element and also a hitherto un- 
recognized substance, didymia, from crude yttria, and two years 
later he announced the determination of two fresh constituents 
of the same earth, naming them erbia and terbia. Lanthanum 
has retained its elementary character, but recent attempts at 
separating it from didymia have led to the view that didymium 
is a mixture of two elements, praseodymium and neodymium 
(see Didymium). Mosander's erbia has been shown to contain 
various other oxides — thulia, holmia, &c. — but this has not yet 
been perfectly worked out. In 1878 Marignac, having subjected 
Mosander's erbia, obtained from gadolinite, to a careful examina- 
tion, announced the presence of a new element, ytterbium; 
this discovery was confirmed by Nilson, who in the following year 
discovered another element, scandium, in Marignac's ytterbia. 
Scandium possesses great historical interest, for Cleve showed 
that it was one of the elements predicted by Mendeleeff about ten 
years previously from considerations based on his periodic 
classification of the elements (see Element). Other elements 
predicted and characterized by Mendeleeff which have been 
since realized are gallium, discovered in 1875, and germanium, 
discovered in 1885 by Clemens Winkler. 

In 1880 Marignac examined certain earths obtained from the , 
mineral samarskite, which had already in 1878 received attention 
from Delafontaine and later from Lecoq de Boisbaudran. He 
established the existence of two new elements, samarium and 
gadolinium, since investigated more especially by Cleve, to whom 
most of our knowledge on this subject is due. In addition to 
the rare elements mentioned above, there are a score or so more 
whose existence is doubtful. Every year is attended by fresh 
" discoveries " in this prolific source of elementary substances, 
but the paucity of materials and the predilections of the investi- 
gators militate in some measure against a just valuation being 
accorded to such researches. After having been somewhat 
neglected for the greater attractions and wider field pre- 
sented by organic chemistry, the study of the elements 
and their inorganic compounds is now rapidly coming into 
favour; new investigators are continually entering the lists; 
the beaten paths are being retraversed and new ramifications 

IV. Organic Chemistry 

While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through 
the study of minerals — a connexion still shown by the French 
appellation chimie mintrale — organic chemistry owes its origin 
to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable 
and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the 
philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the 
iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and 
preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure 
the investigation of vegetable and animal products. It is true 
that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar sub- 
stances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a 
few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classifica- 
tion of substances by physical and superficial properties led to 
the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without 
any attention being paid to their chemical composition. The 
clarification and spirit of research so clearly emphasized by 
Robert Boyle in the middle of the 17th century is reflected in 
the classification of substances expounded by Nicolas Lemery, 
in 1675, in his Cows de chymie. Taking as a basis the nature of 
the source of compounds, he framed three classes: "mineral," 
comprising the metals, minerals, earths and stones; " vege- 
table," comprising plants, resins, gums, juices, &c; and 
" animal," comprising animals, their different parts and excreta. 
Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances 
to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in 
the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their 
dry distillation, acetone, &c, were placed in the mineral class), 
this classification came into favour. The phlogistonists en- 
deavoured to introduce chemical notions \o support it: Becher, 
in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable 
and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more 
simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while 
Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " 
principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " 
and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes. It 
thus happened that in the earlier treatises on phlogistic chemistry 
organic substances were grouped with all combustibles. 

The development of organic chemistry from this time until 
almost the end of the 18th century was almost entirely confined 
to such compounds as had practical applications, especially in 
pharmacy and dyeing. A new and energetic spirit was introduced 
by Scheele; among other discoveries this gifted experimenter 
isolated and characterized many organic acids, and proved the 
general occurrence of glycerin (Olsiiss) in all oils and fats. 
Bergman worked in the same direction; while Rouelle was 
attracted to the study of animal chemistry. Theoretical specula- 
tions were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature 
of combustion and determined methods for analysing com- 
pounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained 
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally 
contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes ' 
phosphorus and sulphur. Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was 
primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed 
the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated 
the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides 
of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since 
simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, 
he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: 
he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and 
oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized 
by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid. At the same time, how- 
ever, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was 
only when' identical compounds were obtained from both vege- 
table and animal sources that this subdivision wa« discarded, and 
the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry. 

At this time there existed a belief, held at a later date by 
Berzelius, Gmelin and many others, that the formation of 
organic compounds was conditioned by a so-called vital force; 
and the difficulty of artificially realizing this action explained 
the supposed impossibility of synthesizing organic compounds. 




This dogma was shaken by Wohler's synthesis of urea in 
1828. But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained 
isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted 
by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between 
the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from 
which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical 
vital force) , but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable 
fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both 
the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial 
or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or 
organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is 
determined. 1 

The exact delimitation of inorganic and organic chemistry 
engrossed many minds for many years; and on this point there 
existed considerable divergence of opinion for several decades. 
In addition to the vitalistic doctrine of the origin of organic 
compounds, views based on purely chemical considerations were 
advanced. The atomic theory, and its correlatives — the laws 
of constant and multiple proportions— had been shown to possess 
absolute validity so far as well-characterized inorganic com- 
pounds were concerned; but it was open to question whether 
organic compounds obeyed the same laws. Berzelius, in 1813 
and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that 
the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic 
and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier 
that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and 
therefore necessarily contained at least three elements — carbon, 
hydrogen and oxygen. This view was accepted in 1817 by 
Leopold Gmelin, who, in his Handbuch der Chemie, regarded 
inorganic compounds as being of binary composition (the 
simplest being oxides,, both acid and basic, which by combination 
form salts also of binary form), and organic compounds as 
ternary, i.e. composed of three elements; furthermore, he 
concluded that inorganic compounds could be synthesized, 
whereas organic compounds could not. A consequence of this 
empirical division was that marsh gas, ethylene and cyanogen 
were regarded as inorganic, and at a later date many other 
hydrocarbons of undoubtedly organic nature had to be included 
in the same division. 

The binary conception of compounds held by Berzelius received 
apparent support from the observations of Gay Lussac, in 1815, 
on the vapour densities of alcohol and ether, which pointed to 
the conclusion that these substances consisted of one molecule 
of water and one and two of ethylene respectively; and from 
Pierre Jean Robiquet and Jean Jacques Colin, showing, in 1816, 
that ethyl chloride (hydrochloric ether) could be regarded as 
a compound of ethylene and hydrochloric acid. 2 Compound 
radicals came to be regarded as the immediate constituents of 
organic compounds; and, at first, a determination of their 
empirical composition was supposed to be sufficient to char- 
acterize them. To this problem there was added another in 
about the third decade of the 19th century — namely, to determine 
'the manner in which the atoms composing the radical were 
combined; this supplementary requisite was due to the dis- 
covery of the isomerism of silver fulminate and silver cyana.te 
by Justus von Liebig in 1823, and to M. Faraday's discovery of 
butylene, isomeric with ethylene, in 1825. 

The classical investigation of Liebig and Friedrich Wohler 
on the radical of benzoic acid (" Uber das Radikal der Benzoe- 
saure," Ann. Chem., 1832, 3, p. 249) is to be regarded as a most 
important contribution to the radical theory, for it was shown 
that a radical containing the elements carbon, hydrogen and 
oxygen, which they named benzoyl (the termination yl coming 
from the Gr. iiXij, matter), formed the basis of benzaldehyde, 
benzoic acid, benzoyl chloride, benzoyl bromide and benzoyl 
sulphide, benzamide and benzoic ether. Berzelius immediately 
appreciated the importance of this discovery, notwithstanding 

1 The reader is specially referred to the articles Alizarin ; Indigo ; 
Purin and Terpenes for illustrations of the manner in which 
qhemists have artificially prepared important animal and vegetable 

2 These observations were generalized by J. B, Dumas and 
Polydore Boullay (1806-1835) in their " etherin theory " (vide infra). 

that he was compelled to reject the theory that oxygen could 
not play any part in a compound radical — a view which he 
previously considered as axiomatic; and he suggested the 
names " proin " or " orthrin " (from the Gr. Trpcot and opSpos, 
at dawn). However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier 
opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his 
electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the 
radical C14H10, which he named " picramyl " (from irucpos, 
bitter, and a/xvySaXr], almond), the peroxide being anhydrous 
benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and 
Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl 
chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a 
suboxide of ethyl, (GHs^O, which was analogous to K 2 0, while 
alcohol was an oxide of a radical C2H6; thus annihilating any 
relation between these two compounds. This view was modified 
by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the 
hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he 
attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value. 
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " 
was perceived; other radicals — formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, 
&c. — were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure 
of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined 
organic chemistry as the "chemistry of compound radicals." 
The knowledge of compound radicals received further increment 
at the hands of Robert W. Bunsen, the discoverer of the cacodyl 

The radical theory, essentially dualistic in nature in view of 
its similarity to the electrochemical theory of Berzelius, was 
destined to succumb to a unitary theory. Instances had already 
been recorded of cases where a halogen element replaced hydrogen 
with the production of a closely allied substance: Gay Lussac 
had prepared cyanogen chloride from hydrocyanic acid; Faraday, 
hexachlorethane from ethylene dichloride, &c. Here the electro- 
negative halogens exercised a function similar to electro-positive 
hydrogen. Dumas gave especial attention to such substitutions, 
named metalepsy (ixtrakqipis, exchange); and framed the 
following empirical laws to explain the reactions: — (1) a body 
containing hydrogen when substituted by a halogen loses one 
atom of hydrogen for every atom of halogen introduced; (2) the 
same holds if oxygen be present, except that when the oxygen 
is present as water the latter first loses its hydrogen without 
replacement, and then substitution according to (1) ensues. 
Dumas went no further that thus epitomizing his observations; 
and the next development was made in 1836 by Auguste Laurent, 
who, having amplified and discussed the applicability of Dumas' 
views, promulgated his Nucleus Theory, which assumed the 
existence of " original nuclei or radicals " {radicaux or noyaux 
fondamentaux) composed of carbon and hydrogen, and " derived 
nuclei " (radicaux or noyaux derives) formed from the original 
nuclei by the substitution of hydrogen or the addition of other 
elements, and having properties closely related to the primary 

Vigorous opposition was made by Liebig and Berzelius, the 
latter directing his attack against Dumas, whom he erroneously 
believed to be the author of what was, in his opinion, a pernicious 
theory. Dumas repudiated the accusation, affirming that he 
held exactly contrary views to Laurent; but only to admit 
their correctness in 1839, when, from his own researches and 
those of Laurent, Malaguti and Regnault, he formulated his 
type theory. According to this theory a " chemical type " 
embraced compounds containing the same number of equivalents 
combined in a like manner and exhibiting similar properties; 
thus acetic and trichloracetic acids, aldehyde and chloral, marsh 
gas and chloroform are pairs of compounds referable to the same 
type. He also postulated, with Regnault, the existence of 
" molecular or mechanical types " containing" substances which, 
although having the same number of equivalents, are essentially 
different in characters. His unitary conceptions may be sum- 
marized: every chemical compound forms a complete whole, 
and cannot therefore consist - of two parts; and its chemical 
character depends primarily upon the arrangement and number 
of the atoms, and, in a lesser degree, upon their chemical nature. 




More emphatic opposition to the dualistic theory of Berzelius 
was hardly possible; this illustrious chemist perceived that the 
validity of his electrochemical theory was called in question, 
and therefore he waged vigorous war upon Dumas and his 
followers. But he fought in a futile cause; to explain the facts 
put forward by Dumas he had to invent intricate and involved 
hypotheses, which, it must be said, did not meet with general 
acceptance; Liebig seceded from him, and invited Wohler to 
endeavour to correct him. Still, till the last Berzelius remained 
faithful to his original theory; experiment, which he had hitherto 
held to be the only sure method of research, he discarded, and 
in its place he substituted pure speculation, which greatly injured 
the radical theory. At the same time, however, the conception 
of radicals could not be entirely displaced, for the researches of 
Liebig and Wohler, and those made subsequently by Bunsen, 
demonstrated beyond all doubt the advantages which would 
accrue from their correct recognition. 

A step forward — the fusion of Dumas,' type theory and the 
radical theory — was made by Laurent and Charles Gerhardt. 
As early as 1842, Gerhardt in his Pricis de chimie organique 
exhibited a marked leaning towards Dumas' theory, and it is 
without doubt that both Dumas and Laurent exercised con- 
siderable influence on his views. Unwilling to discard the strictly 
unitary views of these chemists, or to adopt the copulae theory 
of Berzelius, he revived the notion of radicals in a new form. 
According to Gerhardt, the process of substitution consisted 
of the union of two residues to form a unitary whole; these 
residues, previously termed " compound radicals," are atomic 
complexes which remain over from the interaction of two 
compounds. Thus, he interpreted the interaction of benzene 
and nitric acid as C 6 H 6 +HN0 3 = C 6 H 6 N0 2 +H 2 0, the "residues" 
of benzene being C 6 H S and H, and of nitric acid HO and N0 2 . 
Similarly he represented the reactions investigated by Liebig 
and Wohler on benzoyl compounds as double decompositions. 

This rejuvenation of the notion of radicals rapidly gained 
favour; and the complete 'fusion of the radical theory with the 
theory of types was not long delayed. In 1849 C. A. Wurtz 
discovered the amines or substituted ammonias, previously 
predicted by Liebig; A. W. von Hofmann continued the investi- 
gation, and established their recognition as ammonia in which 
one or more hydrogen atoms had been replaced by hydrocarbon 
radicals, thus formulating the " ammonia type." In 1850 
A. W. Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be 
regarded as derived from water by substituting one or both 
hydrogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the 
acid anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison 
of many inorganic and the simple organic compounds he con- 
cluded that this notion of a " water-type " clarified, in no small 
measure, the conception of the structure of compounds. 

These conclusions were co-ordinated in Gerhardt's " new 
theory of types." Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, 
water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds 
were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included 
hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid 
type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the 
alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the 
analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the 
amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic 
compounds. The recognition of the polybasicity of acids, 
which followed from the researches of Thomas Graham and 
Liebig, had caused Williamson to suggest that dibasic acids could 
be referred to a double water type, the acid radical replacing an 
atom of hydrogen in each water molecule; while his discovery 
of tribasic formic ether, CH(OC 2 H>,)3, in 1854 suggested a triple 
water type. These views were extended by William Odling, and 
adopted by Gerhardt, but with modifications of Williamson's 
aspects. A further generalization was effected by August 
Kekule, who rejected the hydrochloric acid type as unnecessary, 
and introduced the methane type and condensed mixed types. 
Pointing out that condensed types can only be fused with a 
radical replacing more than one atom of hydrogen, he laid the 
foundation of the doctrine of valency, a doctrine of incalcul- 

able service to the knowledge of the structure of chemical 

At about the same time Hermann Kolbe attempted a re- 
habilitation, with certain modifications, of the dualistic con- 
ception of Berzelius. He rejected the Berzelian tenet as to the 
unalterability of radicals, and admitted that they exercised a 
considerable influence upon the compounds with which they were 
copulated. By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward 
Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in 
acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe 
concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, 
he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6 , and not 
methyl, CH 3 . From similar investigations of valerianic acid 
he was led to conclude that fatty acids were oxygen compounds 
of the radicals hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, &c, combined with the 
double carbon equivalent C 2 . Thus the radical of acetic acid, 
acetyl, 1 was C 2 H 3 -C 2 . (It will be noticed that Kolbe used the 
atomic weights H=i, C = 6, = 8, S=i6, &c; his formulae, 
however, were molecular formulae, i.e. the molecular weights 
were the same as in use to-day.) This connecting link, C 2 , was 
regarded as essential, while the methyl, ethyl, &c. was but a 
sort of appendage; but Kolbe could not clearly conceive the 
manner of copulation. 

The brilliant researches of Frankland on the organo-metallic 
compounds, and his consequent doctrine of saturation capacity 
or valency of elements and radicals, relieved Kolbe's views of 
all obscurity. The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 
1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds 
were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes. 
He was thus enabled to predict compounds then unknown, 
e.g. the secondary and tertiary alcohols; and with inestimable 
perspicacity he proved intimate relations between compounds 
previously held to be quite distinct. Lactic acid and alanine 
were shown to be oxy- and amino-propionic acids respectively; 
glycollic acid and glycocoll, oxy- and amino-acetic acids; salicylic 
and benzamic acids, oxy- and amino-benzoic acids. 

Another consequence of the doctrine of valency was that it 
permitted the graphic representation of the molecule. The 
" structure theory " (or the mode of linking of the atoms) of 
carbon compounds, founded by Butlerow, Kekule and Couper 
and, at a later date, marvellously enhanced by the doctrine of 
stereo-isomerism, due to J. H. van't Hoff and Le Bel, occupies 
such a position in organic chemistry that its value can never 
be transcended. By its aid the molecule is represented as a 
collection of atoms connected together by valencies in such a 
manner that the part played by each atom is represented; 
isomerism, or the existence of two or more chemically different 
substances having identical molecular weights, is adequately 
shown; and, most important of all, once the structure is 
determined, the synthesis of the compound is but a matter of 

In this summary the leading factors which have contributed 
to a correct appreciation of organic compounds have so far been 
considered historically, but instead of continuing this method it 
has been thought advisable to present an epitome of present-day 
conclusions, not chronologically, but as exhibiting the principles 
and subject-matter of our science. 

Classification of Organic Compounds. 
An apt definition of organic chemistry is that it is " the study 
of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives." This description, 
although not absolutely comprehensive, serves as a convenient 
starting-point for a preliminary classification, since a great 
number of substances, including the most important, are directly 
referable to hydrocarbons, being formed by replacing one or 
more hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups. Two distinct 
types of hydrocarbons exist: (1) those consisting of an open 
chain of carbon atoms — named the " aliphatic series " (aXet^ap, 
oil or fat), and (2) those consisting of a closed chain — the 
" carbocyclic series." The second series can be further divided 

1 This must not be confused with the modern acetyl, CH 3 -CO, 
which at that time was known as acetoxyl. 




into two groups: (i) those exhibiting properties closely analo- 
gous to the aliphatic series — the polymethylenes (q.v.), and (2) 
a series exhibiting properties differing in many respects from the 
aliphatic and polymethylene compounds, and characterized by 
a peculiar stability which is to be associated with the disposi- 
tion of certain carbon valencies not saturated by hydrogen— 
the " aromatic series." There also exists an extensive class of 
compounds termed the " heterocyclic series " — these compounds 
are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than 
carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic 
series than to the aliphatic. 

We now proceed to discuss the types of aliphatic compounds; 
then, the characteristic groupings having been established, an 
epitome of their derivatives will be given. Carbocyclic rings 
will next be treated, benzene and its allies in some detail; and 
finally the heterocyclic nuclei. 

Accepting the doctrine of the tetravalency of carbon (its 
divalency in such compounds as carbon monoxide, various 
isocyanides, fulminic acid, &c, and its possible trivalency in 
M. Gomberg's triphenyl-methyl play no part in what follows), 
it is readily seen that the simplest hydrocarbon has the formula 
CH 4 , named methane, in which the hydrogen atoms are of 
equal value, and which may be pictured as placed at the vertices 
of a tetrahedron, the carbon atom occupying the centre. This 
tetrahedral configuration is based on the existence of only one 
methylene dichloride, two being necessary if the carbon valencies 
were directed from the centre of a plane square to its corners, 
and on the existence of two optical isomers of the formula 
C.A.B.D.E., C being a carbon atom and A.B. D.E. being different 
monovalent atoms or radicals (see Stereoisomerism). The 
equivalence of the four hydrogen atoms of methane rested on 
indirect evidence, e.g. the existence of only one acetic acid, 
methyl chloride, and other monosubstitution derivatives — until 
the experimental proof by L. Henry (Zeit. /. Phys. Chem., 1888, 
2 > P- SS3), who prepared the four nitromethanes, CH 3 N0 2 , each 
atom in methane being successively replaced by the nitro-group. 

Henry started with methyl iodide, the formula of which we write 
in the form Cl„H(,H c Hd. This readily gave with silver nitrite a 
nitromethane in which we may suppose the nitro-group to replace 
the a hydrogen atom, i.e. C(N02)oH 6 H e Hd. The same methyl iodide 
gave with potassium cyanide, acetonitril, which was hydrolysed to 
acetic acid; this must be C(COOH)„HtH c Hrf. Chlorination of this 
substance gave a monochloracetic acid ; we will assume the chlorine 
atom to replace the b hydrogen atom. This acid with silver nitrite 
gave nitroacetic acid, which readily gave the second nitromethane, 
CH (I (N02)f,H c H < ;, identical with the first nitromethane. From the 
nitroacetic acid obtained above, malonic acid was prepared, and 
from this a monochlormalonic acid was obtained ; we assume the 
chlorine atom to replace the c hydrogen atom. This acid gives with 
silver nitrite the corresponding nitromalonic acid, which readily 
yielded the third nitromethane, CH a H(,(N02) e Hrf, also identical with 
the first. The fourth nitromethane was obtained from the nitro- 
malonic acid previously mentioned by a repetition of the method 
by which the third was prepared; this was identical with the other 

Let us now consider hydrocarbons containing 2 atoms of 
carbon. Three such compounds are possible according to the 
number of valencies acting' directly between the carbon atoms. 
Thus, if they are connected by one valency, and the remaining 
valencies saturated by hydrogen, we obtain the compound 
H3CCH3, ethane. This compound may be considered as 
derived from methane, CH 4 , by replacing a hydrogen atom by 
the monovalent group CH 3 , known as methyl; hence ethane 
may be named " methylmethane." If the carbon atoms are 
connected by two valencies, we obtain a compound H 2 C:CH 2 , 
ethylene; if by three valencies, HC-CH, acetylene. These last 
two compounds are termed unsaturated, whereas ethane is 
saturated. It is obvious that we have derived three combinations 
of carbon with hydrogen, characterized by containing a single, 
double, and triple linkage; and from each of these, by the 
substitution of a methyl group for a hydrogen atom, compounds 
of the same nature result. Thus ethane gives H 3 C-CH 2 'CH 3 , 
propane; ethylene gives H 2 C:CHCH 3 , propylene; and acety- 
lene gives HC • C-CH 3 , allylene. By continuing the introduction 
of methyl groups we obtain three series of homologous hydro- 

carbons given by the general formulae CH^^, CnH^, and 
CnKwi, each member differing from the. preceding one of the 
same series by CH 2 . It will be noticed that compounds contain- 
ing two double linkages will have the same general formula as 
the acetylene series; such compounds are known as the " diole- 
fines." Hydrocarbons containing any number of double or 
triple linkages, as well as both double and triple linkages, are 
possible, and a considerable number of such compounds have 
been prepared. 

A more complete idea of the notion of a compound radical follows 
from a consideration of the compound propane. We derived this 
substance from ethane by introducing a methvl group; hence it 
may be termed " methylethane." Equally well we may derive it 
from methane by replacing a hydrogen atom by the monovalent 
group CH 2 -CH8, named ethyl; hence propane may be considered 
as " ethylmethane." Further, since methane may be regarded as 
formed by the conjunction of a methyl group with a hydrogen atom, 
it may be named " methyl hydride "; similarly ethane is " ethyl 
hydride," propane, " propyl hydride," and so on. The importance 
of such groups as methyl, ethyl, &c. in attempting a nomenclature 
of organic compounds cannot be overestimated; these compound 
radicals, frequently termed alkyl radicals, serve a similar purpose to 
the organic chemist as the elements to the inorganic chemist. 

In methane and ethane the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, 
and no matter which one may be substituted by another element 
or group the same compound will result. In propane, on the 
other hand, the hydrogen atoms attached to the terminal 
carbon atoms differ from those joined to the medial atom; we 
may therefore expect to obtain different compounds according 
to the position of the hydrogen atom substituted. By intro- 
ducing a methyl group we may obtain CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 CH 3 , 
known as " normal " or n-butane, substitution occurring at a 
terminal atom, or CH 3 -CH(CH 3 )-CH 3 , isobutane, substitution 
occurring at the medial atom. From n-butane we may derive, 
by a similar substitution of methyl groups, the two hydrocarbons: 

(1) CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 CH 3 , and (2) CH 3 -CH(CH 3 )-CH 2 -CH 3 ; 
from isobutane we may also derive two compounds, one identical 
with (2), and a new one (3) CH 3 (CH 3 )C(CH 3 )CH 3 . These 
three hydrocarbons are isomeric, i.e. they possess the same 
formula, but differ in constitution. We notice that they may 
be differentiated as follows: (1) is built up solely of methyl and 
•CH 2 - (methylene) groups and the molecule consists of a single 
chain; such hydrocarbons are referred to as being normal; 

(2) has a branch and contains the group; CH (methine) in which 
the free valencies are attached to carbon atoms; such hydro- 
carbons are termed secondary or iso-; (3) is characterized by a 
carbon atom linked directly to four other carbon atoms; such 
hydrocarbons are known as tertiary. 

Deferring the detailed discussion of cyclic or ringed hydro- 
carbons, a correlation of the various types or classes of compounds 
which may be derived from hydrocarbon nuclei will now be given. 
It will be seen that each type depends upon a specific radical 
or atom, and the copulation of this character with any hydro- 
carbon radical (open or cyclic) gives origin to a compound of 
the same class. 

It is convenient first to consider the effect of introducing one, 
two, or three hydroxyl (OH) groups into the -CH 3 , > CH 2 , and 
?»CH groups, which we have seen to characterize the different 
types of hydrocarbons. It may be noticed here that cyclic 
nuclei can only contain the groups > CH 2 . and ^ CH, the first 
characterizing the polymethylene and reduced heterocyclic 
compounds, the second true aromatic compounds. 

Substituting one hydroxyl group into each of these residues, we 
obtain radicals of the type-CH 2 -OH, >CHOH, and >C-OH; 
these compounds are known as alcohols (q.v.), and are termed primary, 
secondary, and tertiary respectively. Polymethylenes can give only 
secondary and tertiary alcohols, benzene only tertiary; these latter 
compounds are known as phenols. A second hydroxyl group may be 
introduced into the residues — CH 2 -OH and >CH-OH, with the 
production of radicals of the form — CH(OH) 2 and >C(OH) 2 . 
Compounds containing these groupings are, however, rarely observed 
(see Chloral), and it is generally found that when compounds of 
these types are expected, the elements of water are split off, and the 
typical groupings are reduced to — CH : O and > C : 0. Compounds 
containing the group — CH:0 are known as aldehydes {q.v.), while 
the group >C:0 (sometimes termed the carbonyl or keto group) 
characterizes the ketones (q.v.). A third hydroxyl group may be 



5 1 

introduced into the — CH : O residue with the formation of the radical 
— C(OH):0; this is known as the carboxyl group, and characterizes 
the organic acids. 

Sulphur analogues of these oxygen compounds are known. Thus 
the thio-alcohols or mercaptans (q.v.) contain the group — CH 2 -SH; 
and the elimination of the elements of sulphuretted hydrogen 
between two molecules of a tbio-alcohol results in the formation of a 
thio-ether or sulphide, R 2 S. Oxidation of thio-etbers results in the 
formation of sulphoxides, R 2 : S : O, and sulphones, R 2 : SO2 ; 
oxidation of mercaptans yields sulphonic acids, R-SOjH, and of 
sodium mercaptides sulphinic acids, R-SO(OH). We may also 
notice that thio-ethers combine with alkyl iodides to form sulphine 
or sulphonium compounds, Rj • SI. Thio-aldehydes, thio-ketones 
and thio-acids also exist. 

We proceed to consider various simple derivatives of the 
alcohols, which we may here regard as hydroxy hydrocarbons, 
R-OH, where R is an alkyl radical, either aliphatic or cyclic in 

Of these, undoubtedly the simplest are the ethers (q.v.), formed by 
the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules of 
the same alcohol, " simple ethers," or of different alcohols, " mixed 
ethers." These compounds may be regarded as oxides in just the 
same way as the alcohols are regarded as hydroxides. In fact, the 
analogy between the alkyl groups and metallic elements forms a 
convenient basis from which to consider many derivatives. Thus 
from ethyl alcohol there can be prepared compounds, termed esters 
(q.v.), or ethereal salts, exactly comparable in structure with corres- 
ponding salts of, say, potassium; by the action of the phosphorus 
haloids, the hydroxyl group is replaced by a halogen atom with the 
formation of derivatives of the type R-Cl(Br.I); nitric acid forms 
nitrates, R-0-N02; nitrous acid, nitrites, R-O-NO; sulphuric acid 
gives normal sulphates R2SO4, or acid sulphates, R-S04H. Organic 
acids also condense with alcohols to form similar compounds : the 
fats, waxes, and essential oils are naturally occurring substances of 
this class. 

An important class of compounds, termed amines (q.v.), results 
from the condensation of alcohols with ammonia, water being 
eliminated between the alcoholic hydroxyl group and a hydrogen 
atom of the ammonia. Three types of amines are possible and have 
been prepared : primary, R-NH 2 ; secondary, R 2 : NH; and tertiary, 
R3.N1 the oxamines, R 3 N:0, are closely related to the tertiary 
ammonias, which also unite with a molecule of alkyl iodide to form 
salts of quaternary ammonium bases, e.g. R4N-I. It is worthy of 
note that phosphorus and arsenic bases analogous to the amines 
are known (see Phosphorus and Arsenic). From the primary 
amines are derived the diazo compounds (q.v.) and azo compounds 
(q.v.); closely related are the hydrazines (q.v.). Secondary amines 
yield nitrosamines, R 2 N-NO, with nitrous acid. By the action of 
hydroxy lamine or phenylhydrazine on aldehydes or ketones, con- 
densation occurs between the carbonyl oxygen of the aldehyde or 
ketone and the amino group of the hydroxylamine or hydrazine. 
Thus with hydroxylamine aldehydes yield aldoximes, R-CH : N-OH, 
and ketones, ketoximes, R 2 C:N-OH (see Oximes), while phenyl 
hydrazine gives phenylhydrazones, R2C:N-NH-C 6 H 6 (see Hydra- 
zones). Oxyaldehydes and oxyketones (viz. compounds containing 
an oxy in addition to an aldehydic or ketonic group) undergo 
both condensation and oxidation when treated with phenylhydrazine, 
forming compounds known as osozones; these are of great import- 
ance in characterizing the sugars (q.v.). 

The carboxyl group constitutes another convenient starting- 
point for the orientation of many types of organic compounds. 
This group may be considered as resulting from the fusion of a 
carbonyl (:CO) and a hydroxyl (H0-) group; and we may 
expect to meet with compounds bearing structural resemblances 
to the derivatives of alcohols and aldehydes (or ketones). 

Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations 
of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion 
of a radical R-CO — (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c, generally 
according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same 
number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the 
hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result ; by the elimination 
of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, 
which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl 
group by the group -SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino 
group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group — NH-NH 2 , 
acid-hydrazides. The structural relations of these compounds are 
here shown : 


acid-chloride ; 
acid-amide ; 

(R-CO) 2 0; R-CO-SH; 
acid-anhydride ; thio-acid ; 

R-CO-NH-NH 2 . 



It is necessary clearly to distinguish such compounds as 
amino- (or amido-) acids and acid-amides; in the first case 
amino group is substituted in the hydrocarbon residue, in the second 
it is substituted in the carboxyl group. 

By transformations of the carbonyl group, and at the same time 
of the hydroxyl group, many interesting types of nitrogen com- 
pounds may be correlated. 

Thus from the acid-amides, which we have seen to be closely related 
to the acids themselves, we obtain, by replacing the carbonyl oxygen 
by chlorine, the acidamido-chlorides, R-CC1 2 -NH 2 , from which are 
derived the imido-chlorides, R-CC1:NH, by loss of one molecule of 
hydrochloric acid. By replacing the chlorine in the imido-chloride 
by an oxyalkyl group we obtain the imido-ethers, R-C(OR'):NH; 
and by an amino group, the amidines, R-C(NH 2 ):NH. The 
carbonyl oxygen may also be replaced by the oxime group, : N-OH ; 
thus the acids yield the hydroxamic acids, R-C(OH) : NOH, and the 
acid-amides the amidoximes, R-C(NH 2 ) : NOH. Closely related to 
the amidoximes are the nitrolic acids, R-C(N0 2 ) : NOH. 

Cyclic Hydrocarbons and Nuclei. 

Having passed in rapid review the various types of compounds 
derived by substituting for hydrogen various atoms or groups of 
atoms in hydrocarbons (the separate articles on specific com- 
pounds should be consulted for more detailed accounts), we now 
proceed to consider the closed chain compounds. Here we meet 
with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and 
other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a 
great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which 
exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in 
so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as 
compound radicals. In classifying closed chain compounds, the 
first step consists in dividing them into: (1) carbocyclic, in which 
the ring is composed solely of carbon atoms — these are also 
known as homocyclic or isocyclic on account of the identity of the 
members of the ring — and (2) heterocyclic, in which different 
elements go to make up the ring. Two primary divisions of 
carbocyclic compounds may be conveniently made: (1) those 
in which the carbon atoms are completely saturated — these are 
known by the generic term polymethylenes, their general formula 
being (CH 2 )„: it will be noticed that they are isomeric with 
ethylene and its homologues; they differ, however, from this 
series in not containing a double linkage, but have a ringed 
structure; and (2) those containing fewer hydrogen atoms than 
suffice to saturate the carbon valencies— these are known as the 
aromatic compounds proper, or as benzene compounds, from the 
predominant part which benzene plays in their constitution. 

It was long supposed that the simplest ring obtainable con- 
tained six atoms of carbon, and the discovery of trimethylene 
in 1882 by August Freund by the action of sodium on trimethylene 
bromide, Br(CH 2 ) 3 Br, came somewhat as a surprise, especially 
in view of its behaviour with bromine and hydrogen bromide. 
In comparison with the isomeric propylene, CH 3 -HC:CH 2 , it is 
remarkably inert, being only very slowly attacked by bromine, 
which readily combines with propylene. But on the other hand, 
it is readily converted by hydrobromic acid into normal propyl 
bromide, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 Br. The separation of carbon atoms 
united by single affinities in this manner at the time the observa- 
tion was made was altogether without precedent. A similar 
behaviour has since been noticed in other trimethylene deri- 
vatives, but the fact that bromine, which usually acts so much 
more readily than hydrobromic acid on unsaturated compounds, 
should be so inert when hydrobromic acid acts readily is one still 
needing a satisfactory explanation. A great impetus was given to 
the study of polymethylene derivatives by the important and 
unexpected observation made by W. H. Perkin, junr., in 1883, 
that ethylene and trimethylene bromides are capable of acting 
in such a way on sodium acetoacetic ester as to form tri- and tetra- 
methylene rings. Perkin has himself contributed largely to our 
knowledge of such compounds; penta- and hexa-methylene 
derivatives have also received considerable attention (see 
Polymethylenes) . 

A. von Baeyer has sought to explain the variations in stability 
manifest in the various polymethylene rings by a purely 
mechanical hypothesis, the " strain " or Spannungs theory 
(Ber., 1885, p. 2277). Assuming the four valencies of the 
carbon atom to be directed from the centre of a regular teta^ 
hedron towards its four corners, the angle at which they meet 
is 100 ° 28'. Baeyer supposes that in the formation of carbon 




" rings " the valencies become deflected from their positions, and 
that the tension thus introduced may be deduced from a com- 
parison of this angle with the angles at which the strained 
valencies would meet. He regards the amount of deflection as 
a measure x>f the stability of the " ring." The readiness with 
which ethylene is acted on in comparison with other types of 
hydrocarbon, for example, is in harmony, he considers, with 
the circumstance that the greatest distortion must be involved 
in its formation, as if deflected into parallelism each valency will 
be drawn out of its position through J. 109° 28'. The values in 
other cases are calculable from the formula 5( io 9° 28' — a), where 
a is the internal angle of the regular polygon contained by sides 
equal in number to the number of the carbon atoms composing 
the ring. These values are: — 

i(i09°28'-6o°)=24 44'. 

i('io9°28'-io8°)=o°44'. 1(109' 

Ki09°28'- 9 o*)=9°44'. 

The general behaviour of the several types of hydrocarbons is 
certainly in accordance with this conception, and it is a remark- 
able fact that when benzene is reduced with hydriodic acid, it is 
converted into a mixture of hexamethylene and methylpenta- 
methylene (cf. W. Markownikov, Ann., 1898, 302, p. 1); and 
many other cases of the conversion of six-carbon rings into five- 
carbon rings have been recorded (see below, Decompositions of 
the Benzene Ring). Similar considerations will apply to rings 
containing other elements besides carbon. As an illustration it 
may be pointed out that in the case of the two known types of 
lactones — the 7-lactones, which contain four carbon atoms and 
one oxygen atom in the ring, are more readily formed and more 
stable (less readily hydrolysed) than the 5-lactones, which 
contain one oxygen and five carbon atoms in the ring. That the 
number of atoms which can be associated in a ring by single 
affinities is limited there can be no doubt, but there is not yet 
sufficient evidence to show where the limit must be placed. Baeyer 
has suggested that his hypothesis may also be applied to explain 
the instability of acetylene and its derivatives, and the still 
greater instability of the polyacetylene compounds. 

The ringed structure of benzene, C 6 H 6 , was first suggested in 
1865 by August Kekule, who represented the molecule by six 
CH groups placed at the six angles of a regular hexagon, the sides 
of which denoted the valencies saturated by adjacent carbon 
atoms, the fourth valencies of each carbon atom being represented 
as saturated along alternate sides. This formula, notwithstand- 
ing many attempts at both disproving and modifying it, has well 
stood the test of time; the subject has been the basis of constant 
discussion, many variations have been proposed, but the original 
conception of Kekule remains quite as convenient as any of the 
newer forms, especially when considering the syntheses and 
decompositions of the benzene complex. It will be seen, however, 
that the absolute disposition of the fourth valency may be 
ignored in a great many cases, and consequently the complex may 
be adequately represented as a hexagon. This symbol is in 
general use; it is assumed that at each corner there is a CH 
group which, however, is not always written in; if a hydrogen 
atom be substituted by another group, then this group is 
attached to the corner previously occupied by the displaced 
hydrogen. The following diagrams illustrate these statements : — - 


Hcl^JcH [^J HcH^JcH 


Benzene, Abbreviated. Oxytcnzene. Abbreviated. 

' From the benzene nucleus we can derive other aromatic nuclei, 
graphically represented by fusing two or more hexagons along 
common sides. By fusing two nuclei we obtain the formula of 
naphthalene, CioHs ; by fusing three, the hydrocarbons anthracene 
and phenanthrene, C14H10; by fusing four, chrysene, C 18 Hi 2 , and 
possibly pyrene, Ci 6 Hm; by fusing five, picene, C 22 Hi4. But it 
must be here understood that each member of these condensed nuclei 
need not necessarily be identical in structure; thus the central 
nuclei in anthracene and phenanthrene differ very considerably 
from the terminal nuclei (see below, Condensed Nuclei). Other 




hydrocarbon nuclei generally classed as aromatic in character result 
from the union of two or more benzene nuclei joined by one or two 
valencies with polymethylene or oxidized poly methylene rings; 
instances of such nuclei are indene, hydrindene, nuorene, and fluor- 
anthene. From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may 
be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any 
of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification 
of organic compounds. 

We now proceed to consider the properties, syntheses, decom- 
positions and constitution of the benzene complex. It has 
already been stated that benzene derivatives may be 
regarded as formed by the replacement of hydrogen 
atoms by other elements or radicals in exactly the 
same manner as in the aliphatic series. Important 
differences, however, are immediately met with 
when we consider the methods by which derivatives 
are obtained. For example: nitric acid and sulphuric 
acid readily react with benzene and its homologues with the 
production of nitro derivatives and sulphonic acids, while in the 
aliphatic series these acids exert no substituting action (in the 
case of the defines, the latter acid forms an addition product) ; 
another distinction is that the benzene complex is more stable 
towards oxidizing agents. This and other facts connected with 
the stability of benzenoid compounds are clearly shown when 
we consider mixed aliphatic-aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. com- 
pounds derived by substituting aliphatic radicals in the benzene 
nucleus; such a compound is methylbenzene or toluene, 
CeH 5 -CH 3 . This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, 
CeH 5 -COOH, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric 
and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H 4 -CH 3 -N0 2 , 
and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 Hi-CH 3 -S0 3 H; chlorination 
may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either 
in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitu- 
tion occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 -CH 3 -C1, being 
formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature 
or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C6H 6 -CH 2 C1, and 
benzal chloride, CeH 5 -CHCl 2 . In general, the aliphatic residues 
in such mixed compounds retain the characters of their class, 
while the aromatic residues retain the properties of benzene. 

Further differences become apparent when various typical 
compounds are compared. The introduction of hydroxyl 
groups into the benzene nucleus gives rise to compounds generic- 
ally named phenols, which, although resembling the aliphatic 
alcohols in their origin, differ from these substances in their 
increased chemical activity and acid nature. The phenols 
more closely resemble the tertiary alcohols, since the hydroxyl 
group is linked to a carbon atom which is united to other carbon 
atoms by its remaining three valencies; hence on oxidation they 
cannot yield the corresponding aldehydes, ketones or acids 
(see below, Decompositions of the Benzene Ring). The amines 
also exhibit striking differences: in the aliphatic series these 
compounds may be directly formed from the alkyl haloids and 
ammonia, but in the benzene series this reaction is quite im- 
possible unless the haloid atom be weakened by the presence of 
other substituents, e.g. nitro groups. Moreover, while methyl- 
amine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity 
corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, 
phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine 
are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine 
being decomposed by water. Mixed aromatic-aliphatic amines, 
both secondary and tertiary, are also more strongly basic than 
the pure aromatic amines, and less basic than the true aliphatic 
compounds; e.g. aniline, C6H5NH2, monomethyl aniline, 
CcHs-NH-CHs, and dimethyl aniline, C6H 5 -N(CH 3 ) 2 , are in 
increasing order of basicity. These observations may be sum- 
marized by saying that the benzene nucleus is more negative 
in character than the aliphatic residues. 

Isomerism of Benzene Derivatives. — Although Kekule founded 
his famous benzene formula in 1865 on the assumptions that 
the six hydrogen atoms in benzene are equivalent and that the 
molecule is symmetrical, i.e. that two pairs of hydrogen atoms 
are symmetrically situated with reference to any specified 
hydrogen atom, the absolute demonstration of the validity of 




these assumptions was first given by A. Ladenburg in 1874 
(see Ber., 1874, 7, p. 1684; 1875, 8, p. 1666; Theorie der 
aromatischen Verbindungen, 1876). These results may be 
graphically represented as follows: numbering the hydrogen 
atoms in cyclical order from 1 to 6, then the first thesis demands 
that whichever atom is substituted the same compound results, 
while the second thesis points out that the pairs 2 and 6, and 3 
and 5 are symmetrical with respect to 1, or in other words, the 
di-substitution derivatives 1.2 and 1.6, and also 1.3 and 1.5 are 
identical. Therefore three di-derivatives are possible, viz. 
1.2 or 1.6, named ortho- (0), 1.3 or 1.5, named meta- (m), and 
1.4, named para- compounds (p). In the same way it may be 
shown that three tri-substitution, three tetra-substitution, one 
penta-substitution, and one hexa-substitution derivative are 
possible. Of the tri-substitution derivatives, i.2.3.-compounds 
are known as " adjacent " or " vicinal " (v), the 1.2.4 as " asym- 
metrical " (as), the 1. 3.5 as "symmetrical " 0); of the tetra- 
substitution derivatives, are known as 
" adjacent," as " asymmetrical," and as " sym- 

Tetra- derivatives 


Tri- derivatives 

O'0-O a O'-O. CeO-O" 

Here we have assumed the substituent groups to be alike; 
when they are unlike, a greater number of isomers is possible. 
Thus in the tri-substitution derivatives six isomers, and no 
more, are possible when two of the substituents are alike; for 
instance, six diaminobenzoic acids, GsH^NH^COOH, are 
known; when all are unlike ten isomers are possible; thus, 
ten oxytoluic acids, C 6 H 3 CH 3 -OH-COOH, are known. In the 
case of tetra-substituted compounds, thirty isomers are possible 
when all the groups are different. 

The preceding considerations render it comparatively easy to 
follow the reasoning on which the experimental verification of the 
above statements is based. The proof is divided into two 
Eqaiva- p arts: ( r ) tna t four hydrogen atoms are equal, and (2) 
leoceof that twQ pa ; rs Q f hydrogen atoms are symmetrical with 
four hydro- re f erencetoa specified hydrogen atom. In the first thesis, 
gen atoms. phenoloroxybenzene! C 6 H 6 -OH,inwhichwewillassumethe 
hydroxyl group to occupy position I, is converted into brombenzene, 
which is then converted into benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 -COOH. From this 
substance, an oxybenzoic acid (meta-), C 6 H4-OH-COOH, may be 
prepared; and the two other known oxybenzoic acids (ortho- and 
para-) may be converted into benzoic acid. These three acids yield 
on heating phenol, identical with the substance started with, and 
since in the three oxybenzoic acids the hydroxyl groups must occupy 
positions other than I, it follows that four hydrogen atoms are equal 
in value. 

R. Hiibner and A. Petermann (Ann., 1869, 149, p. 129) provided 
the proof of the equivalence of the atoms 2 and 6 with respect 
to 1. From meta-brombenzoicacid twonitrobrombenzoic 
Symmetry ac ; c j s are obtained on direct nitration ; elimination of the 
o/pa/rs of bromine atom anc j the reduction of the nitro to an amino 
hyarogen g roU p ; n t nese two acids results in the formation of the same 
a oms. ortho-aminobenzoicacid. Hencethepositionsoccupiedby 
the nitro groups in the two different nitrobrombenzoic acids must be 
symmetrical with respect to the carboxyl group. In 1879, Hiibner 
(Ann., 195, p. 4) proved the equivalence of the second pair, viz. 
3 and 5, by starting out with ortho-aminobenzoic acid, previously 
obtained by two different methods. This substance readily yields 
ortho-oxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid, which on nitration yields two 
mononitro-oxybenzoic acids. By eliminating the hydroxy groups 
in these acids the same nitrobenzoic acid is obtained, which yields 
on reduction an aminobenzoic acid different from the starting-out 
acid. Therefore there must be another pair of hydrogen atoms, 
other than 2 and 6, which are symmetrical with respect to 1. The 
symmetry of the second pair was also established in 1878 by E. 
Wroblewsky (Ann., 192, p. 196). 

Orientation of Substituent Groups. — The determination of the 
relative positions of the substituents in a benzene derivative 
constitutes an important factor in the general investigation 
of such compounds. Confining our attention, for the present, to 
di-substitution products we see that there are three distinct 
series of compounds to be considered. Generally if any group 
be replaced by another group, then the second group enters the 
nucleus in the position occupied by the displaced group; this 

means that if we can definitely orientate three di-derivatives 
of benzene, then any other compound, which can be obtained 
from or converted into one of our typical derivatives, may be 
definitely orientated. Intermolecular transformations — migra- 
tions of substituent groups from one carbon atom to another — 
are of fairly common occurrence among oxy compounds at 
elevated temperatures. Thus potassium ortho-oxybenzoate is 
converted into the salt of para-oxybenzoic acid at 220 ; the 
three bromphenols, and also the brombenzenesulphonic acids, 
yield w-dioxybenzene or resorcin when fused with potash. It is 
necessary, therefore, to avoid reactions involving such inter- 
molecular migrations when determining the orientation of 
aromatic compounds. 

Such a series of typical compounds are the benzene dicarboxylic 
acids (phthalic acids), C 6 H4(COOH) 2 . C. Graebe (Ann., 1869, 149, 
p. 22) orientated the ortho-compound or phthalic acid from its 
formation from naphthalene on oxidation; the meta-compound or 
isophthalic acid is orientated by its production from mesitylene, 
shown by A. Ladenburg (Ann., 1875, 179, p. 163) to be symmetrical 
trimethyl benzene; terephthalic acid, the remaining isomer, must 
therefore be the para-compound. 

P. Griess (Ber., 1872, 5, p. 192; 1874, 7, p. 1223) orientated the 
three diaminobenzenes or phenylene diamines by considering their 
preparation by the elimination of the carboxyl group in the six 
diaminobenzoic acids. The diaminobenzene resulting from two of 
these acids is the ortho-compound ; from three, the meta- ; and 
from one the para- ; this is explained by the following scheme : — 

p™. p™, (y»r) A pi 




NH, NH, 


W. Korner (Gazz. Chem. Ital., 4, p. 305) in 1874 orientated the 
three dibrombenzenes in a somewhat similar manner. Starting with 
the three isomeric compounds, he found that one gave two tribrom- 
benzenes, another gave three, while the third gave only one. A 
scheme such as the preceding one shows that the first dibrombenzene 
must be the ortho-compound, the second the meta-, and the third 
the para-derivative. Further research in this direction was made by 
D. E. Noetling (Ber., 1885, 18, p. 2657), who investigated the nitro-, 
amino-, and oxy-xylenes in their relations to the three xylenes or 
dimethyl benzenes. 

The orientation of higher substitution derivatives is determined 
by considering the di- and tri-substitution compounds into which 
they can be transformed. 

Substitution of the Benzene Ring. — -As a general rule, homologues 
and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with sub- 
stituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, 
phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine 
water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar 
activity characterizes aniline. Not only does the substituent 
group modify the readiness with which the derivative is attacked, 
but also the nature of the product. Starting with a mono- 
derivative, we have seen that a substituent group may enter 
in either of three positions to form an ortho-, meta-, or para- 
compound. Experience has shown that such mono-derivatives 
as nitro compounds, sulphonic acids, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, 
and ketones yield as a general rule chiefly the meta-compounds, 
and this is independent of the nature of the second group in- 
troduced; on the other hand, benzene haloids, amino-, 
homologous-, and hydroxy-benzenes yield principally a mixture 
of the ortho- and para-compounds. These facts are embodied 
in the " Rule of Crum Brown and J. Gibson " (Jour. Chem. Soc. 
61, p. 367): If the hydrogen compound of the substituent 
already in the benzene nucleus can be directly oxidized to the 
corresponding hydroxyl compound, then meta-derivatives 
predominate on further substitution, if not, then ortho- and para- 
derivatives. By further substitution of ortho- and para-di- 
derivatives, in general the same tri-derivative [1.2.4] is formed 
(Ann., 1878, 192, p. 219); meta-compounds yield [1.3.4] and 
[1.2.3] tri-derivatives, except in such cases as when both sub- 
stituent groups are strongly acid, e.g. w-dinitrobenzene, then 
[i.3.5]-derivatives are obtained. 

Syntheses of the Benzene Ring. — The characteristic distinctions 




which exist between aliphatic and benzenoid compounds make 
the transformations of one class into the other especially 

In the first place we may notice a tendency of several aliphatic 
compounds, e.g. methane, tetrachlormethane, &c, to yield aromatic 
compounds when subjected to a high temperature, the so-called 
pyrogenetic reactions (from Greek wvp, fire, and yew&.<*>, I produce) ; 
the predominance of benzenoid, and related compounds — naphtha- 
lene, anthracene, phenanthrene, &c. — in coal-tar is probably to be 
associated with similar pyrocondensations. Long-continued treat- 
ment with halogens may, in some cases, result in the formation of 
aromatic compounds; thus perchlorbenzene, CoCIs, frequently 
appears as a product of exhaustive chlorination, while hexyl iodide, 
CbHijI, yields perchlor- and perbrom-benzene quite readily. 

The trimolecular polymerization of numerous acetylene com- 
pounds — substances containing two trebly linked carbon atoms, 
— C:C — , to form derivatives of benzene is of considerable interest. 
M. P. E. Berthelot first accomplished the synthesis of benzene in 
1870 by leading acetylene, HC • CH, through tubes heated to dull 
redness; at higher temperatures the action becomes reversible, 
the benzene yielding diphenyl, diphenylbenzene, and acetylene. 
The condensation of acetylene to benzene is also possible at ordinary 
temperatures by leading the gas over pyrophoric iron, nickel, 
cobalt, or spongy platinum (P. Sabatier and J. B. Senderens). 
The homologues of acetylene condense more readily; thus allylene, 
CH • OCH3, and crotonylene, CH3-CI OCH 3 , yield trimethyl- and 
hexamethyl-benzene under the influence of sulphuric acid. Toluene 
or mono-methylbenzene results from the pyrocondensation of a 
mixture of acetylene and allylene. Substituted acetylenes also 
exhibit this form of condensation; for instance, bromacetylene, 
BrC : CH, is readily converted into tribrombenzene, while propiolic 
acid, HC ■ C-COOH, under the influence of sunlight, gives benzene 
tricarboxylic acid. 

A larger and more important series of condensations may be 
grouped together as resulting from the elimination of the elements 
of water between carbonyl (CO) and methylene (CH 2 ) groups. 
A historic example is that of the condensation of three molecules of 
acetone, CH 3 -CO-CH 3 , in the presence of sulphuric acid, to s-tri- 
methylbenzene or mesitylene, C6H 3 (CH 3 )3, first observed in 1837 by 
R. Kane; methylethyl ketone and methyl- n-propyl ketone suffer 
similar condensations to j-triethylbenzene and s-tri-n-propylbenzene 
respectively. Somewhat similar condensations are : of geranial or 
citral, (CH 3 ) 2 CH-CHrCH:CH-C(CH 3 ):CH-CHO, to />-isopropyl- 
methylbenzene or cymene; of the condensation product of methyl- 
ethylacrolein and acetone, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH:C(CH 3 )-CH:CH-CO-CH3, 
to [1. 3. 4]-trimethylbenzene or pseudocumene ; and of the con- 
densation product of two molecules of isovaleryl aldehyde with one 
of acetone, C 3 H 7 -CH 2 -CH:C(C3H T )-CH:CH-CO-CH 3 , to (i)-methyl- 
2-4-di-isopropyl benzene. An analogous synthesis is that of di- 
hydro-m-xylenefrommethylheptenone,(CH 3 )2C:CH-(CH 2 ) 2 -CO-CHs. 
Certain o-diketones condense to form benzenoid quinones, two 
molecules of the diketone taking part in the reaction; thus diacetyl, 
CH 3 -CO-CO-CH 3 , yields £-xyloquinone, CeH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 2 {Ber., 1888, 

21, p. 141 1), and acetylpropionyl, CHs'C0-CO-C 2 ri 6 , yields duro- 
quinone, or tetramethylquinone, C 6 (CH 3 )402, Oxymethylene com- 
pounds, characterized by the grouping >C:CH(OH), also give 
benzene derivatives by hydrolytic condensation between three 
molecules; thus oxymethylene acetone, or formyl acetone, 
CHrCO-CH :CH(OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone 
in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [i.3.5]-triacetyl- 
benzene, C6H 3 (CO-CH 3 ) 3 ; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl 
acetic ester or /3-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH-C0 2 C 2 H5, formed by 
condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular 
condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.5]- 
benzene tricarboxylic acid or trimesic acid (see Ber., 1887, 20, 
p. 2930). 

In 1890, 0. Doebner (Ber. 23, p. 2377) investigated the condensation 
of pyroracemic acid, CH 3 -CO-COOH, with various aliphatic alde- 
hydes, and obtained from two molecules of the acid and one of the 
aldehyde in the presence of baryta water alkylic isophthalic acids: 
with acetaldehyde [l.3.5]-methylisophthalic acid or uvitic acid, 
C 6 H 3 -CH 3 -(COOH) 2) was obtained, with propionic aldehyde [1.3.5]- 
ethylisophthalic acid, and with butyric aldehyde the corresponding 
propylisophthalic acid. We may here mention the synthesis of 
oxyuvitic ester (5-methyl-4-oxy-i-3-benzene dicarboxylic ester) by 
the condensation of two molecules of sodium acetoacetic ester 
with one of chloroform (Ann., 1883, 222, p. 249). Of other 
syntheses of true benzene derivatives, mention may be made of 
the formation of orcinol or [3 -5]-dioxy toluene from dehydracetic 
acid; and the formation of esters of oxytoluic acid (5-methyl- 
3-oxy-benzoic acid), C 6 H 3 -CH 3 -OH-COOH,when acetoneoxalic ester, 
CH 3 -CO-CH 2 -CO-CO-C0 2 C 2 H5, is boiled with baryta (Ber., 1889,' 

22, p. 3271). Of interest also are H. B. Hill and J. Torray's observa- 
tions on nitromalonic aldehyde, N0 2 'CH(CHO) 2 , formed by acting on 
mucobromic acid, probably CHO-CBr:CBr:COOH, with alkaline 
nitrites; this substance condenses with acetone to give £-nitrophenol, 
and forms [i.3.5]-trinitrobenzene when its sodium salt is decomposed 
with an acid. 

By passing carbon monoxide over heated potassium J. von Liebig 

discovered, in 1834, an interesting aromatic compound, potassium 
carbon monoxide or potassium hexaoxybenzene, the nature of 
which was satisfactorily cleared up by R. Nietzki and T. Benckiser 
(Ber. 18, p. 499) in 1885, who showed that it yielded hexaoxy- 
benzene, C 6 (Ofi) 6 , when acted upon with dilute hydrochloric acid; 
further investigation of this compound brought to light a consider- 
able number of highly interesting derivatives (see Quinones). 
Another hexa-substituted benzene compound capable of direct 
synthesis is mellitic acid or benzene carboxylic acid, C 6 (COOH) 6 . 
This substance, first obtained from the mineral honeystone, alu- 
minium mellitate, by M. H. Klaproth in 1799, is obtained when pure 
carbon (graphite or charcoal) is oxidized by alkaline permanganate, 
or when carbon forms the positive pole in an electrolytic cell (Ber., 
1883, 16, p. 1209). The composition of this substance was deter- 
mined by A. von Baeyer in 1870, who obtained benzene on distilling 
the calcium salt with lime. 

Hitherto we have generally restricted ourselves to syntheses 
which result in the production of a true benzene ring; but there 
are many reactions by which reduced benzene rings are synthesized, 
and from the compounds so obtained true benzenoid compounds 
may be prepared. Of such syntheses we may notice: the con- 
densation of sodium malonic ester to phloroglucin tricarboxylic 
ester, a substance which gives phloroglucin or trioxybenzene when 
fused with alkalis, and behaves both as a triketohexamethylene 
tricarboxylic ester and as a trioxybenzene tricarboxylic ester; the 
condensation of succinic ester, (CH 2 -C0 2 C 2 H 5 ) 2 , under the influence 
of sodium to succinosuccinic ester, a diketohexamethylene di- 
carboxylic ester, which readily yields dioxyterephthalic acid and 
hydroquinone (F. Herrmann, Ann., 1882, 211, p. 306; also see below, 
Configuration of the Benzene Complex) ; the condensation of acetone 
dicarboxylic ester with malonic ester to form triketohexamethylene 
dicarboxylic ester (E. Rimini, Gazz. Chem., 1896, 26, (2), p. 374); 
the condensation of acetone-di-propionic acid under the influence 
of boiling water to a diketohexamethylene propionic acid (von 
Pechmann and Sidgwick, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 3816). Many diketo 
compounds suffer condensation between two molecules to form 
hydrobenzene derivatives; thus o,y-di-acetoglutaric ester, 
C 2 H50 2 C(CH 3 -CO)CH-CH2-CH(CO-CH 3 )C0 2 C 2 H 6 , yields a methyl- 
ketohexamethylene,whiley-acetobutyricester,CH 3 CO(CH2) 2 C02C 2 H 6 , 
is converted into dihydroresorcinol or w-diketohexamethylene by 
sodium ethylate; this last reaction is reversed by baryta (see De- 
compositions of Benzene Ring). For other syntheses of hexamethylene 
derivatives, see Polymethylenes. 

Decompositions of the Benzene Ring. — We have previously 
alluded to the relative stability of the benzene complex; con- 
sequently reactions which lead to its disruption are all the more 
interesting, and have engaged the attention of many chemists. 
If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we 
may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either 
by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or 
hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open 
chain compounds. Generally rupture occurs at more than one 
point; and rarely are the six carbon atoms of the complex 
regained as an open chain. Certain compounds withstand ring 
decomposition much more strongly than others; for instance, 
benzene and its homologues, carboxylic acids, and nitro com- 
pounds are much more stable towards oxidizing agents than 
amino- and oxy-benzenes, aminophenols, quinones, and oxy- 
carboxylic acids. 

Strong oxidation breaks the benzene complex into such compounds 
as carbon dioxide, oxalic acid, formic acid, &c. ; such decompositions 
are of little interest. More important are Kekule's „, . 
observations that nitrous acid oxidizes pyrocatechol or "iSatl a 
[i.2]-dioxybenzene, and protocatechuic acid or [3.4]- x ° ' 
dioxybenzoic acid to dioxytartaric acid, (C(0H) 2 -C00H) 2 (Ann., 
1883, 221, p. 230); and O. Doebner's preparation of mesotartaric 
acid, the internally compensated tartaric acid, (CH(OH)-C60h) s , 
by oxidizing phenol with dilute potassium permanganate (Ber., 1891, 
24, p. 1753). 

For many years it had been known that a mixture of potassium 
chlorate and hydrochloric or sulphuric acids possessed strong 
oxidizing powers. L. Carius showed that potassium 
chlorate and sulphuric acid oxidized benzene to trichlor- J-"' ™'*" 
phenomalic acid, a substance afterwards investigated by £,??, 
Kekule and O. Strecker (Ann., 1884, 223, p. 170), and ox ' aatioa - 
shown to be 0-trichloracetoacrylic acid, CCl 3 -CO-CH:CH-COOH. 
which with baryta gave chloroform and maleic acid. Potassium 
chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxy- 
benzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri- 
chlor pyroracem ic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CCl3-C(OH) 2 -C0 2 H, 
a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CCl s -CO-CN, by 
hydrolysis. We may also notice the conversion of picric acid. 
[2.4.6]-trinitrophenol) into chloropicrin, CCI3NO2, bybleaching lime 
(calcium hypochlorite), and into bromopicrin, CBrjNOa, by bromine 




The action of chlorine upon di- and tri-oxybenzenes has been 
carefully investigated by Th. Zincke; and his researches have led 
to the discovery of many chlorinated oxidation products which admit 
of decomposition into cyclic compounds containing fewer carbon 
atoms than characterize the benzene ring, and in turn yielding open- 
chain or aliphatic compounds. In general, the rupture occurs 
between a -keto group (CO) and a keto-chloride group (CC1 2 ), into 
which two adjacent carbon atoms of the ring are converted by the 
oxidizing and substituting action of chlorine. Decompositions of 
this nature were first discovered in the naphthalene series, where it 
was found that derivatives of indene (and of hydrindene and indone) 
and also of benzene resulted; Zincke then extended his methods to 
the disintegration of the oxybenzenes and obtained analogous 
results, R-pentene and aliphatic derivatives being formed (R- 
symboiizing a ringed nucleus). 

When treated with chlorine, pyrocatechol (1.2 or ortho-dioxy- 
benzene) (1) yields a tetrachlor ortho-quinone, which suffers further 
chlorination to hexachlor-o-diketo-R-hexene (2). This substance is 
transformed into hexachlor-R-pentene oxycarboxylic acid (3) when 
digested with water; and chromic acid oxidizes this substance to 
hexachlor-R-pentene (4). The ring of this compound is ruptured by 
caustic soda with the formation of perchlorvinyl acrylic acid (5), 
which gives on reduction ethidine propionic acid (6), a compound 
containing five of the carbon atoms originally in the benzene ring 
(see Zincke, Ber., 1894, 2 7> P- 33^4) (the carbon atoms are omitted in 
some of the formulae). 

OOH _C.^No J3(\0H^ClA JClC^tty^tj 

OH C.,lJo C^/^H C> 2 ly C.C V C, 

CH 2 
CH V CG 2 H 



(3) (4) <S) (6) 

Resorcin (1.3 or meta dioxybenzene) (1) is decomposed in a 
somewhat similar manner. Chlorination in glacial acetic acid 
solution yields pentachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (2) and, at a later 
stage, heptachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (3). These compounds are 
both decomposed by water, the former giving dichloraceto-trichlor- 
crotonic acid (4), which on boiling with water gives dichlormethyl- 
vinyl-a-diketone (5). The heptachlor compound when treated with 
chlorine water gives trichloraceto-pentachlorbutyric acid (6), which 
is hydrolysed by alkalis to chloroform and pentachlorglutaric acid 
(7), and is converted by boiling water into tetrachlor-diketo-R- 
pentene (8). This latter compound may be chlorinated to 
perchloracetoacrylic chloride (9), from which the corresponding acid 
(10) is obtained by treatment with water; alkalis hydrolyse the acid 
to chloroform and dichlormaleic acid (11). 



H0 2 C-CCl:CH-CCI 2 -CO.CHCI 2 
I (4) 

C0 2 +CIHC:CH-C0'C0-CHCI 2 

I (6) 1 



cioc-cci-.cci-coccu— I ^CO (8) 

. (9) CC1=CCK 

HOj,OCCT.CC!-CO-CCI 3 H0 2 C-CC1:CC1-C0 2 H + CHC1 3 

(10) fn) 

Hydroquinone (1.4 or para-dioxybenzene) (1) gives with chlorine, 
first, a tetrachlorquinone (2), and then hexachlor-p-diketo-R-hexene 
(3), which alcoholic potash converts into perchloracroylacrylic acid 
(4). This substance, and also the preceding compound, is converted 
by aqueous caustic soda into dichlormaleic acid, trichlorethylene, 
and hydrochloric acid (5) (Th. Zincke and O. Fuchs, Ann., 1892, 
267, p. 1). 



,+ I 

CO CO * H 

(4) (5) 

Phloroglucin (1.3.5-trioxybenzene) (1) behaves similarly to 
resorcin, hexachlor [1.3.5] triketo-R-hexylene (2) being first formed. 
This compound is converted by chlorine water into octachloracetyl- 
acetone (3) ; by methyl alcohol into the ester of dichlormalonic acid 
and tetrachloracetone (4) ; whilst ammonia gives dichloracetamide 
(5) (Th. Zincke and O. Kegel, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 1706). 






(1 -* c, fT ,: 



Cl 2 

(3) Cl 3 C-C0-CCl 2 -CO-CCl 3 +CO 2 


(5) Cl 2 HCCONH 2 

When phenol is oxidized in acid solution by chlorine, tetrachlor- 
quinone is obtained, a compound also obtainable from hydroquinone. 
By conducting the chlorination in alkaline solution, _ . ., 
A. Hantzsch (Ber., 1889, 22, p. 1238) succeeded in ob- *^P* '?." 
taining derivatives of o-diketo-R-hexene, which yield *, t , e 
R-pentene and aliphatic compounds on decomposition. " oa ' 
When thus chlorinated phenol (1) yields trichlor-o-diketo-R-hexene 
(2), which may be hydrolysed to an acid (3), which, in turn, 
suffers rearrangement to trichlor-R-pentene-oxycarboxylic acid (4). 
Bromine water oxidizes this substance to oxalic acid and tetrabrom- 
dichloracetone (5). 


0_^ ci 2 j^N0_^HCi 2 c, N 





<*> (3) (4) 

Cl 2 BrOCO-CBr 3 + 
H0 2 C-C0 2 H 


The reduction of o-oxybenzoic acids by sodium in anvyl alcohol 
solution has been studied by A. Einhorn and J. S. Lumsden (Ann., 
1895, 286, p. 257). It is probable that tetrahydro acids are first 
formed, which suffer rearrangement to orthoketone carboxylic acids. 
These substances absorb water and become pimelic acids. Thus 
salicylic acid yields n-pimelic acid, HOOC-(CH 2 ) 6 -COOH, while o-, 
m-, and p-cresotinic acids, C e H 3 (CH 3 )(OH)(COOH), yield isomeric 
methylpimelic acids. 

Resorcin on reduction gives dihydroresorcin, which G. Merling 
(Ann., 1894, 2 7^ P- 20 ) showed to be converted into n-glutaric acid, 
HOOO(CH 2 ) 3 -COOH, when oxidized with potassium permanganate; 
according to D. Vorlander (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 2348) it is converted 
into 7-acetobutyric acid, CH 3 CO-(CH2) 3 -COOH, when heated with 
baryta to 150-160°. 

Configuration of the Benzene Complex. — The development of 
the " structure theory" in about 1860- brought in its train an 
appreciation of the chemical structure of the derivatives of 
benzene. The pioneer in this field was August Kekule, who, 
in 1865 (Ann., 137, p. 129; see also his Lehrbuch der organischen 
Chemie), submitted his well-known formula for benzene, so 
founding the " benzene theory " and opening up a problem 
which, notwithstanding the immense amount of labour since 
bestowed upon it, still remains imperfectly solved. Arguing 
from the existence of only one mono-substitution derivative, 
and of three di-derivatives (statements of which the rigorous 
proof was then wanting), he was led to arrange the six carbon 
atoms in a ring, attaching a hydrogen atom to each carbon 
atom; being left with the fourth carbon valencies, he mutually 
saturated these in pairs, thus obtaining the symbol I (see below). 
The value of this ringed structure was readily perceived, but 
objections were raised with respect to Kekule's disposal of the 
fourth valencies. In 1866 Sir James Dewar proposed an un- 
symmetrical form (II); while in 1867, A. Claus (Theoretische 
Betrachtungen und der en A nwendung zur Systemalik der organischen 
Chemie) proposed his diagonal formula (III), and two years 
later, A. Ladenburg (Ber., 2, p. 140) devised his prism formula 
(IV), the six carbon atoms being placed at the six corners of a 
right equilateral triangular prism, with its plane projections 
(V, VI). 






Hc fC71 CH 




I Kekull 



si O 














One of the earliest and strongest objections urged against Kekule's 
formula was that it demanded two isomeric ortho-di-substitution 
derivatives ; for if we number the carbon atoms in cyclical 
order from I to 6, then the derivatives 1.2 and 1.6 should Objections 
be different. 1 Ladenburg submitted that if the 1-2 and to Kekule's 
1.6 compounds were identical, then we should expect the formula. 
two well-known crotonic acids, CH 3 -CH : CH-COOH and 
CH 2 :CH-CH 2 -COOH, to be identical. This view was opposed by 
Victor Meyer and Kekul6. The former pointed out that the supposed 
isomerism was not due to an arrangement of atoms, but to the dis- 
position of a valency, and therefore it was doubtful whether such a 
subtle condition could exert any influence on the properties of the 
substance. Kekule 1 answered Ladenburg by formulating a dynamic 
interpretation of valency. He assumed that if we have one atom 

1 It is now established that ortho compounds do exist in isomeric 
forms, instances being provided by chlor-, brom-, and amino-toluene, 
chlorphenol, and chloraniline ; but arguments, e.g. E. Knoevenagel's 
theory of " motoisomerism," have been brought forward to cause 
these facts to support Kekule. 




connected by single bonds to (say) four other atoms, then in a certain 
unit of time it will collide with each of these atoms in turn. Now 
suppose two of the attached atoms are replaced by one atom, then 
this atom must have two valencies directed to the central atom; 
and consequently, in the same unit of time, the central atom will 
collide once with each of the two monovalent atoms and twice with 
the divalent. Applying this notion to benzene, let us consider the 
impacts made by the carbon atom (i) which we will assume to be 
doubly linked to the carbon atom (2) and singly linked to (6), h 
standing for the hydrogen atom. In the first unit of time, the 
impacts are 2, 6, h, 2 ; and in the second 6, 2, h, 6. If we represent 
graphically the impacts in the second unit of time, we perceive that 
they point to a configuration in which the double linkage is between 
the carbon atoms I and 6, and the single linkage between 1 and 2. 
Therefore, according to Kekule, the double linkages are in a state of 
continual oscillation, and if his dynamical notion of valency, or a 
similar hypothesis, be correct, then the difference between the 1.2 
and 1.6 di-derivatives rests on the insufficiency of his formula, 
which represents the configuration during one set of oscillations only. 
The difference is only apparent, not real. An analogous oscillation 
prevails in the pyrazol nucleus, for L. Knorr (Ann., 1894, 279, p. 188) 
has shown that 3- and 5-methylpyrazols are identical. 

The explanation thus attempted by Kekule was adversely criti- 
cized, more especially by A. Ladenburg, who devoted much attention 
. . to the study of the substitution products of benzene, and 

fcf,JL" to the support of his own formula. His views are presented 
formula ' n ^' s P am phlet : Theorie der aromalischen' Verbindungen, 
1876. The prism formula also received support from the 
following data: protocatechuic acid when oxidized by nitrous acid 
gives carboxytartronic acid, which, on account of its ready de- 
composition into carbon dioxide and tartronic acid, was considered 
to be HO-C(COOH)3. This implied that in the benzene complex 
there was at least one carbon atom linked to three others, thus 
rendering Kekule's formula impossible and Ladenburg's and Claus' 
possible. Kekule (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230), however, reinvestigated 
this acid; he showed that it was dibasic and not tribasic; that it 
gave tartaric acid on reduction; and, finally, that it was dioxy- 
tartaric acid, HOOC-C(OH) 2 -C(OH) 2 -COOH. The formation of 
this substance readily follows from Kekule's formula, while con- 
siderable difficulties are met with when one attempts an explanation 
based on Ladenburg's representation. Kekul6 also urged that the 
formation of trichlorphenomalic acid, shown by him and O. Strecker 
to be trichloracetoacrylic acid, was more favourably explained by 
his formula than by Ladenburg's. 

Other objections to Ladenburg's formula resulted from A. von 
Baeyer's researches (commenced in 1886) on the reduced phthalic 
acids. Baeyer pointed out that although benzene deri- 
Baeyer's va tives were obtainable from hexamethylene compounds, 
researches. y et j t ^y no me ans follows that only hexamethylene 
compounds need result when benzene compounds are reduced. He 
admitted the possibility of the formulae of Kekule\ Claus, Dewar 
and Ladenburg, although as to the last di-trimethylene derivatives 
should be possible reduction products, being formed by severing 
two of the prism edges ; and he attempted to solve the problem by a 
systematic investigation of the reduced phthalic acids. 

Ladenburg's prism admits of one mono-substitution derivative 
and three di-derivatives. Furthermore, it is in accordance with 
certain simple syntheses of benzene derivatives (e.g. from acetylene 
and acetone); but according to Baeyer (Ber., 1886, 19, p. 1797) 
it fails to explain the formation of dioxyterephthalic ester from 
succinosuccinic ester, unless we make the assumption that the 
transformation of these substances is attended by a migration of the 
substituent groups. For succinosuccinic ester, formed by the action 
of sodium on two molecules of succinic ester, haseitherof theformulae 
(I) or (II) ; oxidation of the free acid gives dioxyterephthalic acid in 
which the para-positions must remain substituted as in (I) and (II). 
By projecting Ladenburg's prism on a plane and numbering the 
atoms so as to correspond with Kekule's form, viz. that 1.2 and 1.6 
should be ortho-positions, 1.3 and 1.5 meta-, and 1.4 para-, and 
following out the transformation on the Ladenburg formula, then 
an ortho-dioxyterephthalic acid (IV) should result, a fact denied 
by experience, and inexplicable unless we assume a wandering of 
atoms. Kekule's formula (III), on the other hand, is in full agree- 
ment (Baeyer). This explanation has been challenged by Ladenburg 

. K.KJ 


EtO,C-Hcl^Jca 2 >. 


HCf^CH-COjEt HCi^^C-COjEt EtO a C-(6)|^](SVH 

HtO„C<:V>CH a EtO„C-C V. Jch StO,C-(3)V^ jJ(«)OH 







(Ber., 1886, 19, p. 971; Ber., 1887, 20, p. 62) and by A. K. Miller 
(J.C.S. Trans., 1887, p. 208). The transformation is not one of the 
oxidation of a hexamethylene compound to a benzenoid compound, 
for only two hydrogen atoms are removed. Succinosuccinic ester 
behaves both as a ketone and as a phenol, thereby exhibiting 
desmotropy; assuming the ketone formula as indicating the con- 
stitution, then in Baeyer's equation we have a migration of a 
hydrogen atom, whereas to bring Ladenburg's formula into line, 
an oxygen atom must migrate. 

The relative merits of the formulae of Kekul<5, Claus and Dewar 
were next investigated by means of the reduction products of benzene, 
it being Baeyer's intention to detect whether double linkages were 
or were not present in the benzene complex. 

To follow Baeyer's results we must explain his nomenclature of 
the reduced benzene derivatives. He numbers the carbon atoms 
placed at the corners of a hexagon from I to 6, and each side in the 
same order, so that the carbon atoms I and 2 are connected by the 
side I, atoms 2 and 3 by the side 2, and so on. A doubly linked pair 
of atoms is denoted by the sign A with the index corresponding to 
the side; if there are two pairs of double links, then indices corre- 
sponding to both sides are employed. Thus A 1 denotes a tetrahydro 
derivative in which the double link occupies the side 1 ; A 1 - 3 , a 
dihydro derivative, the double links being along the sides I and 3. 
Another form of isomerism is occasioned by spatial arrangements, 
many of the reduced terephthalic acids existing in two stereo-isomeric 
forms. Baeyer explains this by analogy with fumaric and maleic 
acids: he assumes the reduced benzene ring to lie in a plane ; when 
both carboxyl groups are on the same side of this plane, the acids, 
in general, resemble maleic acids, these forms he denotes by Tcis-cis, 
or shortly cis-\ when the carboxyl groups are on opposite sides, 
the acids correspond to fumaric acid, these forms are denoted by 
Tcis-trans, or shortly trans-. 

By reducing terephthalic acid with sodium amalgam, care being 
taken to neutralize the caustic soda simultaneously formed by 
passing in carbon dioxide, A" dihydroterephthalic acid is obtained ; 
this results from the splitting of a £ara-linkage. By boiling with 
water the A 2 - 5 acid is converted into the A 1 ' 6 dihydroterephthalic 
acid. This acid is converted into the A 1 - 4 acid by soda, and into the 
A 2 tetrahydro acid by reduction. From this acid the A 13 dihydro 
and the A 1 tetrahydro acids may be obtained, from both of which 
the hexahydro acid may be prepared. From these results Baeyer 
concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot 
possibly be correct, for the A 2 - 5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly 
has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four 
atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by 
alkaline potassium permanganate. But the formation of the A 2 - 5 
acid as the first reduction product is not fully consistent with 
Kekule's symbol, for we should then expect the A 1 - 3 or the A 1 - 5 acid 
to be first formed (see also Polymethylenes). 

The stronger argument against the ethylenoid linkages 
demanded by Kekule's formula is provided by the remark- 
able stability towards oxidizing and reducing agents which 
characterizes all benzenoid compounds. From the fact that 
reduction products containing either one or two double linkages 
behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being 
readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen 
elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid 
compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed 
in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule. 
Such a configuration was proposed in 1887 by H. E. Armstrong 
(J.C.S. Trans., 1887, p. 258), and shortly afterwards by Baeyer 
(Ann., 1888, 245, p. 103). In this formula, the so-called " centric 
formula," the assumption made is that the fourth valencies are 
simply directed towards the centre of the ring; nothing further 
is said about the fourth valencies except that they exert a 
pressure towards the centre. Claus maintained that Baeyer's 
view was identical with his own, for as in Baeyer's formula, the 
fourth valencies have a different function from the peripheral 
valencies, being united at the centre in a form of potential 

It is difficult to determine which configuration most accurately 
explains the observed facts; Kekule's formula undoubtedly 
explains the synthetical production of benzenoid compounds 
most satisfactorily, and W. Marckwald (Ann., 1893, 274, p. 331; 
1894, 279, p. 14) has supported this formula from considerations 
based on the syntheses of the quinoline ring. Further researches 
by Baeyer, and upon various nitrogenous ring systems by E. 
Bamberger (a strong supporter of the centric formula), have 
shown that the nature of the substituent groups influences the 
distribution of the fourth valencies; therefore it may be con- 
cluded that in compounds the benzene nucleus appears to be 
capable of existence in two tautomeric forms, in the sense that 
each particular derivative possesses a definite constitution. 
The benzene nucleus presents a remarkable case, which must be 
considered in the formulation of any complete theory of valency. 
From a study of the reduction of compounds containing two 
ethylenic bonds united by a single bond, termed a "conjugated 
system," E. Thiele suggested a doctrine of " partial valencies," 




which assumes that in addition to the ordinary valencies, each 
doubly linked atom has a partial valency, by which the atom first 
interacts. When applied to benzene, a twofold conjugated 
system is suggested in which the partial valencies of adjacent 
atoms neutralize, with the formation of a potential double link. 
The stability of benzene is ascribed to this conjugation. 1 

Physico-chemical properties have also been drawn upon to 
decide whether double unions are present in the benzene com- 
plex; but here the predilections of the observers 
chemteal apparently influence the nature of the conclusions to 
methods, be drawn from such data. It is well known that 
singly, doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms affect 
the physical properties of substances, such as the refractive 
index, specific volume, and the heat of combustion; and by 
determining these constants for many substances, fairly definite 
values can be assigned to these groupings. The general question 
of the relation of the refractive index to constitution has been 
especially studied by J. W. Briihl, who concluded that benzene 
contained 3 double linkages; whereas, in iqoi, Pellini (Gazetta, 
31, i. p. 1) calculated that 9 single linkages were present. A 
similar contradiction apparently exists with regard to the 
specific volume, for while benzene has a specific volume corre- 
spinding to Claus' formula, toluene, or methylbenzene, rather 
points to Kekule's. The heat of combustion, as first determined 
by Julius Thomsen, agreed rather better with the presence of 
nine single unions. His work was repeated on a finer scale by 
M. P. E. Berthelot of Paris, and F. C. A. Stohmann of Leipzig; 
and the new data and the conclusions to be drawn from them 
formed the subject of much discussion, Briihl endeavouring 
to show how they supported Kekule's formula, while Thomsen 
maintained that they demanded the benzene union to have a 
different heat of combustion from the acetylene union. Thomsen 
then investigated heats of combustion of various benzenoid 
hydrocarbons — benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, 
&c— in the crystallized state. It was found that the results 
were capable of expression by the empirical relation C H 2 !,= 
io4-3&+4Q-oQTO+io5-47», where C<,H 2 & denotes the formula 
of the hydrocarbon, m the number of single carbon linkings and 
n the number of double linkings, m and n being calculated on 
the Kekule formulae. But, at the same time, the constants in 
the above relation are not identical with those in the corre- 
sponding relation empirically deduced from observations on fatty 
hydrocarbons; and we are therefore led to conclude that a 
benzene union is considerably more stable than an ethylene 

Mention may be made of the absorption spectrum of benzene. 
According to W. N. Hartley (J.C.S., 1905, 87, p. 1822), there 
are six bands in the ultra-violet, while E. C. C. Baly and J. N. 
Collie (J.C.S., 1905, 87, p. 1332; 1906, 89, p. 524) record seven. 
These bands are due to molecular oscillations; Hartley suggests 
the carbon atoms to be rotating and forming alternately single 
and double linkages, the formation of three double links giving 
three bands, and of three single links another three; Baly and 
Collie, on the other hand, suggest the making and breaking of 
links between adjacent atoms, pointing out that there are seven 
combinations of one, two and three pairs of carbon atoms in the 
benzene molecule. 

Stereo-chemical Configurations. — Simultaneously with the dis- 
cussions of Kekule, Ladenburg, Claus, Baeyer and others as to the 
merits of various plane formulae of the benzene complex, there 
were published many suggestions with regard to the arrange- 
ment of the atoms in space, all of which attempted to explain 
the number of isomers and the equivalence of the hydrogen 
atoms. The development of stereo-isomerism at the hands of 

1 Victor Meyer and G. Heyl (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 2776) attempted a 
solution from the following data. It is well known that di-ortho- 
substituted benzoic acids are esterified with difficulty. Two acids 
corresponding to the formula of Kekule 1 and Claus are triphenyl 
acrylic acid, (C„H 6 ) 2 C : C(COOH)-C 6 H 5 , and triphenyl acetic acid, 
(C 6 H 5 ) 3 C-COOH. Experiments showed that the second acid was 
much more difficult to esterify than the first, pointing to the con- 
clusion that Claus' formula for benzene was more probable than 
Kekule' s. 

J. Wislicenus, Le Bel and van 't Hoff has resulted in the intro- 
duction of another condition which formulae for the benzene 
complex must satisfy, viz. that the hydrogen atoms must all 
lie in one plane. The proof of this statement rests on the fact 
that if the hydrogen atoms were not co-planar, then substitution 
derivatives (the substituting groups not containing asymmetric 
carbon atoms) should exist in enantiomorphic forms, differing in 
crystal form and in their action on polarized light; such optical 
antipodes have, however, not yet been separated. Ladenburg's 
prism formula would give two enantiomorphic ortho-di-substi- 
tution derivatives; while forms in which the hydrogen atoms 
are placed at the corners of a regular octahedron would yield 
enantiomorphic tri-substitution derivatives. 

The octahedral formula discussed by Julius Thomsen (Ber., 1886, 
19, p. 2944) consists of the six carbon atoms placed at the corners 
of a regular octahedron, and connected together by the full lines as 
shown in (I) ; a plane projection gives a hexagon with diagonals 
(II). Reduction to hexamethylene compounds necessitates the 
disruption of three of the edges of the octahedron, the diagonal 
linkings remaining intact, or, in the plane projection, three peripheral 
linkages/ the hexamethylene ring assuming the form (III): 

In 1888 J. E. Marsh published a paper (Phil. Mag. [V.], 26, p. 426) 
in which he discussed various stereo-chemical representations of 
the benzene nucleus. (The stereo-chemistry of carbon compounds 
has led to the spatial representation of a carbon atom as being 
situated at the centre of a tetrahedron, the four valencies being 
directed towards the apices; see above, and Isomerism.) A form 
based on Kekule's formula consists in taking three pairs of tetra- 
hedra, each pair having a side in common, and joining them up 
along the sides of a regular hexagon by means of their apices. This 
form, afterwards supported by Carl Graebe (Ber., 1902, 35, p. 526 ; see 
also Marsh's reply, Journ. Chem. Soc. Trans., 1902, p. 961) shows 
the proximity of the ortho-positions, but fails to explain the identity 
of 1.2 and 1.6 compounds. Arrangements connected with Claus' 
formula are obtained by placing six tetrahedra on the six triangles 
formed by the diagonals of a plane hexagon. The form in which the 
tetrahedra are all on one side, afterwards discussedby J. Loschmidt 
(Monats., 1890, 11, p. 28), would not give stereo-isomers ; and the 
arrangement of placing the tetrahedra on alternate sides, a form 
afterwards developed by W. Vaubel (Journ. Pr. Chem., 1894 [2], 
49, p. 308), has the advantage of bringing the meta-positions on one 
side, and the ortho- and para- on opposite sides, thus exhibiting 
the' similarity actually observed between these series of compounds. 
Marsh also devised a form closely resembling that of Thomsen, 
inasmuch as the carbon atoms occupied the angles of a regular 
octahedron, and the diagonal linkages differed in nature from 
the peripheral, but differeng from Thomsen's since rupture of the 
diagonal and not peripheral -bonds accompanied the reduction to 

We may also notice the model devised by H. Sachse (Ber., 1888, 
21, 2530; Zeit. fur phys. Chem., 11, p. 214; 23, p. 2062). Two 
parallel triangular faces are removed from a cardboard model of a 
regular octahedron, and on the remaining six faces tetrahedra are 
then placed; the hydrogen atoms are at the free angles. This 
configuration is, according to Sachse, more stable than any other 
form; no oscillation is possible, the molecule being only able to 
move as a whole. In 1897, J. N. Collie (Journ. Chem. Soc. Trans., 
p. 1013) considered in detail an octahedral form, and showed how by 
means of certain simple rotations of his system the formulae 
of Kekule and Claus could be obtained as projections. An entirely 
new device, suggested by B. Konig (Chem. Zeit., 1905, 29, p. 30), 
assumed the six carbon atoms to occupy six of the corners of a cube, 
each carbon atom being linked to a hydrogen atom and by single 
bonds to two neighbouring carbon atoms, the remaining valencies 
being directed to the unoccupied corners of the cube, three to each, 
where they are supposed to satisfy each other. 

Condensed Nuclei. 
Restricting ourselves to compounds resulting from the fusion 
of benzene rings, we have first to consider naphthalene, Ci H 8 , 
which consists of two benzene rings having a pair of carbon atoms 
in common. The next members are the isomers anthracene and 
phenanthrene, C14H10, formed from three benzene nuclei. Here 
we shall only discuss the structure of these compounds in the 
light of the modern benzene theories; reference should be made 




to the articles Naphthalene, Anthracene and Phenan- 
threne for syntheses, decompositions, &c. 

Naphthalene. — Of the earlier suggestions for the constitution 
of naphthalene we notice the formulae of Wreden (i) and (2), 
Berthelot and Balls (3), R. A. C. E. Erlenmeyer (4) and Adolf 
Claus (5). 


03 M 






The first suggestion is quite out of the question. C. Graebe in 
1866 {Ann. 149, p. 20) established the symmetry of the naph- 
thalene nucleus, and showed that whichever half of the molecule 
be oxidized the same phthalic acid results. Therefore formula (2), 
being unsymmetrical, is impossible. The third formula is based 
on Dewar's benzene formula, which we have seen to be incorrect. 
Formula (4) is symmetrical and based on Kekule's formula: it 
is in full accord with the syntheses and decompositions of the 
naphthalene nucleus and the number of isomers found. In 
1882 Claus suggested a combination of his own and Dewar's 
benzene formulae. This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting 
of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the 
formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either 
nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the 
aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus. 
Bamberger opposed Claus' formula on the following grounds: — 
The molecule of naphthalene is symmetrical, since 2.7 dioxy- 
naphthalene is readily esterified by methyl iodide and sulphuric 
acid to a dimethyl ether; and no more than two mono-substi- 
tution derivatives are known. The molecule is aromatic but not 
benzenoid; however, by the reduction of one half of the mole- 
cule, the other assumes a benzenoid character. 

If /3-naphthylamine and /3-naphthol be reduced, tetrahydro 
products are obtained in which the amino- or oxy-bearing half of 
the molecule becomes aliphatic in character. The compounds so 
obtained, alicyclic-/3-tetrahydronaphthylamine and alicyclic-/S- 
tetrahydronaphthol, closely resemble 0-aminodiethylbenzene, 
If a-naphthylamine and a-naphthol be reduced, the hydrogen atoms 
attach themselves to the non-substituted half of the molecule, 
and the compounds so obtained resemble aminodiethylbenzene, 
CHa-NHafAHsk and oxydiethylbenzene, C 6 H r OH(C 2 H 5 ) 2 . Bam- 
berger's observations on reduced quinoline derivatives point to the 
same conclusion, that condensed nuclei are not benzenoid, but 
possess an individual character, which breaks down, however, when 
the molepule is reduced. 

It remains, therefore, to consider Erlenmeyer's formula and 
those derived from the centric hypothesis. The former, based 
on Kekule's symbol for benzene, explains the decompositions 
and syntheses of the ring, but the character of naphthalene 
is not in keeping with the presence of five double linkages, 
although it is more readily acted upon than benzene is. On the 
centric hypothesis two formulae are possible: (1) due to H.E. 
Armstrong, and (2) due to E. Bamberger. 



In the first symbol it is assumed that one of the affinities of each 
of the two central carbon atoms common to the two rings acts 
into both rings, an assumption involving a somewhat wide 
departure from all ordinary views as to the manner in which 
affinity acts. This symbol harmonizes with the fact that the two 
rings are in complete sympathy, the one responding to every 
change made in the other. Then, on account of the relatively 
slight — because divided — influence which would be exercised 
upon the two rings by the two. affinities common to both, the 
remaining four centric affinities of each ring would presumably 
be less attracted into the ring than in the case of benzene; 
consequently they would be more active outwards, and com- 
bination would set in more readily. When, as in the formation 
of naphthalene tetrachloride, for example, the one ring becomes 
saturated, the other might be expected to assume the normal 

centric form and become relatively inactive. This is absolutely 
the case. On the other hand, if substitution be effected in the 
one ring, and the affinities in that ring become attracted inwards, 
as apparently happens in the case of benzene, the adjoining ring 
should become relatively more active because the common 
affinities would act less into it. Hence, unless the radical 
introduced be one which exercises a special attractive influence, 
substitution should take place in preference in the previously 
unsubstituted ring. In practice this usually occurs ; for example, 
on further bromination, a-bromonaphthalene yields a mixture 
of the (1.4) and (1.5) dibromonaphthalenes; and when nitro- 
naphthalene is either brominated, or nitrated or sulphonated, 
the action is practically confined to the second ring. The 
centric formula proposed by Bamberger represents naphthalene as 
formed by the fusion of two benzene rings, this indicates that it 
is a monocyclic composed of ten atoms of carbon. The formula 
has the advantage that it may be constructed from tetrahedral 
models of the carbon atom; but it involves the assumption that 
the molecule has within it a mechanism, equivalent in a measure 
to a system of railway points, which can readily close up and 
pass into that characteristic of benzene. 

Anthracene and Phenanthrene. — These isomeric hydrocarbons, 
of the formula CiJHio, are to be regarded as formed by the 
fusion of three benzenoid rings as represented by the symbols: — 

COD cR> 


In both cases the medial ring is most readily attacked; and 
various formulae have been devised which are claimed by then- 
authors to represent this and other facts. According to Arm- 
strong, anthracene behaves unsymmetrically towards sub- 
stituents, and hence one lateral ring differs from the other; he 
represents the molecule as consisting of one centric ring, the 
remaining medial and lateral ring being ethenoid. Bamberger, 
on the other hand, extends his views on benzene and naphthalene 
and assumes the molecule to be (1). For general purposes, 
however, the symbol (2), in which the lateral rings are benzenoid 
and the medial ring fatty, represents quite adequately the 
syntheses, decompositions, and behaviour cf anthracene. 

OS) OK) 



Phenanthrene is regarded by Armstrong as represented by (3), 
the lateral rings being benzenoid, and the medial ring fatty; 
Bamberger, however, regards it as (4), the molecule being 



entirely aromatic. An interesting observation by Baeyer, viz. 
that stilbene, C 6 H S -CH:CH-C 6 H5, is very readily oxidized, 
while phenanthrene is not, supports, in some measure, the views 
of Bamberger. 

Heterocyclic Compounds. 
During recent years an immense number of ringed or cyclic 
compounds have been discovered, which exhibit individual 
characters more closely resembling benzene, naphthalene, &c. 
than purely aliphatic substances, inasmuch as in general they 
contain double linkages, yet withstand oxidation, and behave as 
nuclei, forming derivatives in much the same way as benzene. 
By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and 
compounds result which stand in much about the same relation 
to the original nucleus as hexamethylene does to benzene. In 
general, therefore, it may be considered that the double linkages 
are not of exactly the same nature as the double linkage present 
in ethylene and ethylenoid compounds, but that they are 
analogous to the potential valencies of benzene. The centric 
hypothesis has been applied to these rings by Bamberger and 
others; but as in the previous rings considered, the ordinary 




representation with double and single linkages generally repre- 
sents the syntheses, decompositions, &c; exceptions, however, 
are known where it is necessary to assume an oscillation of the 
double linkage. Five- and six-membered rings are the most 
stable and important, the last-named group resulting from the 
polymerization of many substances; three- and four-membered 
rings are formed with difficulty, and are easily ruptured; rings 
containing seven or more members are generally unstable, and 
are relatively little known. The elements which go to form 
heterocyclic rings, in addition to carbon, are oxygen, sulphur, 
selenium and nitrogen. It is remarkable that sulphur can 
replace two methine or CH groups with the production of com- 
pounds greatly resembling, the original one. Thus benzene, 
(CH) 6 , gives thiophene, (CH) 4 S, from which it is difficultly dis- 
tinguished; pyridine, (CH) 5 N, gives thiazole, (CH)rN-S, which 
is a very similar substance; naphthalene gives thionaphthen, 
C S H 6 S, with which it shows great analogies, especially in the 
derivatives. Similarly a CH group may be replaced by a nitrogen 
atom with the production of compounds of similar stability; 
thus benzene gives pyridine, naphthalene gives quinoline and 
isoquinoline ; anthracene gives acridine and a and /3 anthra- 
pyridines. Similarly, two or more methine groups may be 
replaced by the same number of nitrogen atoms with the forma- 
tion of rings of considerable stability. 

Most of the simple ring systems which contain two adjacent 
carbon atoms may suffer fusion with any other ring (also containing 
two adjacent carbon atoms) with the production of nuclei of greater 
complexity. Such condensed nuclei are, in many cases, more readily 
obtained than the parent nucleus. The more important types are 
derived from aromatic nuclei, benzene, naphthalene, &c. ; the 
ortho-di-derivatives of the first named, lending themselves particu- 
larly to the formation of condensed nuclei. Thus ortho-phenylene 
diamine yields the following products : — 


Bcnzimidizolc Aximidobcnzene Bcniptanfiiolc 

Benzimidazolone Quincxtliw 

In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei 
results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of 
a benzene dicarboxylic acid ; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened 
by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid 
nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic 
ring system obtained. 

Heterocyclic rings may be systematically surveyed from two 
aspects: (i) by arranging the rings with similar hetero-atoms 
according to the increasing number of carbon atoms, the so-called 
" homologous series "; or (2) by first dividing the ring systems 
according to the number of members constituting the ring, and 
then classifying these groups according to the nature of the 
hetero-atoms, the so-called " isologous series." The second 
method possesses greater advantages, for rings of approximate 
stability come in one group, and, consequently, their derivatives 
may be expected to exhibit considerable analogies. 

As a useful preliminary it is convenient to divide heterocyclic 
ring systems into two leading groups: (1) systems resulting 
from simple internal dehydration (or similar condensations) of 
saturated aliphatic compounds — such compounds are: the 
internal anhydrides or cyclic ethers of the glycols and thioglycols 
(ethylene oxide, &c); the cyclic alkyleneimides resulting from 
the splitting off of ammonia between the amino groups of diamino- 
paraffins (pyrrolidine, piperazine, &c); the cyclic esters of 
oxycarboxylic acids (lactones, lactides) ; the internal anhydrides 
of aminocarboxylic acids (lactams, betaines) ; cyclic derivatives 
of dicarboxylic acids (anhydrides, imides, alkylen-esters, alkylen- 
amides, &c). These compounds retain their aliphatic nature, 
and are best classified with open-chain compounds, into which, 
in general, they are readily converted. (2) Systems which 
are generally unsaturated compounds, often of considerable 
stability, and behave as nuclei; these compounds constitute a 
well-individualized class exhibiting closer affinities to benzenoid 
substances than to the open-chain series. 

The transition between the two classes as differentiated above 
may be illustrated by the following cyclic compounds, each of which 

contains a ring composed of four carbon atoms and one oxygen 
atom : 

CHa-CH,. CH a .CO x CH.-CO. CH-CO. CH = CH. 

dH 2 .cH/ ^h 2 .ch/ 6h 2 .co/ ch=ch/ 

Tetramethylene Butyrolactone. Succinic Maleic Furfurane. 

oxide. anhydride. anhydride. 

The first four substances are readily formed from, and converted 
into, the corresponding dihydroxy open-chain compound; these 
substances are truly aliphatic in character. The fifth compound, 
on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic 
compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution 
derivatives being capable of synthesis. Reduction, however, con- 
verts it into an aliphatic compound. This is comparable with the 
reduction of the benzene nucleus into hexamethylene, a substance of 
an aliphatic character. 

True ring systems, which possess the characters of organic 
nuclei, do not come into existence in three- and four-membered 
rings, their first appearance being in penta-atomic rings. The 
three primary members are furfurane, thiophene and pyrrol, 
each of which contains four methine or CH groups, and an 
oxygen, sulphur and imido (NH) member respectively; a 
series of compounds containing selenium is also known. The 
formulae of these substances are: 

CH = CH\ CH = CH. CH = CH X CH = CR 

I >Se I >NH 

Selenophene. Pyrrol. 

By substituting one or more CH groups in these compounds 
by nitrogen atoms, ring-systems, collectively known as azoles, 
result. Obviously, isomeric ring-systems are possible, since the 
carbon atoms in the original rings are not all of equal value. 
Thus furfurane yields the following rings by the introduction 
of one and two nitrogen atoms : 

CH = N v N = CH v N = N 

CH=CH / 

CH = CH 

I >S 

CH = CH / 



CH=CH / 

HC = N. 


C'H = CH / 

N = CH X ' 
I )0 

CH = N/ 






CH = CH / 


N = CH. 

I ^O 

HC = N' CH = N/ N = CH/ 

Furazane. Azoximes. Oxybiazole. 

Thiophene yields a similar series: isothiazole (only known as 
the condensed ring, isobenzothiazole), thiazole, diazosulphides, 
piazthioles, azosulphimes and thiobiazole (the formulae are 
'easily derived from the preceding series by replacing oxygen by 
sulphur). Thiophene also gives rise to triazsulphole, three 
nitrogen atoms being introduced. Selenophene gives the series: 
selenazole, diazoselenide and piaselenole, corresponding to 
oxazole, diazo-oxides and furazane. Pyrrol yields an analogous 
series: pyrazole, imidazole or glyoxaline, azimide or osotriazole, 
triazole and tetrazole: 

CH = N 


CH = CH' / 


N = CH 


N = CH 



CH = CH // 


N = N 






N = N 





Six-membered ring systems can be referred back, in a manner 
similar to the above, to pyrone, penthiophene and pyridine, the 
substances containing a ring of five carbon atoms, and an 
oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen atom respectively. As before, 
only true ring nuclei, and not internal anhydrides of aliphatic 
compounds, will be mentioned. From the pyrone ring the 
following series of compounds are derived (for brevity, the 
hydrogen atoms are not printed) : 

C U C c kJ N c kJ c c kJ c N kJ N 






or Pemoxdzolinc 



Penthiophene gives, by a similar introduction of nitrogen atoms, 
penthiazoline, corresponding to meta-oxazine, and para-thiazine, 




corresponding to paroxazine (para-oxazine). Pyridine gives 
origin to: pyridazine or ortho-diazine, pyrimidine or meta- 
diazine, pyrazine or para-diazine, osotriazine, unsymmetrical 
triazine, symmetrical triazine, osotetrazone and tetrazine. The 
skeletons of these types are (the carbon atoms are omitted for 
brevity) : 

o a cr 6 -atvcr 6»*a 

N N N N .N W N , N N 

Pyridine Pyridumc Pyrimidine Vyrazint 

OsotetwMKS Tttr*/in< 

We have previously referred to the condensation of hetero- 
cyclic ring systems containing two vicinal carbon atoms with 
benzene, naphthalene and other nuclei. The more important 
nuclei of this type have received special and non-systematic 
names; when this is not the case, such terms as phen-, benzo-, 
naphtho- are prefixed to the name of the heterocyclic ring. One 
or two benzene nuclei may suffer condensation with the furfurane, 
thiophene and pyrrol rings, the common carbon atoms being 
vicinal to the hetero-atom. The mono-benzo-derivatives are 
coumarone, benzothiophene and indole; the dibenzo-derivatives 
are diphenylene oxide, dibenzothiophene or diphenylene sulphide, 
and carbazole. Typical formulae are (R denoting 0, S or NH) : 


Isomers are possible, for the condensation may be effected on 
the two carbon atoms symmetrically placed to the hetero-atom ; 
these isomers, however, are more of the nature of internal 
anhydrides. Benz-oxazoles and -thiazoles have been prepared, 
benz-isoxazoles are known as indoxazenes; benzo-pyrazoles 
occur in two structural forms, named indazoles and isindazoles. 
Derivatives of osotriazol also exist in two forms — azimides and 

Proceeding to the six-membered hetero-atomic rings, the 
benzo-, dibenzo- and naphtho-derivatives are frequently of 
great commercial and scientific importance, a-pyrone condenses 
with the benzene ring to form coumarin and isocoumarin; 
benzo-7-pyrone constitutes the nucleus of several vegetable 
colouring matters (chrysin, fisetin, quercetin, &c, which are 
derivatives of flavone or phenyl benzo-7-pyrone) ; dibenzo-7- 
pyrone is known as xanthone; related to this substance are 
fluorane (and fluorescein), fluorone, fluorime, pyronine, &c. 
The pyridine ring condenses with the benzene ring to form 
quinoline and isoquinoline; acridine and phenanthridine are 
dibenzo-pyridines; naphthalene gives rise to a-and |8-naphtho- 
quinolines and the anthrapyridines; anthracene gives anthra- 
quinoline; while two pyridine nuclei connected by an inter- 
mediate benzene nucleus give the phenanthrolines. Naph- 
thyridines and naphthinolines result from the condensation of 
two pryridine and two quinoline nuclei respectively; and 
quino-quinolines are unsymmetrical naphthyridine nuclei 
condensed with a benzene nucleus. Benzo -orthoxazines, 
-metoxazines and -paroxazines are known: dibenzoparoxazine 
or phenoxazine is the parent of a valuable series of dyestuffs; 
dibenzoparathiazine or thiodiphenylamine is important from 
the same aspect. Benzo-ortho-diazines exist in two structural 
forms, cinnolin and phthalazine; benzo-meta-diazines are 
known as quinazolines; benzo-para-diazines are termed quinoxa- 
lines; the dibenzo-compounds are named phenazines, this last 
group including many valuable dyestuffs — indulines, safranines, 
&c. In addition to the types of compounds enumerated above 
we may also notice purin, tropine and the terpenes. 

V. Analytical Chemistry 
This branch of chemistry has for its province the determination 
of the constituents of a chemical compound or of a mixture of 
compounds. Such a determination is qualitative, the constituent 
being only detected or proved to be present, or quantitative, in 
which the amount present is ascertained. The methods of 
chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of 

reaction: (1) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an 
examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes 
such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the 
blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, 
and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are 
sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which 
a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which 
produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of 
elements are present. In quantitative analysis the methods 
can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent 
is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the 
addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage 
of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a 
reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite 
reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has 
a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of 
known strengths. 

Historical. — The germs of analytical chemistry are to be 
found in the writings of the pharmacists and chemists of the 
iatrochemical period. The importance of ascertaining the 
proximate composition of bodies was clearly realized by Otto 
Tachenius; but the first systematic investigator was Robert 
Boyle, to whom we owe the introduction of the term analysis. 
Boyle recognized many reagents which gave precipitates with 
certain solutions: he detected sulphuric and hydrochloric 
acids by the white precipitates formed with calcium chloride 
and silver nitrate respectively; ammonia by the white cloud 
formed with the vapours of nitric or hydrochloric acids; and 
copper by the deep blue solution formed by a solution of ammonia. 
Of great importance is his introduction of vegetable juices (the 
so-called indicators, q.v.) to detect acids and bases. During the 
phlogistic period, the detection of the constituents of compounds 
was considerably developed. Of the principal workers in this 
field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund 
Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium 
ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colora- 
tions), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman. 
Scheele enriched the knowledge of chemistry by an immense 
number of facts, but he did not possess the spirit of working 
systematically as Bergman did. Bergman laid the foundations 
of systematic qualitative analysis, and devised methods by which 
the metals may be separated into groups according to their 
behaviour with certain reagents. This subdivision, which is of 
paramount importance in the analysis of minerals, was subse- 
quently developed by Wilhelm August Lampadius in his Hand- 
buch zur chemischen Analyse der Mineralien (1801) and by John 
Friedrich A. Gottling in his Praktische Anleitung zur prufenden 
und zurlegenden Chemie (1802). 

The introduction of the blowpipe into dry qualitative analysis 
by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt marks an important innovation. 
The rapidity of the method, and the accurate results which it 
gave in the hands of a practised experimenter, led to its system- 
atization by Jons Jakob Berzelius and Johann Friedrich Ludwig 
Hausmann, and in more recent times by K. F. Plattner, whose 
treatise Die Probirkunst mit dem Lothrohr is a standard work on 
the subject. Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame 
coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, 
the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium 
observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was 
wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results {Phil. 
Mag. 16, p. 382) were afterwards perfected by Robert Wilhelm 
Bunsen and Gustav Merz. Closely related to the flame-colora- 
tions, we have to notice the great services rendered by the 
spectroscope to the detection of elements. Rubidium, caesium, 
thallium, indium and gallium were first discovered by means of 
this instrument; the study of the rare earths is greatly facilitated, 
and the composition of the heavenly bodies alone determinable 
by it. 

Quantitative chemistry had been all but neglected before 
the time of Lavoisier, for although a few chemists such as 
Tachenius, Bergman and others had realized the advantages 
which would accrue from a knowledge of the composition 0/ 




bodies by weight, and had laid down the lines upon which such 
determinations should proceed, the experimental difficulties in 
making accurate observations were enormous, and little progress 
could be made until the procedure was more accurately 
determined. Martin Heinrich Klaproth showed the necessity for 
igniting precipitates before weighing them, if they were not 
decomposed by this process; and he worked largely with Louis 
Nicolas Vauquelin in perfecting the analysis of minerals. K. F. 
Wenzel and J. B. Richter contributed to the knowledge of the 
quantitative composition of salts. Anton Laurent Lavoisier, 
however, must be considered as the first great exponent of this 
branch of chemistry. He realized that the composition by 
weight of chemical compounds was of the greatest moment if 
chemistry were to advance. His fame rests upon his exposition 
of the principles necessary to chemistry as a secience, but of his 
contributions to analytical inorganic chemistry little can be said. 
He applied himself more particularly to the oxygen compounds, 
and determined with a fair degree of accuracy the ratio of carbon 
to oxygen in carbon dioxide, but his values for theratioof hydrogen 
to oxygen in water, and of phosphorus to oxygen in phosphoric 
acid, are only approximate; he introduced no new methods 
either for the estimation or separation of the metals. The next 
advance was made by Joseph Louis Proust, whose investigations 
led to a clear grasp of the law of constant proportions. The 
formulation of the atomic theory by John Dalton gave a fresh 
impetus to the development of quantitative analysis; and the 
determination of combining or equivalent weights by Berzelius 
led to the perfecting of the methods of gravimetric analysis. 
Experimental conditions were thoroughly worked out; the 
necessity of working with hot or cold solutions was clearly 
emphasized; and the employment of small quantities of 
substances instead of the large amounts recommended by 
Klaproth was shown by him to give more consistent results. 

Since the time of Berzelius many experimenters have entered 
the lists, and introduced developments which we have not space 
to mention. We may, however, notice Heinrich Rose 1 and 
Friedrich Wohler, 2 who, having worked up the results of their 
teacher Berzelius, and combined them with their own valuable 
observations, exerted great influence on the progress of analytical 
chemistry by publishing works which contained admirable 
accounts of the then known methods of analysis. To K. R. 
Fresenius, the founder of the Zeitschrift fiir anaiytische Chemie 
(1862), we are particularly indebted for perfecting and systematiz- 
ing the various methods of analytical chemistry. By strengthen- 
ing the older methods, and devising new ones, he exerted an 
influence which can never be overestimated. His text-books on 
the subject, of which the Qualitative appeared in 1841, and the 
Quantitative in 1846, have a world-wide reputation, and have 
passed through several editions. 

The quantitative precipitation of metals by the electric current, 
although known to Michael Faraday, was not applied to analytical 
chemistry until O. Wolcott Gibbs worked out the electrolytic 
separation of copper in 1865. Since then the subject has been 
extensively studied, more particularly by Alexander Classen, who 
has summarized the methods and results in his Quantitative 
Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis (1903). The ever-increasing 
importance of the electric current in metallurgy and chemical 
manufactures is making this method of great importance, and in 
some cases it has partially, if not wholly, superseded the older 

Volumetric analysis, possessing as it does many advantages 
over the gravimetric methods, has of late years been extensively 
developed. Gay Lussac may be regarded as the founder of the 
method, although rough applications had been previously made 
by F. A. H. Descroizilles and L. N. Vauquelin. Chlorimetry 
(1824), alkalimetry (1828), and the volumetric determination of 
silver and chlorine (1832) were worked out by Gay Lussac; but 
although the advantages of the method were patent, it received 
recognition very slowly. The application of potassium per- 
manganate to the estimation of iron by E. Margueritte in 1846, 

1 H. Rose, Ausfuhrliches Handbuch der analytischen Chemie (1851). 
2 F. Wohler, Die Mineralanalyse in Beispitlen (1861). 

and of iodine and sulphurous acid to the estimation of copper and 
many other substances by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, marks an 
epoch in the early history of volumetric analysis. Since then it 
has been rapidly developed, particularly by Karl Friedrich Mohr 
and J. Volhard, and these methods rank side by side in value 
with the older and more tedious gravimetric methods. 

The detection of carbon and hydrogen in organic compounds 
by the formation of carbon dioxide and water when they are 
burned was first correctly understood by Lavoisier, and as he 
had determined the carbon and hydrogen content of these two 
substances he was able to devise methods by which carbon and 
hydrogen in organic compounds could be estimated. In his 
earlier experiments he burned the substance in a known volume 
of oxygen, and by measuring the residual gas determined the 
carbon and hydrogen. For substances of a difficultly combustible 
nature he adopted the method in common use to-day, viz. to mix 
the substance with an oxidizing agent — mercuric oxide, lead 
dioxide, and afterwards copper oxide — and absorb the carbon 
dioxide in potash solution. This method has been improved, 
especially by Justus v. Liebig; and certain others based on a 
different procedure have been suggested. The estimation of 
nitrogen was first worked out in 1830 by Jean Baptiste Dumas, 
and different processes have been proposed by Will and F. 
Varrentrapp, J. Kjeldahl and others. Methods for the estimation 
of the halogens and sulphur were worked out by L. Carius (see 
below, § Organic Analysis). 

Only a reference can be made in this summary to the many 
fields in which analytical chemistry has been developed. Pro- 
gress in forensic chemistry was only possible after the reactions 
of poisons had been systematized; a subject which has been 
worked out by many investigators, of whom we notice K. R. 
Fresenius, J. and R. Otto, and J. S. Stas. Industrial chemistry 
makes many claims upon the chemist, for it is necessary to deter- 
mine the purity of a product before it can be valued. This has 
led to the estimation of sugar by means of the polarimeter, and 
of the calorific power of fuels, and the valuation of ores and 
metals, of coal-tar dyes, and almost all trade products. 

The passing of the Food and Drug Acts (187 5-1899) in England, 
and the existence of similar adulteration acts in other countries, 
have occasioned great progress in the analysis of foods, drugs, &c. 
For further information on this branch of analytical chemistry, 
see Adulteration. 

There exists no branch of technical chemistry, hygiene or 
pharmacy from which the analytical chemist can be spared, 
since it is only by a continual development of his art that we can 
hope to be certain of the purity of any preparation. In England 
this branch of chemistry is especially cared for by the Institute 
of Chemistry, which, since its foundation in 1877, nas done much 
for the training of analytical chemists. 

In the preceding sketch we have given a necessarily brief 
account of the historical development of analytical chemistry in 
its main branches. We shall now treat the different methods in 
more detail. It must be mentioned here that the reactions of 
any particular substance are given under its own heading, and in 
this article we shall only collate the various operations and outline 
the general procedure. The limits of space prevent any sys- 
tematic account of the separation of the rare metals, the alkaloids, 
and other classes of organic compounds, but sources where these 
matters may be found are given in the list of references. 

Qualitative Inorganic Analysis. 

The dry examination of a substance comprises several opera- 
tions, which may yield definite results if no disturbing 
element is present; but it is imperative that any in- ^thods. 
ference should be confirmed by other methods. 

1. Heat the substance in a hard glass tube. Note whether 
any moisture condenses on the cooler parts of the tube, a gas is 
evolved, a sublimate formed, or the substance changes colour. 

Moisture is evolved from substances containing water of crystal- 
lization or decomposed hydrates. If it possesses an alkaline or 
acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and 
in the second case for a volatile acid, such as sulphuric, nitric, 
hydrochloric, &c. 




Any evolved gas must be examined. Oxygen, recognized by its 
power of igniting a glowing splinter, results from the decomposition 
of oxides of the noble metals, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates and other 
highly oxygenized salts. Sulphur dioxide, recognized by its smell 
and acid reaction, results from the ignition of certain sulphites, 
sulphates, or a mixture of a sulphate with a sulphide. Nitrogen 
oxides, recognized by their odour and brown-red colour, result from 
the decomposition of nitrates. Carbon dioxide, recognized by 
turning lime-water milky, indicates decomposable carbonates or 
oxalates. Chlorine, bromine, and iodine, each recognizable by its 
colour and odour, result from decomposable haloids; iodine forms 
also a black sublimate. Cyanogen and hydrocyanic acid, recogniz- 
able by their odour, indicate decomposable cyanides. Sulphuretted 
hydrogen, recognized by its odour, results from sulphides containing 
water, and hydrosulphides. Ammonia, recognizable by its odour 
and alkaline reaction, indicates ammoniacal salts or cyanides 
Containing water. 

A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur — reddish-brown drops, 
cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; 
iodine— violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or 
mixtures; mercury and its compounds — metallic mercury forms 
minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on 
rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous 
chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; 
arsenic and its compounds— metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, 
arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give 
reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony 
oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride 
forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating. 

If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have 
present: zinc oxide — from white to yellow, becoming white on 
cooling; stannic oxide— white to yellowish brown, dirty white on 
cooling; lead oxide — from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, 
yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide — from white or pale yellow to 
orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese 
oxide — from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining 
dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddish- 
brown, it indicates cadmium oxide) ; copper oxide — from bright 
blue or green to black; ferrous oxide — from greyish-white to black; 
ferric oxide — from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; 
potassium chromate — yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat. 

2. Heat the substance on a piece of charcoal in the reducing 
flame of the blowpipe. 

(a) The substance may fuse and be absorbed by the charcoal; 
this indicates more particularly the alkaline metals. 

(/3) An infusible white residue may be obtained.which may denote 
barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium or zinc. The 
first three give characteristic flame colorations (see below) ; the last 
three, when moistened with cobalt nitrate and re-ignited, give 
coloured masses ; aluminium (or silica) gives a brilliant blue ; zinc 
gives a green ; whilst magnesium phosphates or arsenate (and to a 
less degree the phosphates of the alkaline earths) give a violet mass. 

A metallic globule with or without an incrustation may be obtained. 
Gold and copper salts give a metallic bead without an incrustation. 
If the incrustation be white and readily volatile, arsenic is present, 
if more difficultly volatile and beads are present, antimony; zinc 
gives an incrustation yellow whilst hot, white on cooling, and 
volatilized with difficulty; tin gives a pale yellow incrustation, 
which becomes white on cooling, and does not volatilize in either the 
reducing or oxidizing flames; lead gives a lemon-yellow incrustation 
turning sulphur-yellow on cooling, together with metallic malleable 
beads; bismuth gives metallic globules and a dark orange-yellow 
incrustation, which becomes lemon-yellow on cooling; cadmium 
gives a reddish-brown incrustation, which is removed without 
leaving a gleam by heating in the reducing flame ; silver gives white 
metallic globules and a dark-red incrustation. 

3. Heat the substance with a bead of microcosmic salt or 
borax on a platinum wire in the oxidizing flame. 

(a) The substance dissolves readily and in quantity, forming a 
bead which is clear when hot. If the bead is coloured we may have 
present : cobalt, blue to violet ; copper, green, blue on cooling ; 
in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered 
in the reducing flame; iron, hrownish-red, light-yellow or colourless 
on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, 
greenish when cold ; nickel, reddish to browmsh-red, yellow to 
reddish-yeilcw or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing 
flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on 
cooling ; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when 
cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold ; 
whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, 
colourless in the reducing flame. If the hot bead is colourless and 
remains clear on cooling, v/e may suspect the presence of antimony, 
aluminium, zinc, cadmium, lead, calcium and magnesium. When 
present in sufficient quantity the five last-named give enamel-white 
beads; lead oxide in excess gives a yellowish bead. If the hot 
colourless bead becomes enamel-white on cooling even when minute 
quantities of the substances are employed, we may infer the presence 
of barium or strontium. 

(0) The substance dissolves slowly and in small quantity, and forms 
a colourless bead which remains so on cooling. Either silica or tin 
may be present. If silica be present, it gives the iron bead when 
heated with a little ferric oxide ; if tin is present there is no change. 
Certain substances, such as the precious metals, are quite insoluble in 
the bead, but float about in it. 

4. Hold a small portion of the substance moistened with 
hydrochloric acid on a clean platinum wire in the fusion zone 
of the Bunsen burner, and note any colour imparted to the flame. 

Potassium gives a blue- violet flame which may be masked by the 
colorations due to sodium, calcium and other elements. By 
viewing the flame through an indigo prism it appears sky-blue, 
violet and ultimately crimson, as the thickness of the prism is 
increased. Other elements do not interfere with this method. 
Sodium gives an intense and persistent yellow flame ; lithium gives 
a carmine coloration, and may be identified in the presence of sodium 
by viewing through a cobalt glass or indigo prism ; from potassium 
it may be distinguished by its redder colour ; barium gives a yellowish- 
green flame, which appears bluish-green when viewed through green 
glass; strontium gives a crimson flame which appears purple or rose 
when viewed through blue glass; calcium gives an orange-red 
colour which appears finch-green through green glass; indium 
gives a characteristic bluish-violet flame; copper gives an intense 
emerald-green coloration. 

5. Film Reactions. — These reactions are practised in the 
following manner: — A thread of asbestos is moistened and then 
dipped in the substance to be tested; it is then placed in the 
luminous point of the Bunsen flame, and a small porcelain basin 
containing cold water placed immediately over the asbestos. 
The formation of a film is noted. The operation is repeated with 
the thread in the oxidizing flame. 

Any film formed in the first case is metallic, in the second it is the 
oxide. The metallic film is tested with 20% nitric acid and with 
bleaching-powder solution. Arsenic is insoluble in the acid, but 
immediately dissolves in the bleaching-powder. The black films of 
antimony and bismuth and the grey mottled film of mercury are 
slowly soluble in the acid, and untouched by bleaching-powder. 
The black films of tin, lead and cadmium dissolve at once in the acid, 
the lead film being also soluble in bleaching-powder. The oxide 
films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth 
slightly yellowish ; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium 
a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film. The oxide films (the 
metallic one in the case of mercury) are tested with hydriodic acid, 
and with ammonium sulphide, and from the changes produced the 
film can be determined (see F. M. Perkin, Qualitative Chemical 
Analysis, 1905). 

Having completed the dry analysis we may now pass on to 
the wet and more accurate investigation. It is first necessary 
to get the substance into solution. Small portions 
should be successively tested with water, dilute hydro- Wet th 
chloric acid, dilute nitric acid, strong hydrochloric 
acid, and a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, first in the 
cold and then with warming. Certain substances are insoluble 
in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with 
sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treat- 
ment with an acid, must be employed. Some of these insoluble 
compounds can be detected by their colour and particular re- 
actions. For further information on this subject, we refer the 
readers to Fresenius's Qualitative Analysis. 

The procedure for the detection of metals in solution consists of 
first separating them into groups and then examining each group 
separately. For this purpose the cold solution is treated with 
hydrochloric acid, which precipitates lead, silver and mercurous 
salts as chlorides. The solution is filtered and treated with an excess 
of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; 
this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the 
first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin 
as sulphides. The solution is filtered off, boiled till free of sulphur- 
etted hydrogen, and ammonium chloride and ammonia added. If 
phosphoric acid is absent, aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates 
are precipitated. If, however, phosphoric acid is present in the 
original substance,we may here obtain a precipitate of the phosphates 
of the remaining metals, together with aluminium, chromium and 
ferric hydrates. In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little 
as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, 
acetic acid and ferric chloride. The phosphates of aluminium, 
chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the 
same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent. To the filtrate 
from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and 
ammonium sulphide are added ; the precipitate may contain nickel, 
cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides. Ammonium carbonate is 
added to the filtrate; this precipitates calcium, strontium and 




barium. The solution contains magnesium, sodium and potassium, 
which are separately distinguished by the methods given under then- 
own headings. 

We now proceed with the examination of the various group 
precipitates. The white precipitate formed by cold hydrochloric 
acid is boiled with water, and the solution filtered while hot. Any 
lead chloride dissolves, and may be identified by the yellow precipitate 
formed with potassium chromate. To the residue add ammonia, 
shake, then filter. Silver chloride goes into solution, and may be 
precipitated by dilute nitric acid. The residue, which is black in 
colour, consists of mercuroso-ammonium chloride, in which mercury 
can be confirmed by its ordinary tests. 

The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain 
the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth 
sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red 
antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic 
sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation 
of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming 
with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and 
tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric 
acid to the ammonium sulphide solution. The precipitate is shaken 
with ammonium carbonate, which dissolves the arsenic. Filter and 
confirm arsenic in the solution by its particular tests. Dissolve the 
residue in hydrochloric acid and test separately for antimony and 
tin. The residue from the ammonium sulphide solution is warmed 
with dilute nitric acid. Any residue consists of black mercuric 
sulphide (and possibly white lead sulphate), in which mercury is 
confirmed by its usual tests. The solution is evaporated with a 
little sulphuric acid and well cooled. The white precipitate consists 
of lead sulphate. To the filtrate add ammonia in excess: a white 
precipitate indicates bismuth; if the solution be blue, copper is 
present. Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, 
add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphur- 
etted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide. 
If copper is absent, then sulphuretted hydrogen can be passed 
directly into the solution. 

The next group precipitate may contain the white gelatinous 
aluminium hydroxide, the greenish chromium hydroxide, reddish 
ferric hydroxide, and possibly zinc and manganese hydroxides. 
Treatment with casutic soda dissolves out aluminium hydroxide, 
which is reprecipitated by the addition of ammonium chloride. 
The remaining metals are tested for separately. 

The next group may contain black nickel and cobalt sulphides, 
flesh-coloured manganese sulphide, and white zinc sulphide. The 
last two are dissolved out by cold, very dilute hydrochloric acid, 
arid the residue is tested for nickel and cobalt. The solution is 
boiled till free from sulphuretted hydrogen and treated with excess 
of sodium hydrate. A white precipitate rapidly turning brown 
indicates manganese. The solution with ammonium sulphide gives 
a white precipitate of zinc sulphide. 

The next group may contain the white calcium, barium and 
strontium carbonates. The flame coloration (see above) may give 
information as to which elements are present. The carbonates are 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and calcium sulphate solution is 
added to a portion of the solution. An immediate precipitate 
indicates barium; a precipitate on standing indicates strontium. 
If barium is present, the solution of the carbonates in hydrochloric 
acid is evaporated and digested with strong alcohol for some time ; 
barium chloride, which is nearly insoluble in alcohol, is thus separated, 
the remainder being precipitated by a few drops of hydrofluosilicic 
acid, and may be confirmed by the ordinary tests. The solution free 
from barium is treated with ammonia and ammonium sulphate, 
which precipitates strontium, and the calcium in the solution may be 
identified by the white precipitate with ammonium oxalate. 

Having determined the bases, it remains to determine the acid 
radicals. There is no general procedure for these operations, 
and it is customary to test for the acids separately by special 
tests; these are given in the articles on the various acids. A 
knowledge of the solubility of salts considerably reduces the 
number of acids likely to be present, and affords evidence of great 
value to the analyst (see A. M. Comey, Dictionary of Chemical 
Solubilities). In the above account we have indicated the pro- 
cedure adopted in the analysis of a complex mixture of salts. 
It is unnecessary here to dwell on the precautions which can only 
be conveniently acquired by experience; a sound appreciation 
of analytical methods is only possible after the reactions and 
characters of individual substances have been studied, and we 
therefore refer the reader to the articles on the particular ele- 
ments and compounds for more information on this subject. 

Quantitative Inorganic Analysis. 
Quantitative methods are divided into four groups, which we 
now pass on to consider in the following sequence: (a) gravimetric, 
(/?) volumetric, (7) electrolytic, (8) colorimetric. 

(a) Gravimetric. — This method is made up of four operations: 
(1) a weighed quantity of the substance is dissolved in a suitable 
solvent; (2) a particular reagent is added which precipitates 
the substance it is desired to estimate; (3) the precipitate is 
filtered, washed and dried; (4) the filter paper containing the 
precipitate is weighed either as a tared filter, or incinerated and 
ignited either in air or in any other gas, and then weighed. 

(1) Accurate weighing is all-important; for details of the various 
appliances and methods see Weighing Machines. (2) No general 
directions can be given as to the method of precipitation. Sometimes 
it is necessary to allow the solution to stand for a considerable time 
either in the warm or cold or in the light or dark ; to work with cold 
solutions and then boil; or to use boiling solutions of both the 
substance and reagent. Details will be found in the articles on 
particular metals. (3) The operation of filtration and washing is 
very important. If the substance to be weighed changes in com- 
position on strong heating, it is necessary to emploj' a tared filter, 
i.e. a filter paper which has been previously heated to the temperature 
at which the substance is to be dried until its weight is constant. 
If the precipitate settles readily, the supernatant liquor may be 
decanted through the filter paper, more water added to the pre- 
cipitate and again decanted. By this means most of the washing, 
i.e. freeing from the other substances in the solution, can be accom- 
plished in the precipitating vessel. If, however, the precipitate 
refuses to settle, it is directly transferred to the filter paper, the last 
traces being removed by washing and rubbing the sides of the vessel 
with a piece of rubber, and the liquid is allowed to drain through. 
It is washed by ejecting a jet of water, ammonia or other prescribed 
liquid on to the side of the filter paper until the paper is nearly full. 
It can be shown that a more efficient washing results from alternately 
filling and emptying the funnel than by endeavouring to keep the 
funnel full. The washing is continued until the filtrate is free from 
salts or acids. (4) After washing, the funnel containing the filter paper 
is transferred to a drying oven. In the case of a tared filter it is 
weighed repeatedly until the weight suffers no change ; then knowing 
the weight of the filter paper, the weight of the precipitate is obtained 
by subtraction. If the precipitate may be ignited, it is transferred 
to a clean, weighed and recently ignited crucible, and the filter paper 
is burned separately on the lid, the ash transferred to the crucible, 
and the whole ignited. After ignition, it is allowed to cool in a 
desiccator and then weighed. Knowing the weight of the crucible 
and of the ash of the filter paper, the weight of the precipitate is 
determined. The calculation of the percentage of the particular con- 
stituent is simple. We know the amount present in the precipitate, 
and since the same amount is present in the quantity of substance 
experimented with, we have only to work out a sum in proportion. 

(j6) Volumetric. — This method is made up of three operations: 
— (1) preparation of a standard solution; (2) preparation of a 
solution of the substance; (3) titration, or the determination of 
what volume of the standard solution will occasion a known 
and definite reaction with a known volume of the test solution. 

(1) In general analytical work the standard solution contains the 
equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre 
of water. Such a solution is known as normal. Thus a normal 
solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of 
sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36-5 grammes, 
and so on. By taking j^th or r^th of these quantities, decinormal 
or centinormal solutions are obtained. We see therefore that 1 
cubic centimetre of a normal sodium carbonate solution will exactly 
neutralize 0-049 gramme of sulphuric acid, 0-0365 gramme of 
hydrochloric acid (i.e. the equivalent quantities), and similarly for 
decinormal and centinormal solutions. Unfortunately, the term 
normal is sometimes given to solutions which are strictly decinormal ; 
for example, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, &c. In technical analysis, 
where a solution is used for one process only, it may be prepared so 
that 1 cc. is equal to -oi gramme of the substance to be estimated. 
This saves a certain amount of arithmetic, but when the solution 
is applied in another determination additional calculations are 
necessary. Standard solutions are prepared by weighing out the 
exact amount of the pure substance and dissolving it in water, or 
by forming a solution of approximate normality, determining its 
exact strength by gravimetric or other means, and then correcting 
it for any divergence. This may be exemplified in the case of 
alkalimetry. Pure sodium carbonate is prepared by igniting the 
bicarbonate, and exactly 53 grammes are dissolved in water, forming 
a strictly normal solution. An approximate normal sulphuric acid is 
prepared from 30 ccs. of the pure acid (1-84 specific gravity) diluted 
to 1 litre. The solutions are titrated (see below) and the acid sol ution 
diluted until equal volumes are exactly equivalent. A standard 
sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes 
of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one 
cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the 
sulphuric acid. Similarly, normal solutions of-hydrochloric and nitric 
acids can be prepared. Where a solution is likely to change in 
composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, 

6 4 



sodium hydrate, &c, it is necessary to check or re-standardize it 

(2) The preparation of the solution of the substance consists in 
dissolving an accurately determined weight, and making up the 
volume in a graduated cylinder or flask to a known volume. 

(3) The titration is conducted by running the standard solution 
from a burette into a known volume of the test solution, which is 
usually transferred from the stock-bottle to a beaker or basin by 
means of a pipette. Various artifices are employed to denote the 
end of the reaction. These may be divided into two groups: (1) 
those in which a change in appearance of the reacting mixture occurs; 
(2) those in which it is necessary to use an indicator which, by its 
change in appearance, shows that an excess of one reagent is present. 
In the first group, we have to notice the titration of a cyanide with 
silver nitrate, when a milkiness shows how far the reaction has gone ; 
the titration of iron with permanganate, when the faint pink colour 
shows that all the iron is oxidized. In the second group, we may 
notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein 
in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution 
commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms 
a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry ; potassium chromate, 
which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is 
precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of 
ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium 
ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of 
the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when 
a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it. 

(7) Electrolytic. — This method consists in decomposing a 
solution of a salt of the metal by the electric current and weigh- 
ing the metal deposited at the cathode. 

It is only by paying great attention to the current density that 
good results are obtained, since metals other than that sought for may 
be deposited. In acid copper solutions, mercury is deposited before 
the copper with which it subsequently amalgamates; silver is 
thrown down simultaneously; bismuth appears towards the end; 
and after all the copper has been precipitated, arsenic and antimony 
may be deposited. Lead and manganese are partially separated 
as peroxides, but the remaining metals are not deposited from acid 
solutions. It is therefore necessary that the solution should be free 
from metals which may vitiate the results, or special precautions 
taken by which the impurities are rendered harmless. In such cases 
the simplicity of manipulation and the high degree of accuracy of 
the method have made it especially valuable. The electrolysis is 
generally conducted with platinum electrodes, of which the cathode 
takes the form of a piece of foil bent into a cylindrical form, the 
necessary current being generated by one or more Daniell cells. 

(5) Colorimetric. — This method is adopted when it is necessary 
to determine minute traces (as in the liquid obtained in the 
electrolytic separation of copper) of substances which afford 
well-defined colour reactions. 

The general procedure is to make a series of standard solutions 
containing definite quantities of the substance which it is desired to 
estimate; such a series will exhibit tints which deepen as the 
quantity of the substance is increased. A known weight of the test 
substance is dissolved and a portion of the solution is placed in a 
tube similar to those containing the standard solutions. The colour- 
producing reagent is added and the tints compared. In the case of 
copper, the colour reactions with potassium ferrocyanide or ammonia 
are usually employed; traces of ammonia are estimated with 
Nessler's reagent; sulphur in iron and steel is determined by the 
tint assumed by a silver-copper plate suspended in the gases liberated 
when the metal is dissolved in sulphuric acid (Eggertz's test) (see 
W. Crookes, Select Methods in Analytical Chemistry). 

Organic Analysis. 

The elements which play important parts in organic com- 
pounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, 
sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen. We shall here consider the 
qualitative and quantitative determination of these elements. 

Qualitative. — Carbon is detected by the formation of carbon 
dioxide, which turns lime-water milky, and hydrogen by the forma- 
tion of water, which condenses on the tube, when the substance is 
heated with copper oxide. Nitrogen may be detected by the 
evolution of ammonia when the substance is heated with soda-lime. 
A more delicate method is that due to J. L. Lassaigne and improved 
by O. Jacobsen and C. Graebe. The substance is heated with 
metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to 
redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, 
ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added. A blue coloration 
indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or 
sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction 
with the iron salts. The halogens may be sometimes detected by 
fusing with lime, and testing the solution for a bromide, chloride 
and iodide in the usual way. F. Beilstein determines their presence 
by heating the substance with pure copper oxide on a platinum 
wire in the B'unsen flame ; a green coloration is observed if halogens 
be present. Sulphur is detected by heating the substance with 

sodium, dissolving the product in water, and adding sodium nitro- 
prusside; a bluish-violet coloration indicates sulphur (H. Vohl). 
Or we may use J. Horbaczewski's method, which consists in boiling 
the substance with strong potash, saturating the cold solution with 
chlorine, adding hydrochloric acid, and boiling till no more chlorine is 
liberated, and then testing for sulphuric acid with barium chloride. 
Phosphorus is obtained as a soluble phosphate (which can be ex- 
amined in the usual way) by lixiviating the product obtained when 
the substance is ignited with potassium nitrate and carbonate. 

Quantitative. — Carbon and hydrogen are generally estimated by 
the combustion process, which consists in oxidizing the substance 
and absorbing the products of combustion in suitable carbon and 
apparatus. The oxidizing agent in commonest use is hydrogen. 
copper oxide, which must be freshly ignited before use on 
account of its hygroscopic nature. Lead chromate is sometimes 
used, and many other substances, such as platinum, manganese 
dioxide, &c, have been suggested. The procedure for a combustion 
is as follows: — 

j rifoOMWIi . I'PSgS 


Fig. 1. 
A hard glass tube slightly longer than the furnace and 12 to 15 mm. 
in diameter is thoroughly cleansed and packed as shown in fig. 1. 
The space o must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the 
substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be 
present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be 
condensed in the absorption apparatus; 6 contains copper oxide; 
c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing 
a weighed quantity of the substance ; d is a copper spiral. The end 
d is connected to an air or oxygen supply with an intermediate 
drying apparatus. The other end is connected with the absorption 
vessels, which consist of a tube (e) containing calcium chloride, and 
a set of bulbs (/) containing potash solution. .Various forms of potash 
bulbs are employed; fig. 2 is Liebig's, fig. 3 Mohr's or Geissler's, 
fig. 4 is a more recent form, of which special variations have been 

Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

made by Anderson, Gomberg, Delisle and others. After having 
previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the 
copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs 
are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted 
(in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to 
mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral {d) 
replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The 
apparatus is then tested for leaks. If all the connexions are sound, 
the copper oxide is gradually heated from the end a, the gas-jets 
under the spiral d are lighted, and a slow current of oxygen is passed 
through the tube. The success of the operation depends upon the 
slow burning of the substance. Towards the end the heat and the 
oxygen supply are increased. When there is no more absorption 
in the potash bulbs, the oxygen supply is cut off and air passed 
through. Having replaced the oxygen in the absorption vessels by 
air, they are disconnected and weighed, after having cooled down 
to the temperature of the room. The increase in weight of the calcium 
chloride tube gives the weight of water formed, and of the potash 
bulbs the carbon dioxide. 

Liquids are amenable to the same treatment, but especial care 
must be taken so that they volatilize slowly. Difficultly volatile 
liquids may be weighed directly into the boat; volatile liquids are 
weighed in thin hermetically sealed bulbs, the necks of which are 
broken just before they are placed in the combustion tube. 

The length of time and other disadvantages attending the com- 
bustion method have caused investigators to devise other processes. 
In 1855 C. Brunner described a method for oxidizing the carbon 
to carbon dioxide, which could be estimated by the usual methods, 
by heating the substance with potassium bichromate and sulphuric 
acid. This process has been considerably developed by J. Messinger, 
and we may hope that with subsequent improvements it may be 
adapted to all classes of organic compounds. The oxidation, which 
is effected by chromic acid and sulphuric acid, is conducted in a flask 
provided with a funnel and escape tube, and the carbon dioxide 
formed is swept by a current of dry air, previously freed from carbon 
dioxide, through a drying tube to a set of potash bulbs and a tube 
containing soda-lime; if halogens are present, a small wash bottle 
containing potassium iodide, and a (J tube containing glass wool 
moistened with silver titrate on one side and strong sulphuric acid 
on the other, must be inserted between the flask and the drying tube. 
The increase in weight of the potash bulbs and soda-lime tube gives 




the weight of carbon dioxide evolved. C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan 
collected the carbon dioxide obtained in this way over mercury. 
They also showed that carbon monoxide was given off towards the 
end of the reaction, and oxygen was not evolved unless the tempera- 
ture exceeded 100°. 

Methods depending upon oxidation in the presence of a contact 
substance have come into favour during recent years. In that of 
M. Dennstedt, which was first proposed in 1902, the substance is 
vaporized in a tube containing at one end platinum foil, platinized 
quartz, or platinized asbestos. The platinum is maintained at a 
bright red heat, either by a gas flame or by an electric furnace, and 
the vapour is passed over it by leading in a current of oxygen. If 
nitrogen be present, a boat containing dry lead peroxide and heated 
to 320 is inserted, the oxide decomposing any nitrogen peroxide 
which may be formed. The same absorbent quantitatively takes 
up any halogen and sulphur which may be present. The process-is 
therefore adapted to the simultaneous estimation of carbon,hydrogen, 
the halogens and sulphur. 

Nitrogen is estimated by (1) Dumas' method, which consists in 
heating the substance with copper oxide and measuring the volume 
Nitrogen. of nitrogen liberated; (2) by Will and Varrentrapp's 
method, in which the substance is heated with soda-lime, 
and the ammonia evolved is absorbed in hydrochloric acid, and thence 
precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate or estimated volumetric- 
ally ; or (3) by Kjeldahl's method, in which the substance is dissolved 
in concentrated sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate added, the 
liquid diluted and boiled with caustic soda, and the evolved ammonia 
absorbed in hydrochloric acid and estimated as in Will and 
Varrentrapp's method. 

Dumas' Method. — In this method the operation is carried out in a 
hard glass tube sealed at one end and packed as shown in fig. 5. 
The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which 
clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper 
oxide (&)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen 
into the receiving vessel (e) , which contains a strong potash solution ; 
c is coarse copper oxide ; and d a reduced copper 
gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any 
nitrogen oxides. Ulrich Kreusler generates the 
carbon dioxide in a separate apparatus, and 
in this case the tube is drawn out to a capillary 
at the end (a). This artifice is specially valuable 
when the substance decomposes or volatilizes 
in a warm current of carbon dioxide. Various 
forms of the absorbing apparatus (e) have been 
discussed by M. Ilinski (Ber. 17, p. 1347), who 
has also suggested the, use of manganese car- 
bonate instead of magnesite, since the change 
of colour enables one to follow the decomposi- 


■ ■■■»»,'*»v,*.*aiia 

Fig. 5. 

tion. Substances which burn with difficulty may be mixed with 
mercuric oxide in addition to copper oxide. 

Will and Varrentrapp's Method. — This method, as originally pro- 
posed, is not in common use, but has been superseded by Kjeldahl's 
method, since the nitrogen generally comes out too low. It is 
susceptible of wider application by mixing reducing agents with the 
soda-lime; thus Goldberg (Ber. 16, p. 2546) uses a mixture of 
soda-lime, stannous chloride and sulphur for nitro- and azo-com- 
pounds, and C. Arnold {Ber. 18, p. 806) a mixture containing 
sodium hyposulphite and sodium formate for nitrates. 

Kjeldahl's Method. — This method rapidly came into favour on 
account of its simplicity, both of operation and apparatus. Various 
substances other than potassium permanganate have been suggested 
for facilitating the operation; J. W. Gunning (Z. anal. Chem., 1889, 
p. 189) uses potassium sulphate; Lassar-Cohn uses mercuric oxide. 
The applicability of the process has been examined by F. W. Dafert 
(Z. anal. Chem., 1888, p. 224), who has divided nitrogenous bodies 
into two classes with respect to it. The first class includes those 
substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises 
the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, 
alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires 
preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, 
nitroso-, azo-, diazo- and amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, deriva- 
tives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds. 
Other improvements have been suggested by Dyer (J.C.S. Trans. 
67, p. 811). For an experimental comparison of the accuracy of 
the Dumas, Will-Varrentrapp and Kjeldahl processes see L. L'H6te, 
C.R. 1889, p. 817. Debordeaux (C.R. 1904, p. 905) has obtained 
good results by distilling the substance with a mixture of potassium 
thiosulphate and sulphide. 

The halogens may be estimated by ignition with quicklime, or by 
heating with nitric acid and silver nitrate in a sealed tube. In the 

VI. 3 

first method the substance, mixed with quicklime free from chlorine, 
is heated in a tube closed at one end in a combustion furnace. 
The product is dissolved in water, and the calcium n a i oeens 
haloid estimated in the usual way. The same decomposi- sa i p hur ' 
tion may be effected by igniting with iron, ferric oxide and pBOS . ' 
sodium carbonate (E. Kopp, Ber. 10, p. 290) ; the operation p /, orus . 
is easier if the lime be mixed with sodium carbonate, or a 
mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate be used. With 
iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the 
solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation 
with silver nitrate. C. Zulkowsky (Ber. 18, R. 648) burns the 
substance in oxygen, conducts the gases over platinized sand, and 
collects the products in suitable receivers. The oxidation with 
nitric acid in sealed tubes at a temperature of 150 to 200° for aliphatic 
compounds, and 250 to 260° for aromatic compounds, is in common 
use, for both the sulphur and phosphorus can be estimated, the 
former being oxidized to sulphuric acid and the latter to phosphoric 
acid. This method was due to L. Carius (Ann. 136, p. 129). R. 
Klason (Ber. 19, p. 1910) determines sulphur and the halogens by 
oxidizing the substance in a current of oxygen and nitrous fumes, 
conducting the vapours over platinum foil, and absorbing the vapours 
in suitable receivers. Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be 
estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected 
by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium 
bichromate and hydrochloric acid. A comparison of the various 
methods for estimating sulphur has been given by O. Hammarsten 
(Zeit. physiolog. Chem. 9, p. 273), and by Holand (Chemiker Zeitung, 
1893, p. 991). H. H. Pnngsheim (Ber. 38, p. 1434) has devised a 
method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the 
halogens.phosphorus and sulphur can be determined by one operation,, 

VI. Physical Chemistry 

We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for 
its province the investigation of the composition of matter, 
and the changes in composition which matter or energy may 
effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general 
properties of matter. A physicist, however, does more than 
merely quantitatively determine specific properties of matter; 
he endeavours to establish mathematical laws which co-ordinate 
his observations, and in many cases the equations expressing such 
laws contain functions or terms which pertain solely to the 
chemical composition of matter. One example will suffice here. 
The limiting law expressing the behaviour of gases under varying 
temperature and pressure assumes the form pv = RT; so stated, 
this law is independent of chemical composition and may be 
regarded as a true physical law, just as much as the law of uni- 
versal gravitation is a true law of physics. But this relation is 
not rigorously true; in fact, it does not accurately express tht 
behaviour of any gas. A more accurate expression (see Con- 
densation or Gases and Molecule) is (J>+a/z> 2 ), (v— i)=RT, in 
which a and b are quantities which depend on the composition 
of the gas, and vary from one gas to another. 

It may be surmised that the quantitative measures of most 
physical properties will be found to be connected with the 
chemical nature of substances. In the investigation of these 
relations the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; 
this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, 
and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composi- 
tion is one of the most important ramifications of physical 
chemistry. This branch receives treatment below. Of consider- 
able-importance, also, are the properties of solids, liquids and 
gases in solution. This subject has occupied a dominant position 
in physico-chemical research since the investigations of van't 
Hoff and Arrhenius. This subject is treated in the article 
Solution; for the properties of liquid mixtures reference should 
also be made to the article Distillation. 

Another branch of physical chemistry has for its purpose the 
quantitative study of chemical action, a subject which has 
brought out in clear detail the analogies of chemical and physical 
equilibrium (see Chemical Action). Another blanch, related 
to energetics (q.v.), is concerned with the transformation of 
chemical energy into other forms of energy — heat, light, electri- 
city. Combustion is a familiar example of the transformation 
of chemical energy into heat and light ; the quantitative measures 
of heat evolution or absorption (heat of combustion or combina- 
tion), and the deductions therefrom, are treated in the article 
Thermochemistry. Photography (q.v.) is based on chemical 
action induced by luminous rays; apart from this practical 





application there are many other cases in which actinic rays 
occasion chemical actions; these are treated in the article 
Photochemistry. Transformations of electrical into chemical 
energy are witnessed in the processes of electrolysis (q.v.; see 
also Electrochemistry and Electrometallurgy). The con- 
verse is presented in the common electric cell. 

Physical Properties and Composition. 

For the complete determination of the chemical structure of 
any compound, three sets of data are necessary: (i) the empirical 
chemical composition of the molecule; (2) the constitution, i.e. 
the manner in which the atoms are linked together; and (3) the 
configuration of the molecule, i.e. the arrangement of the atoms 
in space. Identity in composition, but difference in constitution, 
is generally known as " isomerism " (q.v.), and compounds 
satisfying this relation differ in many of their physical properties 
If, however, two compounds only differ with regard to the spatial 
arrangement of the atoms, the physical properties may be (1) 
for the most part identical, differences, however, being apparent 
with regard to the action of the molecules on polarized light, as 
is the case when the configuration is due to the presence of an 
asymmetric atom (optical isomerism); or (2) both chemical 
and physical properties may be different when the configuration 
is determined by the disposition of the atoms or groups attached 
to a pair of doubly -linked atoms, or to two members of a ring 
system (geometrical isomerism or allo-isomerism). Three sets 
of physical properties may therefore be looked for: (1) depending 
on composition, (2) depending on constitution, and (3) depending 
on configuration. The first set provides evidence as to the 
molecular weight of a substance: these are termed " colligative 
properties." The second and third sets elucidate the actual 
structure of the molecule: these are known as " constitutional 

In any attempts to gain an insight into the relations between 
the physical properties and chemical composition of substances, 
the fact must never be ignored that a comparison can only be 
made when the particular property under consideration is deter- 
mined under strictly comparable conditions, in other words, 
when the molecular states of the substances experimented upon 
are identical. This is readily illustrated by considering the pro- 
perties of gases — the simplest state of aggregation. According 
to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under 
the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal 
numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon 
the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that 
for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations 
must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations 
reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions. When this 
is done, such densities are measures of the molecular weights 
of the substances in question. 

Volume Relations. 1 — When dealing with colligative properties 
of liquids it is equally necessary to ensure comparability of con- 
ditions. In the article Condensation of Gases (see also 
Molecule) it is shown that the characteristic equation of gases 
and liquids is conveniently expressed in the form (p+a/v 2 ) (v— b) 
= RT. This equation, which is mathematically deducible from 
the kinetic theory of gases, expresses the behaviour of gases, 
the phenomena of the critical state, and the behaviour of liquids; 
solids are not accounted for. If we denote the critical volume, 
pressure and temperature by Va, Pt and T*-, then it may be 
shown, either by considering the characteristic equation as a 
perfect cube in for by using the relations that dpjdv = o, 
d 2 pjdv 2 =o at the critical point, that V;t = 3&, ~Pk — aj 2Tb 2 , 
T* = 8a/ 276. Eliminating a and b between these relations, we 
derive P&Vfc/Tk — fR, a relation which should hold between the 
critical constants of any substance. Experiment, however, 
showed that while the quotient on the left hand of this equation 
was fairly constant for a great number of substances, yet its 
value was not fRbut j^R; this means that the critical density 
is, as a general rule, 3-7 times the theoretical density. Deviation 
from this rule indicates molecular dissociation or association. 

1 For the connexion between valency and volume, see Valency. 

By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, 
many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, 
and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants 
agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young 
and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to 
associated molecules at the critical point. 

The critical volume provides data which may be tested for additive 
relations. Theoretically the critical volume is three times the 
volume at absolute zero, i.e. the actual volume of the 
molecules; this is obvious by considering the result of '°'j"" ea ' 
making T zero in the characteristic equation. Experi- crlt ' c ^' 
mentally (by extrapolation from the" law of the rectilinear ^absolute 
diameter ") the critical volume is four times the volume zero . 
at absolute zero (see Condensation of Gases). The 
most direct manner in which to test any property for additive 
relations is to determine the property for a number of elements, and 
then investigate whether these values hold for the elements in com- 
bination. Want of data for the elements, however, restricts this 
method to narrow limits, and hence an indirect method is necessary. 
It is found that isomers have nearly the same critical volume, and 
that equal differences in molecular content occasion equal differ- 
ences in critical volume. For example, the difference due to an 
increment of CHs is about 56-6, as is shown in the following table : — 



Crit. Vol. 

Vol. per CH, 

Methyl formate . 

H-C0 2 CH 3 


Ethyl formate . 

H-C0 2 C 2 H 6 

228 L 227.? 


Methyl acetate . 

CH 3 -C0 2 CH 3 

227 f 22 7 5 

Propyl formate . 

H-C0 2 C 3 H 7 



Ethyl acetate 

CH 3 -C0 2 C 2 H 6 

285 h 283-3 

Methyl propionate . 

C 2 H 6 -C0 2 CH 3 


Propyl acetate . 

CH 3 -C0 2 C 3 H 7 



Ethyl propionate 


343 I 340-7 
339 f 

Methyl n-butyrate . 
Methyl isobutyrate. 

lC 3 H 7 -C0 2 CH 3 

Since the critical volume of normal pentane CsHn is 307-2, we 
have H 2 = C 6 H 12 — 5CH 2 = 307-2 — 5X56-6 = 24-2, and C = CH 2 — H 2 = 
32-4. The critical volume of oxygen can be deduced from the data 
of the above table, and is found to be 29, whereas the experimental 
value is 25. 

The researches of H. Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular 
volumes, i.e. the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight 
of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point 
under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of * f?. me 
additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, l ' ol "°S m 
render it possible to predict, in some measure, the com- po n ' 
position of the substance. In practice it is generally more convenient 
to determine the density, the molecular volume being then obtained 
by dividing the molecular weight of the substance by the density. 
By the indirect method Kopp derived the following atomic volumes : 
C. O. H. CI. Br. I. S. 

11 12-2 55 228 27-8 37-5 22-6. 

These values hold fairly well when compared with the experimental 
values determined from other compounds, and also with the mole- 
cular volumes of the elements themselves. Thus the actually 
observed densities of liquid chlorine and bromine at the boiling- 
points are 1-56 and 2-96, leading to atomic volumes 22-7 and 26-9, 
which closely correspond to Kopp's values deduced from organic 

These values, however, require modification in certain cases, for 
discrepancies occur which can be reconciled in some cases by assuming 
that the atomic value of a polyvalent element varies according to the 
distribution of its valencies. Thus a double bond of oxygen, as in the 
carbonyl group CO, requires a larger volume than a single bond, as 
in the hydroxyl group- OH, being about 12-2 in the first case and 
7-8 in the second. Similarly, an increase of volume is associated 
with doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms. 

Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by 
Kopp — " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular 
volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes 
of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a 
definite atomic value in its compounds " — is by no means exact, 
for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an 
increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means 
constant ; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty 
acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49. We 
may therefore conclude that the molecular volume depends more 
upon the internal structure of the molecule than its empirical content. 
W. Ostwald {Lehr. der allg. Chem.), after an exhaustive review of the 
material at hand, concluded that simple additive relations did 
exist but with considerable deviations, which he ascribed to differ- 
ences in structure. In this connexion we may notice W. Stadel's 
determinations : 




CHClBr-CH 3 
CH 2 Br-CH 2 Cl 





These differences do not disappear at the critical point, and hence 
the critical volumes are not strictly additive. 

Theoretical considerations as to how far Kopp was justified in 
choosing the boiling-points under atmospheric pressure as being 
comparable states for different substances now claim our attention. 
Van der Waal's equation (p+a/v 1 ) (v — b) = RT contains two constants 
a and b determined by each particular substance. If we express 
the pressure, volume and temperature as fractions of the critical 
constants, then, calling these fractions the " reduced " pressure, 
volume and temperature, and denoting them by t, <j> and 9 re- 
spectively, the characteristic equation becomes (ir+3/<#> 2 ) (30 — 1 ) = 80 ; 
which has the same form for all substances. Obviously, therefore, 
liquids are comparable when the pressures, volumes and tem- 
peratures are equal fractions of the critical constants, In view 
of the extremely slight compressibility of liquids, atmospheric 
pressure may be regarded as a coincident condition; also C. M. 
Guldberg pointed out that .for the most diverse substances the 
absolute boiling-point is about two-thirds of the critical temperature. 
Hence within narrow limits Kopp's determinations were carried out 
under coincident conditions, and therefore any regularities presented 
by the critical volumes should be revealed in the specific volumes 
at the boiling-point. 

The connexion between the density and chemical composition of 
solids has not been investigated with the same completeness as in the 
case of gases and liq uids. The relation between the atomic 
Volume volumes and the atomic weights of the -solid elements 
trui* exhibits the periodicity which generally characterizes the 
of solids, elements. The molecular volume is additive in certain 
cases, in particular of analogous compounds of simple constitution. 
For instance, constant differences are found between the chlorides, 
bromides and iodides of sodium and potassium : — 





Diff. I. & II. 

KCl = 37-4 
KBr = 44 -3 
KI =54-0 


NaCl = 27-i 
NaBr = 33-8 
Nal =43-5 



According to H. Schroeder the silver salts of the fatty acids 
exhibit additive relations; an increase in the molecule of CHj 
causes an increase in the molecular volume of about 15-3. 

Thermal Relations. 

Specific Heat and Composition.— The nature and experi- 
mental determination of specific heats are discussed in the 
article Calorimetry; here will be discussed the relations exist- 
ing between the heat capacities of elements and compounds. 

In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount 
of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain 
range of temperature is different according as the gas 
heat f * s maintained at constant pressure, the volume in- 
cases, creasing, or at constant volume, thepressure increasing. 
A gas, therefore, has two specific heats, generally 
denoted by C p and C„, when the quantity of gas taken as a unit 
is one gramme molecular weight, the range of temperature being 
i° C. It may be shown that C P -C„ = R, where R is the gas- 
constant, i.e. R in the equation PV = RT. From the ratio C p /C„ 
conclusions may be drawn as to the molecular condition of the 
gas. By considerations based on the kinetic theory of gases 
(see Molecule) it may be shown that when no energy is utilized 
in separating the atoms of a molecule, this ratio is 5/3 = 1-67. 
If, however, an amount of energy a is taken up in separating 
atoms, the ratio is expressible as C p /C»=(s+a)/(3+a), which 
is obviously smaller than 5/3, and decreases with increasing 
values of a. These relations may be readily tested, for the ratio 
C p /C„ is capable of easy experimental determination. It is found 
that mercury vapour, helium, argon and its associates (neon, 
krypton, &c.) have the value 1-67; hence we conclude that these 
gases exist as monatomic molecules. Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen 
and carbon monoxide have the value 1-4; these gases have 
diatomic molecules, a fact capable of demonstration by other 
means. Hence it may be inferred that this value is typical for 
diatomic molecules. Similarly, greater atomic complexity is 
reflected in a further decrease in the ratio C p /C„. The following 
table gives a comparative view of the specific heats and the 
ratio for molecules of variable atomic content. 

The abnormal specific heats of the halogen elements may be due 
to a loosening of the atoms, a preliminary to the dissociation into 
monatomic molecules which occurs at high temperatures. In the 
more complex gases the specific heat varies considerably with 
temperature; only in the case of monatomic gases does it remain 

Molecular Content. 




*— p/*— V» 

Monatomic . 



Tetratomic . 

Pentatomic . 
Hexatomic . 

Hg, Zn, Cd, He, Ar, &c. 
1 H 2 , 2 , N 2 (o°-20o°) . 
}C1 2 , Br 2 , I 2 (o°-2oo°). 
( HC1, HBr, HI, NO, CO 

H 2 0, H S S, N 2 0, C0 2 . 

\ As 4 , P< 

1 NH 3 , C 2 H 2 .... 


C2H4, C2H;jBr . 
















constant. Le Chatelier (Zeit. f. phys. Chem. i. 456) has given the 
formula C P = 6-5-r-aT, where a is a constant depending on the 
complexity of the molecule, as an expression for the molecular heat 
at constant pressure at any temperature T (reckoned on the absolute 
scale). For a further discussion of the ratio of the specific heats see 

Specific Heals of Solids. — The development of the atomic 
theory and the subsequent determination of atomic weights 
in the opening decades of the 19th century inspired A. T. Petit 
and P. L. Dulong to investigate relations (if any) existing 
between specific heats and the atomic weight. Their obser- 
vations on the solid elements led to a remarkable generalization, 
now known as Dulong and Petit's law. This states that " the 
atomic heat (the product of the atomic weight and specific 
heat) of all elements is a constant quantity." The value 
of this constant when H=i is about 6-4; Dulong and Petit, 
using 0=i, gave the value -38, the specific heat of water being 
unity in both cases. This law — purely empirical in origin — was 
strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific 
heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight 
from the equivalent weight. At the same time he perceived 
that specific heats varied with temperature and also with allo- 
tropes, e.g. graphite and diamond. The results of Berzelius were 
greatly extended by Hermann Kopp, who recognized that carbon, 
boron and silicon were exceptions to the law. He regarded these 
anomalies as solely due to the chemical nature of the elements, 
and ignored or regarded as insignificant such factors as the state 
of aggregation and change of specific heat with temperature. 

The specific heats of carbon, boron and silicon subsequently 
formed the subject of elaborate investigations by H. F. Weber, who 
showed that with rise of temperature the specific (and atomic) heat 
increases, finally attaining a fairly constant value; diamond, 
graphite and the various amorphous forms of carbon having the value 
about 5-6 at 1000 , and silicon 5-68 at 232 ; while he concluded 
that boron attained a constant value of 5-5. Niison and Pettersson's 
observations on beryllium and germanium have shown that the 
atomic heats of these metals increase with rise of temperature, 
finally becoming constant with a value 5-6. W. A. Tilden (Phil.- 
Trans., 1900, p. 233) investigated nickel and cobalt over a wide 
range of temperature (from —182-5° to 100°); his results are: — 



From -182-5° to -78-4° . . 

- 78-4° to 15 • . 

15° to 100° . . 



It is evident that the atomic heats of these intimately associated 
elements approach nearer and nearer as we descend in temperature, 
approximating to the value 4. Other metals were tested in order 
to determine if their atomic heats approximated to this value at low 
temperatures, but with negative results. 

It is apparent that the law of Dulong and Petit is not rigorously 
true, and that deviations are observed which invalidate the law as 
originally framed. Since the atomic heat of the same element 
varies with its state of aggregation, it must be concluded that some 
factor taking this into account must be introduced; moreover, the 
variation of specific heat with temperature introduces another factor. 

We now proceed to discuss molecular heats of compounds, 
that is, the product of the molecular weight into the specific 
heat. The earliest generalization in this direction is associated 
with F. E. Neumann, who, in 183 1, deduced from observations 
on many carbonates (calcium, magnesium, ferrous, zinc, barium 
and lead) that stoichiometric quantities (equimolecular weights) 
of compounds possess the same heat capacity. This is spoken of 
as " Neumann's law." Regnault confirmed Neumann's obser- 
vations, and showed that the molecular heat depended on the 
number of atoms present, equiatomic compounds having the 
same molecular heat. Kopp systematized the earlier observations, 



and, having made many others, he was able to show that 
the molecular heat was an additive property, i.e. each element 
retains the same heat capacity when in combination as in the 
free state. This has received confirmation by the researches 
of W. A. Tilden (Phil. Trans., 1904, 203 a, p. 139) for those 
elements whose atomic heats vary considerably with temperature. 

The specific heat of a compound may, in general, be calculated 
from the specific heats of its constituent elements. Conversely, if 
the specific heats of a compound and its constituent elements, 
except one, be known, then the unknown atomic heat is readily 
deducible. Similarly, by taking the difference of the molecular heats 
of compounds differing by one constituent, the molecular (or atomic) 
heat of this constituent is directly obtained. By this method it is 
shown that water, when present as " water of crystallization," 
behaves as if it were ice. 

Deductions from Dulong and Petit's Law. — Denoting the 
atomic weight by W and the specific heat by s, Dulong and 
Petit's law states that 6-4 = Ws. Thus if s be known, an approxi- 
mate value of W is determinate. In the determination of the 
atomic weight of an element two factors must be considered: 
(1) its equivalent weight, i.e. the amount which is equivalent to 
one part of hydrogen; and (2) a factor which denotes the number 
of atoms of hydrogen which combines with or is equivalent to 
one atom of the particular element. This factor is termed the 
valency. The equivalent weight is capable of fairly ready 
determination, but the settlement of the second factor is some- 
what more complex, and in this direction the law of atomic heats 
is of service. To take an example: 38 parts of indium combine 
with 35-4 parts of chlorine; hence, if the formula of the chloride 
be InCl, InCl 2 or InCl 3 , indium has the atomic weights 38, 76 
or 114. The specific heat of indium is 0-057; and the atomic 
heats corresponding to the atomic weights 38, 76 and 114 are 
3-2, 4-3, 6-5. Dulong and Petit's law thus points to the value 
114, which is also supported by the position occupied by this 
element in the periodic classification. C. Winkler decided the 
atomic weight of germanium by similar reasoning. 

Boiling-Point and Composition. — From the relation between 

the critical constants P* Vi/T*=^R or T*/P*=3-7V t /R, and 

since V* is proportional to the volume at absolute zero, the ratio 
Tjt/Pj; should exhibit additive relations. This ratio, termed by 
Guye the critical coefficient, has the following approximate 
values: — 

c. h. ci. -0-. =0. n. n=. p. £g2£,£K. 

i - 35 0- 57 2-66 °'&7 1-27 i-6 i-86 3-01 o-88 1-03 
Since at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure liquids 
are in corresponding states, the additive nature of the critical 
coefficient should also be presented by boiling-points. It may 
be shown theoretically that the absolute boiling-point is pro- 
portional to the molecular volume, and, since this property is 
additive, the boiling-point should also be additive. 

These relations have been more thoroughly tested in the case of 
organic compounds, and the results obtained agree in some measure 
with the deductions from molecular volumes. In general, isomers 
boil at about the same temperature, as is shown by the isomeric 
esters C9H18O2: — 

Amyl butyrate 
Heptyl acetate 
Octyl formate 



Methyl octoate . . 192-9' 

Ethyl heptoafe . . 187-1' 

Propyl hexoate . . 185-5' 

Butyl pentoate . . 185-8' 

Equal increments in the molecule are associated with an equal 
rise in the boiling-point, but this increment varies in different 
homologous series. Thus in the normal fatty alcohols, acids, esters, 
nitriles and ketones, the increment per CH2 is 19 — 21°; in the alde- 
hydes it is 26°— 27°. In the aromatic compounds there is no regu- 
larity between the increments due to the introduction of methyl 
groups into the benzene nucleus or side chains; the normal value 
of 20° — 21° is exhibited, however, by pyridine and its derivatives. 
The substitution of a hydrogen atom by the hydroxyl group generally 
occasions a rise in boiling-point at about 100°. The same increase 
accompanies the introduction of the amino group into aromatic nuclei. 

While certain additive relations hold between some homologous 
series, yet differences occur which must be referred to the constitution 
of the molecule. As a general rule, compounds formed 
with a great evolution of heat have high boiling-points, 
and vice versa. The introduction of negative groups into 
a molecule alters the boiling-point according to the number 
of negative groups already present. This is shown in the case of the 
chloracetic acids : 



CH 3 C02H = n8° 
ClCH 2 -C0 2 H = i85° 


Cl 2 CH-C0 2 H = i95° 


Cl 3 C-C0 2 H = i95 o -200° 3 
According to van 't Hoff the substitution of chlorine atoms into a 
methyl group occasions the following increments : — 
CI in CH 3 66° 

CI „ CH 2 C1 39° 

CI „CHC1 2 13°. 

The introduction of chlorine, however, may involve a fall in the 
boiling-point, as is recorded by Henry in the case of the chlorinated 
acetonitriles : — 

NC-CH 3 . NC-CHjCl. NC-CHC1,. NC-CC1 3 . 

81° 123° 112 83° 

42° -n° -29° 

The replacement of one negative group by another is accompanied by 
a change in the boiling-point, which is independent of the compound 
in which the substitution is effected, and solely conditioned by the 
nature of the replaced and replacing groups. Thus bromine and iodine 
replace chlorine with increments of about 22° and 50° respectively. 

A factor of considerable importance in determining boiling-points 
of isomers is the symmetry of the molecule. Referring to the esters 
C 9 Hi 8 C>2 previously mentioned, it is seen that the highest boiling- 
points belong to methyl octoate and octyl formate, the least sym- 
metrical, while the minimum belongs to amyl butyrate, the most 
symmetrical. The isomeric pentanes also exhibit a similar rela- 
tionCH 3 (CH2)4CH 3 =38°,(CH 5 )2CHC2H 5 = 3o ,(CH3)4C=9-5 .Fora 
similar reason secondary alcohols boil at a lower temperature than 
the corresponding primary, the difference being about 19°. A. E. 
Earp (Phil. Mag., 1893 [5], 35, p. 458) has shown that, while an 
increase in molecular weight is generally associated with a rise in 
the boiling-point, yet the symmetry of the resulting molecule may 
exert such a lowering effect that the final result is a diminution in the 
boiling-point. The series H 2 S = -6l°, CH s SH=2i°, (CH 3 ) 2 S=4i° 
is an example; in the first case, the molecular weight is in- 
creased and the symmetry diminished, the increase of boiling-point 
being 82°; in the second case the molecular weight is again increased 
but the molecule assumes a more symmetrical configuration, hence 
the comparatively slight increase of 20°. A similar depression is 
presented by methyl alcohol (67°) and methyl ether (—23°). 

Among the aromatic di-substitution derivatives the ortho com- 
pounds have the highest boiling-point, and the meta boil at a higher, 
or about the same temperature as the para compounds. Of the 
tri-derivatives the symmetrical compounds boil at the lowest 
temperature, the asymmetric next, and the vicinal at the highest. 

An ethylenic or double carbon union in the aliphatic hydrocarbons 
has, apparently, the same effect on the boiling-point as two hydrogen 
atoms, since the compounds C„H 2n+ 2 and C„H 2f . boil at about the 
same temperature. An acetylenic or triple linkage is associated 
with a rise in the boiling-point ; for example, propargyl compounds 
boil about 19-5° higher than the corresponding propyl compound. 

Certain regularities attend the corresponding property of the 
melting-point. A rule applicable to organic compounds, due to 
Adolf v. Baeyer and supported by F. S. Kipping (Jour. Chem. Soc., 
J893, 63, p. 465) states, that the melting-point of any odd member 
of a homologous series is lower than the melting-point of the even 
member containing one carbon atom less. This is true of the fatty 
acid series, and the corresponding ketones and alcohols, and also of 
the succinic acid series. Other regularities exist, but generally with 
many exceptions. It is to be noted that although the correlation of 
melting-point with constitution has not been developed to such 
an extent as the chemical significance of other physical properties, 
the melting-point is the most valuable test of the purity of a sub- 
stance, a circumstance due in considerable measure to the fact that 
impurities always tend to lower the melting-point. 

Heal of Combustion and Constitution. — In the article Thermo- 
chemistry a general account of heats of formation of chemical 
compounds is given, and it is there shown that this constant 
measures the stability of the compound. In organic chemistry 
it is more customary to deal with the " heat of combustion," 
i.e. the heat evolved when an organic compound is completely 
burned in oxygen; the heat of formation is deduced from the 
fact that it is equal to the heats of formation of the products 
of combustion less the observed heat of combustion. The 
researches of Julius Thomsen and others have shown that in many 
cases definite conclusions regarding constitution can be drawn 
from quantitative measurements of the heats of combustion; 
and in this article a summary of the chief results will be given. 

The identity of the four valencies of the carbon atom follows 
from the fact that the heats of combustion of methane, ethane, 
propane, trimethyl methane, and tetramethyl methane, have a 
constant difference in the order given, viz. i58-6calories ; this means 




that the replacement of a hydrogen atom by a methyl group is 
attended by a constant increase in the heat of combustion. The 
same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into 
many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, 
acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones 
and esters, while a slightly lower value (157-1) is found in the case 
of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides 
and nitro compounds. It therefore appears that the difference be- 
tween the heats of combustion of two adjacent members of a series 
of homologous compounds is practically a constant, and that this 
constant has two average values, viz. 158-6 and 157-1. 

An important connexion between heats of combustion and 
constitution is found in the investigation of the effect of single, 
double and triple carbon linkages on the thermochemical constants. 
If twelve grammes of amorphous carbon be burnt to carbon dioxide 
under constant volume, the heatevolved (96-96 cal.) does not measure 
the entire thermal effect, but the difference between this and the 
heat required to break down the carbon molecule into atoms. 
If the number of atoms in the carbon molecule be denoted by n, 
and the heat required to split off each atom from the molecule by d, 
then the total heat required to break down a carbon molecule 
completely into atoms is nd. It follows that the true heat of com- 
bustion of carbon, i.e. the heat of combustion of one gramme-atom, 
is 96-96 +d. The value of d can be evaluated by considering the 
combustion of amorphous carbon to carbon monoxide and carbon 
dioxide. In the first case the thermal effect of 58-58 calories actually 
observed must be increased by 2d to allow for the heat absorbed in 
splitting off two gramme-atoms of carbon; in the second case the 
thermal effect of 96-96 must be increased by d as above. Now in 
both cases one gramme-molecule of oxygen is decomposed, and the 
two oxygen atoms thus formed are combined with two carbon 
valencies. It follows that the thermal effects stated above must be 
equal, i.e. 58-58 +2d = 96-96 +<2, and therefore^ = 38-38. Theabsolute 
heat of combustion of a carbon atom is therefore 135-34 calories, 
and this is independent of the form of the carbon burned. 

Consider now the combustion of a hydrocarbon of the general 
formula C„H 2m . We assume that each carbon atom and each 
hydrogen atom contributes equally to the thermal effect. If a be 
the heat evolved by each carbon atom, and £ that by each hydrogen 
atom, the thermal effect may be expressed as H=«a+2w/3-A, 
where A is the heat required to break the molecule into its constituent 
atoms. If the hydrocarbon be saturated, i.e. only contain single 
carbon linkages, then the number of such linkages is 2n-m, and if 
the thermal effect of such a linkage be X, then the term Aisobviously 
equal to (2«-m)X. The value of H then becomes H=na+2m(i- 
(2n-m)X or n^-\-m-q, where £ and 17 are constants. Let double 
bonds be present, in number p, and let the energy due to such a 
bond be Y. Then the number of single bonds is 2n-m-2p, and the 
heat of combustion becomes Hi — n^+mrj+p(2X-Y). If triple bonds, 
q in number, occur also, and the energy of such a bond be Z, the 
equation for H becomes 

H =ni+m> +p( 2 X-Y) +2C3X-Z). 

This is the general equation for calculating the heat of combustion 
of a hydrocarbon. It contains four independent constants; two 
of these may be calculated from the heats of combustion of 
saturated hydrocarbons, and the other two from the combustion of 
hydrocarbons containing double and triple linkages. By experiment 
it is found that the thermal effect of a double bond is much less than 
the effect of two single bonds, while a triple bond has a much smaller 
effect than three single bonds. J. Thomsen deduces the actual 
values of X, Y, Z to be 14-71, 13-27 and zero; the last value he 
considers to be in agreement with the labile equilibrium of acetylenic 
compounds. One of the most important applications of these values 
is found in the case of the constitution of benzene, where Thomsen 
decides in favour of the Claus formula, involving nine single carbon 
linkages, and rejects the Kekule formula, which has three single 
and three double bonds (see section IV.). 

The thermal effects of the common organic substituents have 
also been investigated. The thermal effect of the " alcohol " group 
C-OH may be determined by finding the heat of formation of the 
alcohol and subtracting the thermal effects of the remaining linkages 
in the molecule. The average value for primary alcohols is 44 67 cal., 
but many large differences from this value obtain in certain cases. 
The thermal effects increase as one passes from primary to tertiary 
alcohols, the values deduced from propyl and isopropyl alcohols and 
trimethyl carbinol being: — primary =45-08, secondary = 50-39, ter- 
tiary =60-98. The thermal effect of the aldehyde group has the 
average value 64-88 calories, i.e. considerably greater than the alcohol 
group. The ketone group corresponds to a thermal effect of 53-52 
calories. It is remarkable that the difference in the heats of forma- 
tion of ketones and the paraffin containing one carbon atom less is 
67-94 calories, which is the heat of formation of carbon monoxide 
at constant volume. It follows therefore that two hydrocarbon 
radicals are bound to the carbon monoxide residue with the same 
strength as they combine to form a paraffin. The average value for 
the carboxyl group is 119-75 calories, i.e. it is equal to the sum of 
the thermal effects of the aldehyde and carbonyl groups. 

The thermal effects of the halogens are: chlorine = !5-l3 calories, 
bromine = 7-68; iodine = -4-25 calories. It >s remarkable that the 

position of the halogen in the molecule has no effect on the heat of 
formation ; for example, chlorpropylene and allylchloride, and also 
ethylene dichloride and ethylidene dichloride, have equal heats of 
formation. The thermal effect of the ether group has an average 
value of 34-31 calories. This value does not hold in the case of 

1 1 

methylene oxide if we assign to it the formula H 2 C-0-CH 2 , but 
if the formula HaC-0-CH2 (which assumes the presence of two free 
valencies) be accepted, the calculated and observed heats of formation 
are in agreement. 

The combination of nitrogen with carbon may result in the 
formation of nitriles, cyanides, or primary, secondary or tertiary 
amines. Thomsen deduced that a single bond between a carbon and 
a nitrogen gramme-atom corresponds to a thermal effect of 2-77 
calories, a double bond to 5-44, and a treble bond to 8-31. From 
this he infers that cyanogen is C:N-N:C and not N;C-C;N, that 
hydrocyanic acid is HC-N, and acetonitrile CH 3 -C \ N. In the case 
of the amines he decides in favour of the formulae 

H 2 C:NH 3 hIc^ NH2 H 2 8 C^ NH-CH3 

(primary, secondary, tertiary. 

These involve pentavalent nitrogen. These formulae, however, only 
apply to aliphatic amines ; the results obtained in the aromatic series 
are in accordance with the usual formulae. 

Optical Relations. 

Refraction and Composition. — Reference should be made to 
the article Refraction for the general discussion of the pheno- 
menon known as the refraction of light. It is there shown that 
every substance, transparent to light, has a definite refractive 
index, which is the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuo to its 
velocity in the medium to which the refractive index refers. 
The refractive index of any substance varies with (1) the wave- 
length of the light; (2) with temperature; and (3) with the state 
of aggregation. The first cause of variation may be at present 
ignored; its significance will become apparent when we consider 
dispersion (vide infra). The second and third causes, however, 
are of greater importance, since they are associated with the 
molecular condition of the substance; hence, it is obvious that 
it is only from some function of the refractive index which is 
independent of temperature variations and changes of state 
(i.e. it must remain constant for the same substance at any 
temperature and in any form) that quantitative relations between 
refractivity and chemical composition can be derived. 

The pioneer work in this field, now frequently denominated 
" spectro-chemistry," was done by Sir Isaac Newton, who, from 
theoretical considerations based on his corpuscular theory of light, 
determined 'the function (w 4 — 1), where n is the refractive index, 
to be the expression for the refractive power; dividing this 
expression by the density (d), he obtained (« 2 — i)/rf, which he 
named the " absolute refractive power." To P. S. Laplace is 
due the theoretical proof that this function is independent of 
temperature and pressure, and apparent experimental confirma- 
tion was provided by Biot and Arago's, and by Dulong's observa- 
tions on gases and vapours. The theoretical basis upon which 
this formula was devised (the corpuscular theory) was shattered 
early in the 19th century, and in its place there arose the modern 
wave theory which theoretically invalidates Newton's formula. 
The question of the dependence of refractive index on tempera- 
ture was investigated in 1858 by J. H. Gladstone and the Rev. 
T. P. Dale; the more simple formula (n-i)/d, which remained 
constant for gases and vapours, but exhibited slight discrepancies 
when liquids were examined over a wide range of temperature, 
being adopted. The subject was next taken up by Hans Landolt, 
who, from an immense number of observations, supported in 
a general way the formula of Gladstone and Dale. He introduced 
the idea of comparing the refractivity of equimolecular quantities 
of different substances by multiplying the function (n—i)ld 
by the molecular weight (M) of the substance, and investigated 
the relations of chemical grouping to refractivity. Although 
establishing certain general relations between atomic and 
molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the 
inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it 
was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual 
composition of the substance and was independent of its physical 
condition. A more accurate expression (n 2 —i)l(n 2 +2)d was 




suggested in 1880 independently and almost simultaneously by 
L. V. Lorenz of Copenhagen and H. A. Lorentz of Leiden, from 
considerations based on the Clausius-Mossotti theory of dielectrics. 

Assuming that the molecules are spherical, R. J. E. Clausius and 
O. F. Mossotti found a relation between the dielectric constant and 
the space actually occupied by the molecules, viz. K = (l+2o)/(l— o), 
or a = (K — l)/(K+2.), where K is the dielectric constant and a the 
fraction of the total volume actually occupied by matter. According 
to the electromagnetic theory of light K = N 2 , where N is the 
refractive index for rays of infinite wave-length. Making this 
substitution, and dividing by d, the density of the substance, we 
obtain a/d = (N 2 — i)/(N 2 +2)a. Since a/d is the real specific volume 
of the molecule, it is therefore a constant; hence (N 2 — i)/(N 2 +2)<f 
is also a constant and is independent of all changes of temperature, 
pressure, and of the state of aggregation. To determine N 
recourse must be made to Cauchy's formula of dispersion (g.f.), 
n=A + B/X 2 +C/X 4 +. . . from which, by extrapolation, X becoming 
infinire, we obtain N = A. In the case of substances possessing 
anomalous dispersion, the direct measurement of the refractive 
index for Hertzian waves of very long wave-length may be 

It is found experimentally that the Lorenz and Lorentz 
function holds fairly well, and better than the Gladstone and Dale 
formula. This is shown by the following observations of Riihl- 
mann on water, the light used being the D line of the spectrum: — 



(» 2 ~i)/(n'+2)<Z. 







0-206 1 

Eykmann's observations also support the approximate 
constancy of the Lorenz-Lorentz formula over wide temperature 
differences, but in some cases the deviation exceeds the errors 
of observation. The values are for the Ha line: — 



(ra 2 -l)/(» 2 +2)d. 

Isosafrol, O0H10O2 

Diphenyl ethylene, C14H12 

\ l T 6 \ 
1 141-1 

\ 22° 

? 143-4° 
\ 16-2° 

? 141 



The empirical formula (»*— i)/(» 2 +o-4)d apparently gives more 
constant values with change of temperature than the Lorenz- 
Lorentz form. The superiority of the Lorenz-Lorentz formula 
over the Gladstone and Dale formula for changes of state is 
shown by the following observations of Briihl (Zeit.f. phys. Chem., 
1891, 71, p. 4). The values are for the D line:^- 

either directly, by investigating the various elements, or indirectly, 
by considering differences in the molecular refractions of related 
compounds. The first method needs no explanation. The second 
method proceeds on the same lines as adopted for atomic volumes. 
By subtracting the value for CH 2 , which may be derived from two 
substances belonging to the same homologous series, from the mole- 
cular refraction of methane, CHi, the value of hydrogen is obtained ; 
subtracting this from CH 2 , the value of carbon is determined. 
Hjidroxylic oxygen is obtained by subtracting the molecular refrac- 
tions of acetic acid and acetaldehyde. Similarly, by this method of 
differences, the atomic refraction of any element may be determined. 
It is found, however, that the same element has not always the same 
atomic refraction, the difference being due to the nature of the 
elements which saturate its valencies. Thus oxygen varies according 
as whether it is linked to hydrogen (hydroxylic oxygen), to two 
atoms of carbon (ether oxygen), or to one carbon atom (carbonyl 
oxygen) ; similarly, carbon varies according as whether it is singly, 
doubly, or trebly bound to carbon atoms. 

A table of the atomic refractions and dispersions of the principal 
elements is here given : — 




H 7 . 


Hydrogen .... 
Oxygen, hydroxyl . 

,, ether . 

,, Carbonyl . 




Carbon (singly bound) 
Double linkage of carbon 
Triple ,, ,, 
Nitrogen, singly bound 
and only to carbon . 

1 -103 















Gladstone and Dale. 

Lorenz and Lorentz. 






Carbon disulphide 
Chloroform .... 





01 796 


Landolt and Gladstone, and at a later date J. W. Briihl, have 
investigated the relations existing between the refractive power 
and composition. To Landolt is due the proof that, 
in general, isomers, i.e.. compounds having the same 
composition, have equal molecular refractions, and that 
equal differences in composition are associated with equal differences 
in refractive power. This is shown in the following table (the values 
are for H a ) : — 






Diff. for 
CH 2 . 

Ethylene chloride { r vt r\ 
Ethylidene chloride S L -« H41 - 12 
Fumaric acid j r nn 
Maleicacid \ L ' H <°* • • 
o-Cresol ) 
m-Cresol > CyHgO 
p-Cresol ) 

J 20-96 

1 21-08 

} 70-29 
( 32-52 
i 32-56 
( 32-57 

Acetic acid 
Propionic acid 
Butyric acid . 

Acetaldehyde . 
Propionaldehyde . 






} 4-43 

Additive relations undoubtedly exist, but many discrepancies occur 
which may be assigned, as in the case of molecular volumes, to 
differences in constitution. Atomic refractions may be obtained 

Dispersion and Composition.- — In the preceding section we have 
seen that substances possess a definite molecular (or atomic) refrac- 
tion for light of particular wave-length; the difference between the 
refractions for any two rays is known as the molecular (or atomic) 
dispersion. Since molecular refractions are independent of tempera- 
ture and of the state of aggregation, it follows that molecular dis- 
persions must be also independent of these conditions; and hence 
quantitative measurements should give an indication as to the 
chemical composition of substances. This subject has been princi- 
pally investigated by Briihl; he found that molecular dispersions 
of liquids and gases were independent of temperature, and fairly 
independent of the state of aggregation, but that no simple connexion 
exists between atomic refractions and dispersions (see preceding 
table). He also showed how changes in constitution effected dis- 
persions to a far greater extent than they did refractions; thus, 
while the atomic dispersion of carbon is 0-039, the dispersions due 
to a double and treble linkage is 0-23 and 0-19 respectively. 

Colour and Constitution.— In this article a summary of the 
theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour 
of organic compounds with their constitution 
will be given, and the reader is referred to the 
article Colour for the physical explanation of 
this property, and to Vision for the physiological 
and psychological bearings. A clear distinction 
must be drawn between colour and the property 
of dyeing; all coloured substances are not dyes, 
and it is shown in the article Dyeing that the property of 
entering into chemical or physical combination with fibres involves 
properties other than those essential to colour. At the same 
time, however, all dyestuffs are coloured substances. 

A survey of coloured substances led O. N. Witt in 1876 toformulate 
his " chromophore-auxochrome " theory. On this theory colour is 
regarded as due to the presence of a " chromophore," and dyeing 
power to an " auxochrome " ; the latter by itself 
cannot produce colour or dyeing power, but it is 
only active jn the presence of a chromophore, when 
it intensifies the colour and confers the property 
of dyeing. The principal chromophores are the azo, 

— N=N — , azoxy, = N 2 0, nitro, — N0 2 , nitroso, 

— NO, and carbonyl, = CO, groups. Theazo-group 
is particularly active, both the aliphatic and 
aromatic compounds being coloured. The simplest 
aliphatic compounds, such as diazo-methane, diazo- 
ethane, and azo- formic acid, are yellow; the 
diamide of the latter acid is orange-red. Of the 

aromatic compounds azo-benzene is bright orange-red, and a-azo- 
naphthalene forms red needles or small steel-blue prisms. The azo- 
group, however, has little or no colouring effect when present in a 




ring system, such as in cinnolene, phthalazine and tolazone. The 
nitro group has a very important action mainly on account of the 
readiness with which it can be introduced into the molecule, but its 
effect is much less than that of the azo group. The colour produced 
is generally yellow, which, in accordance with a general rule, is 
intensified with an increase in the number of groups; compare, for 
example, mono-, di- and tri-nitrobenzene. The nitroso group is 
less important. The colour produced is generally of a greenish 
shade; for example, nitrosobenzene is green when fused or in solution 
(when crystalline, it is colourless), and dinitrosoresorcin has been 
employed as a dyestuff under the names " solid green " and 
" chlorine." The carbonyl group by itself does not produce colour, 
but when two adjacent groups occur in the molecule, as for example 
in the a-diketones (such as di-acetyl and benzil), a yellow colour is 
produced. It also acts as a chromogenic centre when double bonds 
or ethylenic linkages are present, as in fluorene ketone or fluorenone. 
A more complex chromophoric group is the triple ethylenic 

grouping Z p ^> C = , the introduction of which was rendered neces- 
sary by the discovery of certain coloured hydrocarbons. As a general 
rule, hydrocarbons are colourless ; the exceptions include the golden 
yellow acenaphthylene, the red bidiphenylene-ethylene, and the 

derivatives of f ulvene a„ | p„ ^> CH 2 , which have been discussed by 

J. Thiele (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 666). This grouping is not always 
colour-producing, since diphenyl is colourless. 

The most important auxochromes are the hydroxyl (-OH) and 
amino (-NH2) groups. According to the modern theory of auxo- 
chromic action, the introduction of a group into the molecule is 
accompanied by some strain, and the alteration in colour produced 
is connected with the magnitude of the strain. The amino group is 
more powerful than the hydroxyl, and the substituted amino group 
more powerful still; the repeated substitution of hydroxyl groups 
sometimes causes an intensification and sometimes a diminution of 

We may here notice an empirical rule formulated by Nietzski in 
1879 : — the simplest colouring substances are in the greenish-yellow 
and yellow, and with increasing molecular weight the colour passes 
into orange, red, violet, blue and green. This rule, however, is by 
no means perfect. Examination of the absorption spectra of coloured 
compounds shows that certain groupings displace the absorption 
bands in one direction, and other groupings in the other. If the 
bands be displaced towards the violet, involving a regression through 
the colours mentioned above, the group is said to be " hypso- 
chromic"; if the reverse occurs the group is " bathochromic." It 
may be generally inferred that an increase in molecular weight is 
accompanied by a change in colour in the direction of the violet. 

Auxochromic groups generally aid one another, i.e. the tint 
deepens as the number of auxochromes increases. Also the relative 
position of the auxochrome to the chromophore influences colour, 
the ortho-position being generally the most powerful. Kauffmann 
(Ber., 1906, 39, p. 1959) attempted an evaluation of the effects of 
auxochromic groups by means of the magnetic optical constants. 
The method is based on the supposition that the magnetic rotation 
measures the strain produced in the molecule by an auxochrome, 
and he arranges the groups in the following order : — 
•0-COCH 3 -OCH s -NHCOCHs -NH 2 -N(CH 3 ) 2 -N(C 2 H 6 ) 2 
-0-260 1-459 I- 949 3-321 8-587 8-816 

The phenomena attending the salt formation of coloured and 
colouring substances are important. The chromophoric groups are 
rarely strongly acid or basic ; on the other hand, the auxochromes 
are strongly acid or basic and form salts very readily. Notable 
differences attend the neutralization of the chromophoric and auxo- 
chromic groups. With basic substances, the chromophoric combinar 
tion with a colourless acid is generally attended by a deepening in 
colour; auxochromic combination, on the other hand, with a lessen- 
ing. Examples of the first case are found among the colourless 
acridines and quinoxalines which give coloured salts ; of the second 
case we may notice the colourless hydrochloride and sulphate of the 
deep yellow o-aminobenzophenone. With acid substances, the com- 
bination with " colourless " metals, i.e. metals producing colour- 
less salts with acids, is attended by colour changes contrary to those 
given above, auxochromic combination being accompanied by a 
deepening, and chromophoric by a lessening of the tint. 

Mention may be made of the phenomenon of halochromism, the 
name given to the power of colourless or faintly-coloured substances 
of combining with acids to form highly-coloured substances without 
the necessary production of a chromophoric group. The researches 
of Adolf von Baeyer and Villiger, Kehrmann, Kauffmann and others, 
show that this property is possessed by very many and varied 
substances. In many cases it may be connected with basic oxygen, 
and the salt formation is assumed to involve the passage of divalent 
into tetravalent oxygen. It seems that intermolecular change also 
occurs, but further research is necessary before a sound theory can 
be stated. 

Quinone Theory of Colour.— A theory of colour in opposition to 
the Witt theory was proposed by Henry Armstrong in 1888 and 1892. 
This assumed that all coloured substances were derivatives of ortho- 
or para-quinone (see Quinones), and although at the time of its 

promotion little practical proof was given, yet the theory found 
wide acceptance on account of the researches of many other chemists. 
It follows on this theory that all coloured substances contain either 
of the groupings 

the former being a para-quinonoid, the latter an ortho-quinonoid. 
While very many coloured substances must obviously contain this 
grouping, yet in many cases it is necessary to assume a simple 
intermolecular change, while in others a more complex rearrangement 
of bonds is necessary. Quinone, which is light yellow in colour, is 
the simplest coloured substance on this theory. Hydrocarbons 
of similar structure have been prepared by Thiele, for example, the 
orange-yellow tetraphenyl-^ara-xylylene, which is obtained by 
boiling the bromide CeH-itCBKCeHsJak with benzene and molecular 
silver. The quinonoid structure of many coloured compounds has 
been proved experimentally, as, for example, by Hewitt for the 
benzene-azo-phenols, and Hantzsch for triaminotriphenyl methane 
and acridine derivatives; but, at the same time, many substances 
cannot be so explained. A notable example is provided by the 
phthaleins, which result by the condensation of phthalic anhydride 
with phenols. In the free state these substances are colourless, 
and were assumed to have the formula shown in 1. Solution in 
dilute alkali was supposed to be accompanied by the rupture of the 
lactone ring with the formation of the quinonoid salt shown in 2, 

"°a c H< 

C B H 4 < >0 
6 CO 


•C H,v COONa 

Baeyer (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 569) and Silberrad (J own. Chem. Soc, 
1906, 89, p. 1787) have disputed the correctness of this explanation, 
and the latter has prepared melliteins and pyromelliteins, which are 
highly-coloured compounds produced from mellitic and pyromellitic 
acids, and which cannot be, formulated as quinones. Baeyer has 
suggested that the nine carbon atom system of xanthone may act as a 
chromophore. An alternative view, due to Green, is that the oxygen 
atom of the xanthone ring is tetravalent, a supposition which permits 
the formulation of these substances as ortho-quinonoids. 

The theories of colour have also been investigated by Hantzsch, 
who first considered the nitro-phenols. On the chromophore- 
auxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophore, and the 
hydroxyl the auxochrome) it is necessary in order to explain the high 
colour of the metallic salts and the colourless alkyl and aryl derivatives 
to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only 
brought strongly into evidence by salt formation. Armstrong, on 
the other hand, assumed an intermolecular change, thus; — - 


\>°« \/- 

The proof of this was left for Hantzsch, who traced a connexion 
with the nitrolic acids of V. Meyer, which are formed when nitrous 
acid acts on primary aliphatic nitro compounds. Meyer formulated 
these compounds as nitroximes or nitro-isnitroso derivatives, viz. 
R-C(N0 2 )(NOH). Hantzsch explains the transformation of the 
colourless acid into red salts, which on standing yield more stable, 
colourless salts, by the following scheme : — 



i = 

= N0 2 Na. 


RC< ^NO ! 

— » 

O^ \ONa 


r r^N0 2 Na 
K ' c ^NO 

Colourless, stable. Coloured, labile. Colourless, stable. 
He has also shown that the nitrophenols yield, in addition to the 
colourless true nitrophenol ethers, an isomeric series of coloured un- 
stable quinonoid a«-ethers, which have practically the same colour 
and yield the same absorption spectra as the coloured metallic 
salts. He suggests that the term " quinone " theory be abandoned, 
and replaced by the Umlagerungs theory, since this term implies 
some intermolecular rearrangement, and does not connote simply 
benzenoid compounds as does " quinonoid." H. von Liebig (Ann., 
1908, 360, p. 128), from a very complete discussion of triphenyl- 

methane derivatives, concluded that the grouping A -A -A was tne 
only true organic chromophore, colour production, however, re- 
quiring another condition, usually the closing of a ring. 

The views as to the question of colour and constitution may be 
summarized as follows :— (1) The quinone theory (Armstrong, 
Gomberg, R. Meyer) regards all coloured substances as having 
a quinonoid structure. (2) The chromophore-auxochrome 
theory (Kauffmann) regards colour as due to the entry of an 
" auxochrome " into a " chromophoric " molecule. (3) If a 
colourless compound gives a coloured one on solution or b' 


salt-formation, the production of colour may be explained as a 
particular form of ionization (Baeyer), or by a molecular re- 
arrangement (Hantzsch). A dynamical theory due to E. C. C. 
Baly regards colour as due to " isorropesis " or an oscillation 
between the residual affinities of adjacent atoms composing the 

Fluorescence and Constitution. — The physical investigation 
of the phenomenon named fluorescence — the property of 
transforming incident light into light of different refrangibility — 
is treated in the article Fluorescence. Researches in syntheti- 
cal organic chemistry have shown that this ' property of 
fluorescence is common to an immense number of substances, 
and theories have been proposed whose purpose is to connect 
the property with constitution. 

In 1897 Richard Meyer {Zeit. physik. Chemie, 24, p. 468)^ submitted 
the view that fluorescence was due to the presence of certain " fluoro- 
phore " groups; such groupings are the pyrone ring and its con- 
geners, the central rings in anthracene and acridine derivatives, 
and the paradiazine ring in safranines. A novel theory, proposed 
by J. T. Hewitt in 1900 (Zeit.f. physik. Chemie, 34, p. I ; B.A. Report, 
1903, p. 628, and later papers in the Journ. Chem. Soc.), regards the 
property as occasioned by internal vibrations within the molecule 
conditioned by a symmetrical double tautomerism, _ light of one 
wave-length being absorbed by one form, and emitted with a different 
wave-length by the other. This oscillation may be represented in 
the case of acridine and fluorescein as 

coo=ocfo=c6o ,w=tQ>tr)r 

N N N CH-600H CsH «"C'0 > C e H-COOH 

This theory brings the property of fluorescence into relation with 
that of colour; the forms which cause fluorescence being the coloured 
modifications: ortho-quinonoid in the case of acridine, para- 
quinonoid in the case of fluorescein. H. Kauffmann (Ber., 1900, 33, 
p. 1731 ; 1904, 35, p. 294; 1905, 38, p. 789; Ann., 1906, 344, p. 30) 
suggested that the property is due to the presence of at least two 
groups. The first group, named the " luminophore," is such that 
when excited by suitable aetherial vibrations emits radiant energy; 
the other, named the " fluorogen," acts with the luminophore_ in 
some way or other to cause the fluorescence. This theory explains 
the fluorescence of anthranilic acid (c-amir.obenzoic acid), by regard- 
ing the aniline residue as the luminophore, and the carboxyl group 
as the fluorogen, since, apparently, the introduction of the Tatter 
into the non-fluorescent aniline molecule involves the production of 
a fluorescent substance. Although the theories of Meyer and 
Hewitt do not explain (in their present form) the behaviour of 
anthranilic acid, yet Hewitt has shown that his theory goes far to 
explain the fluorescence of substances in which a double symmetrical 
tautomerism is possible. This tautomerism may be of a twofold 
nature: — (1) it may involve the mere oscillation of linkages, as in 
acridine; or (2) it may involve the oscillation of atoms, as in fluor- 
escein. A theory of a physical nature, based primarily upon Sir 
J. J. Thomson's theory of corpuscles, has been proposed by J. de 
Kowalski (Compt. rend. 1907, 144, p. 266). We may notice that 
ethyl oxalosuccinonitrile is the first case of a fluorescent aliphatic 
compound (see W. Wislicenus and P. Berg, Ber., 1908, 41, p. 3757)- 
Capillarity and Surface Tension. — Reference should be made 
to the article Capillary Action for the general discussion of this 
phenomenon of liquids. It is there shown that the surface 
tension of a liquid may be calculated from its rise in a capillary 
tube by the formula 7 = \rhs, where 7 is the surface tension per 
square centimetre, r the radius of the tube, h the height of the 
liquid column, and 5 the difference between the densities of 
the liquid and its vapour. At the critical point liquid and vapour 
become identical, and, consequently, as was pointed out by 
Frankenheim in 1841, the surface tension is zero at the critical 

Mendeleeff endeavoured to obtain a connexion between surface 
energy and constitution; more successful were the investigations 
of Schiff, who found that the " molecular surface tension," 
which he defined as the surface tension divided by the 
molecular weight, is constant for isomers, and that two 
atoms of hydrogen were equal to one of carbon, three to 
one of oxygen, and seven to one of chlorine; but these ratios were 
by no means constant, and afforded practically no criteria as to the 
•molecular weight of any substance. 

In 1886 R. Eotvos (Wied. Ann. 27, p. 452), assuming that two 
liquids may be compared when the ratios of the volumes of the 
liquids to the volumes of the saturated vapours are the same, 
deduced that yV°(where 7 is the surface tension, and V the molecular 
volume of the liquid) causes all liquids to have the same temperature 



to molecti' 
tar weight, 

coefficients. This theorem was investigated by Sir W. Ramsay and 
J. .Shields (Journ. Chem. Soc. 63, p. 1089; 65, p. 167), whose results 
have thrown considerable light on the subject of the molecular 
complexity of liquids. Ramsay and Shields suggested that there 
exists an equation for the surface energy of liquids, analogous to the 
volume-energy equation of gases, PV = RT. The relation they 
suspected to be of the form 7S = KT, where K is a constant analogous 
to R, and S the surface containing one gramme-molecule, 7 and T 
being the surface tension and temperature respectively. Obviously 
equimolecular surfaces are given by (Md)', where M is the molecular 
weight of the substance, for equimolecular volumes are Mv, and 
corresponding surfaces the two-thirds power of this. Hence S may 
be replaced by (Mzj)*. Ramsay and Shields found from investiga- 
tions of the temperature coefficient of the surface energy that Tin the 
equation 7(Mz>) a =KT must be counted downwards from the critical 
temperature t less about 6°. Their surface energy equation therefore 
assumes the form 7(Mr)* = K(7-6°). Now the value of K, 7 being 
measured in dynes and M being the molecular weight of the substance 
as a gas, is in general 2-121 ; this value is never exceeded, but in 
many cases it is less. This diminution implies an association of 
molecules, the surface containing fewer molecules than it is supposed 
to. Suppose the coefficient of association be n, i.e. n is the mean 
number of molecules which associate to form one molecule, then by 
the normal equation we have 7(M«») ;1 = 2-I2l(r — 6°) ; if the calcu- 
lated constant be Ki, then we have also 7(M») 3 = Ki(t— 6°). By 
division we obtain » s = 2-i2i/Ki, or » = (2-l2i/Ki)5, the coefficient 
of association being thus determined. 

The apparatus devised by Ramsay and Shields consisted of a 
capillary tube, on one end of which was blown a bulb provided with 
a minute hole. Attached to the bulb was a glass rod and then a tube 
containing iron wire. was placed in an outer tube contain- 
ing the liquid to be experimented with; the liquid is raised to its 
boiling-point, and then hermetically sealed. The whole is enclosed 
in a jacket connected with a boiler containing a liquid, the vapour 
of which serves to keep the inner tube at any desired temperature. 
The capillary tube can be raised or lowered at will by running a 
magnet outside the tube, and the heights of the columns are measured 
by a cathetometer or micrometer microscope. 

Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N2O4, sulphur 
chloride, S2O2, silicon tetrachloride, SiCU, phosphorus chloride, 
PCI3, phosphoryl chloride, POCl 3 , nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4 , carbon 
disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone ; associa- 
tion characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol 
the factor of association was 2 ■ 74-2-43, for n-propy 1 alcohol 2 • 86-2 • 72 , 
acetic acid 3-62—2-77, acetone 1-26, water 3-81—2-32; phenol, 
nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitroethane, and propionitril, also exhibit 

Crystalline Form and Composition. 

The development of the theory of crystal structure, and the 
fundamental principles on which is based the classification of 
crystal forms, are treated in the article Crystallography; in 
the same place will be found an account of the doctrine of iso- 
morphism, polymorphism and morphotropy. Here we shall 
treat the latter subjects in more detail, viewed from the stand- 
point of the chemist. Isomorphism may be defined as the 
existence of two or more .different substances in the same crystal 
form and structure, polymorphism as the existence of the same 
substance in two or more crystal modifications, and morphotropy 
(after P. von Groth) as the change in crystal form due to altera- 
tions in the molecule of closely (chemically) related substances. 
In order to permit a comparison of crystal forms, from which 
we hope to gain an insight into the prevailing molecular con- 
ditions, it is necessary that some unit of crystal dimensions must 
be chosen. A crystal may be regarded as built up of primitive 
parallelepipeda, the edges of which are in the ratio of the 
crystallographic axes, and the angles the axial angles of the 
crystals. To reduce these figures to a* common standard, so 
that the volumes shall contain equal numbers of molecules, 
the notion of molecular volumes is introduced, the arbitrary 
values of the crystallographic axes {a, b, c) being replaced by the 
topic parameters 1 (x, ^, <o), which are such that, combined with 
the axial angles, they enclose volumes which contain equal 
numbers of molecules. The actual values of the topic para- 
meters can then readily be expressed in terms of the elements of 
the .crystals (the axial ratios and angles), the density, and the 
molecular weight (see Groth, Physikalische Krystallographie, or 
Chemical Crystallography). 

1 This was done simultaneously in 1894 by W. Muthmann and 
A. E. H. Tutton, the latter receiving the idea from F. Becke (see 
Journ. Chem. Soc, 1896, 69, p. 507; 1905, 87, p. 1183). 



Polymorphism.— On the theory that crystal form and structure 
are the result of the equilibrium between the atoms and molecules 
composing the crystals, it is probable, a priori, that the same 
substance may possess different equilibrium configurations of 
sufficient stability, under favourable conditions, to form different 
crystal structures. Broadly this phenomenon is termed poly- 
morphism; however, it is necessary to examine closely the diverse 
crystal modifications in order to determine whether they are 
really of different symmetry, or whether twinning has occasioned 
the apparent difference. In the article Crystallography the 
nature and behaviour of twinned crystals receives full treat- 
ment; here it is sufficient to say that when the planes and axes 
of twinning are planes and axes of symmetry, a twin would 
exhibit higher symmetry (but remain in the same crystal system) 
than the primary crystal; and, also, if a crystal approximates 
in its axial constants to a higher system, mimetic twinning 
would increase the approximation, and the crystal would be 

In general, polysymmetric and polymorphous modifications 
suffer transformation when submitted to variations in either 
temperature or pressure, or both. The criterion whether 
a pseudo-symmetric form is a true polymorph or not consists 
in the determination of the scalar properties (e.g. density, 
specific heat, &c.) of the original and the resulting modifica- 
tion, a change being in general recorded only when polymorphism 
exists. Change of temperature usually suffices to determine 
this, though in certain cases a variation in pressure is 
necessary; for instance, sodium magnesium uranyl acetate, 
NaMg(U02) 3 (C 2 H 3 2 ) 9 -9H 2 shows no change in density unless 
the observations are conducted under a considerable pressure. 
Although many pseudo-symmetric twins are transformable into 
the simpler form, yet, in some cases, a true polymorph results, 
the change being indicated, as before, by alterations in scalar 
(as well as vector) properties. 

For example, boracite forms pseudo-cubic crystals which become 
truly cubic at 265 °, with a distinct change in density; leucite 
behaves similarly at about 560 . Again, the pyroxenes, RSi0 3 
(R = Fe, Mg, Mn, &c), assume the forms (1) monoclinic, sometimes 
twinned so as to become pseudo-rhombic; (2) rhombic, resulting 
from the pseudo-rhombic structure of (1) becoming ultramicroscopic ; 
and (3) triclinic, distinctly different from (1) and (2); (1) and (2) 
are polysymmetric modifications, while (3) and the pair (1) and (2) 
are polymorphs. 

While polysymmetry is solely conditioned by the manner 
in which the mimetic twin is built up from the single crystals, 
there being no change in the scalar properties, and the vector 
properties being calculable from the nature of the twinning, 
in the case of polymorphism entirely different structures present 
themselves, both scalar and vector properties being altered; 
and, in the present state of our knowledge, it is impossible to 
foretell the characters of a polymorphous modification. We may 
conclude that in polymorphs the substance occurs in different 
phases (or molecular aggregations), and the equilibrium between 
these phases follows definite laws, being dependent upon tempera- 
ture and pressure, and amenable to thermodynamic treatment 
(cf. Chemical Action and Energetics). The transformation 
of polymorphs presents certain analogies to the solidification 
of a liquid. Liquids may be cooled below their freezing-point 
without solidification, the metastable (after W. Ostwald) form 
so obtained being immediately solidified on the introduction 
of a particle of the solid modification; and supersaturated 
solutions behave in a similar manner. At the same time there 
may be conditions of temperature and pressure at which poly- 
morphs may exist side by side. 

The above may be illustrated by considering the equilibrium 
between rhombic and monoclinic sulphur. The former, which is 
deposited from solutions, is transformed into monoclinic sulphur 
at about 96°, but with great care it is possible to overheat it and 
even to fuse it (at 113-5°) without effecting the transformation. 
Monoclinic sulphur, obtained by crystallizing fused sulphur, melts 
at 119-5°, and admits of undercooling even to ordinary temperatures, 
but contact with a fragment of the rhombic modification spontane- 
ously brings about the transformation. From Reicher's determina- 
tions, the exact transition point is 95-6°; it rises with increasing 
oressure j,bo U t 0-05° for one atmosphere; the density of the rhombic 


The overheating curve of 

Fig. 6. 

form is greater than that of the monoclinic. The equilibria of these 
modifications may be readily represented on a pressure-temperature 
diagram. If OT, OP (fig. 6) , be the axes of temperature and pressure, 
and A corresponds to the transition point (95-6°) of rhombic sulphur, 
we may follow out the line AB which shows the elevation of the 
transition point with increasing pressure. "" 
rhombic sulphur extends along the curve 
AC, where C is the melting-point of 
monoclinic sulphur. The line BC, repre- 
senting the equilibrium between mono- 
clinic and liquid sulphur, is thermo- 
dynamically calculable; the point B is 
found to correspond to 131 and 400 
atmospheres. From B the curve of 
equilibrium (BD) between rhombic and 
liquid sulphur proceeds; and from C 
(along CE) the curve of equilibrium 
between liquid sulphur and sulphur 
vapour. Of especial interest is the 
curve BD; along this line liquid and 
rhombic sulphur are in equilibrium, which 
means that at above 131° and 400 atmospheres the rhombic (and 
not the monoclinic) variety would separate from liquid sulphur. 

Mercuric iodide also exhibits dimorphism. When precipitated 
from solutions it forms red tetragonal crystals, which, on careful 
heating, give a yellow rhombic form, also obtained by crystallization 
from the fused substance, or by sublimation. The transition point 
is 126-3° (W. Schwarz, Zeit. f. Kryst. 25, p. 613), but both modifica- 
tions may exist in metastable forms at higher and lower temperatures 
respectively; the rhombic form may be cooled down to ordinary 
temperature without changing, the transformation, however, being 
readily induced by a trace of the red modification, or by friction. 
The density and specific heat of the tetragonal form are greater 
than those of the yellow. . 

Hexachlorcthane is trimorphous, forming rhombic, triclinic and 
cubic crystals; the successive changes occur at about 44° and 71 , 
and are attended by a decrease in density. 

Tetramorphism is exhibited by ammonium nitrate. According to 
O. Lehmann it melts at 168° (or at a slightly lower temperature in 
its water of crystallization) and on cooling forms optically isotropic 
crystals; at 125-6° the mass becomes doubly refracting, and from 
a solution rhombohedral (optically uniaxial) crystals are deposited ; 
by further cooling acicular rhombic crystals are produced at 82-8 , 
and at 32-4° other rhombic forms are obtained, identical with the 
product obtained by crystallizing at ordinary temperatures. The 
reverse series of transformations occurs when this final modification 
is heated. M. Bellati and R. Romanese {Zeit. f. Kryst. 14, p. 78) 
determined the densities and specific heats of these modifications. 
The first and third transformations (reckoned in order with in- 
creasing temperature of the transition point) are attended by an 
increase in volume, the second with a contraction; the solubility 
follows the same direction, increasing up to 82-8°, then diminishing 
up to 125-6°, and then increasing from this temperature upwards. 

The physical conditions under which polymorphous modifica- 
tions are prepared control the form which the substance assumes. 
We have already seen that temperature and pressure exercise 
considerable influence in this direction. In the case of separation 
from solutions, either by crystallization or by precipitation by 
double decomposition, the temperature, the concentration of 
the solution, and the presence of other ions may modify the 
form obtained. In the case of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, 
NaH 2 PQ 4 -H 2 0, a stable rhombic form is obtained from warm 
solutions, while a different, unstable, rhombic form is obtained 
from cold solutions. Calcium carbonate separates as hexagonal 
calcite from cold solutions (below 30°), and as rhombic aragonite 
from solutions at higher temperatures; lead and strontium 
carbonates, however, induce the separation of aragonite at lower 
temperatures. From supersaturated solutions the form unstable 
at the temperature of the experiment is, as a rule, separated, 
especially on the introduction of a crystal of the unstable form; 
and, in some cases, similar inoculation of the fused substance 
is attended by the same result. Different modifications may 
separate and exist side by side at one and the same time from 
a solution; e.g. telluric acid forms cubic and monoclinic crystals 
from a hot nitric acid solution, and ammonium fluosilicate gives 
cubic and hexagonal forms from aqueous solutions between 
6° and 13°. 

A comparison of the transformation of polymorphs leads to 
a twofold classification: (1) polymorphs directly convertible 
in a reversible manner— termed " enantiotropic " by 0. Lehmann 
and (2) polymorphs in which the transformation proceeds in 
one direction only— termed " monotropic." In the first class 




are included sulphur and ammonium nitrate; monotropy is 
exhibited by aragonite and calcite. 

It is doubtful indeed whether any general conclusions can yet 
be drawn as to the relations between crystal structure and scalar 
properties and the relative stability of polymorphs. As a 
general rule the modification stable at higher temperatures 
possesses a lower density; but this is by no means always the 
case, since the converse is true for antimonious and arsenious 
oxides, silver iodide and some other substances. Attempts to 
connect a change of symmetry with stability show equally a lack 
of generality. It is remarkable that a great many polymorphous 
substances assume more symmetrical forms at higher tempera- 
tures, and a possible explanation of the increase in density of 
such compounds as silver iodide, &c, may be sought for in the 
theory that the formation of a more symmetrical configuration 
would involve a drawing together of the molecules, and conse- 
quently an increase in density. The insufficiency of this argu- 
ment, however, is shown by the data for arsenious and anti- 
monious oxides, and also for the polymorphs of calcium carbonate, 
the more symmetrical polymorphs having a lower density. 

Morphotropy. — Many instances have been recorded where sub- 
stitution has effected a deformation in one particular direction, 
the crystals of homologous compounds often exhibiting the same 
angles between faces situated in certain zones. The observations 
of Slavik (Zeii. f. Kryst., 1902, 36, p. 268) on ammonium and 
the quaternary ammonium iodides, of J. A. Le Bel and A. Ries 
(Zeit.f. Kryst., 1902, 1904, et seq.) on the substituted ammonium 
chlorplatinates, and of G. Mez (ibid., 1901, 35, p. 242) on 
substituted ureas, illustrate this point. 

Ammonium iodide assumes cubic forms with perfect cubic cleavage ; 
tetramethyl ammonium iodide is tetragonal with perfect cleavages 
parallel to {100) and Jooi) — a difference due to the lengthening of 
the o axes; tetraethyl ammonium iodide also assumes tetragonal 
forms, but does not exhibit the cleavage of the tetramethyl com- 
pound ; while tetrapropyl ammonium iodide crystallizes in rhombic 
form. The equivalent volumes and topic parameters are tabulated : 

NH4I. ' 












From these figures it is obvious that the first three compounds 
form a morphotropic series; the equivalent volumes exhibit a 
regular progression ; the values of x and ^, corresponding to the a 
axes, are regularly increased, while the value of w, corresponding 
to the c axis, remains practically unchanged. This points to the 
conclusion that substitution has been effected in one of the cube 
faces. We may therefore regard the nitrogen atoms as occupying 
the centres of a cubic space lattice composed of iodine atoms, between 
which the hydrogen atoms are distributed on the tetrahedron face 
normals. Coplanar substitution in four hydrogen atoms would 
involve the pushing apart of the iodine atoms in four horizontal 
directions. The magnitude of this separation would obviously 
depend on the magnitude of the substituent group, which may be 
so large (in this case propyl is sufficient) as to cause unequal horizontal 
deformation and at the same time a change in the vertical direction. 

The measure of the loss of symmetry associated with the intro- 
duction of alkyl groups depends upon the relative magnitudes 
of the substituent group and the rest of the molecule; and the 
larger the molecule, the less would be the morphotropic effect 
of any particular substituent. The mere retention of the same 
crystal form by homologous substances is not a sufficient reason 
for denying a morphotropic effect to the substituent group; 
for, in the case of certain substances crystallizing in the cubic 
system, although the crystal form remains unaltered, yet the 
structures vary. When both the crystal form and structure are 
retained, the substances are said to be isomorphous. 

Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar 
to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have 
been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-derivatives of 
benzene and substituted benzenes. To Jaeger is due the deter- 
mination of the topic parameters of certain haloid-derivatives, 
and, while showing that the morphotropic effects closely resemble 
those occasioned by methyl, he established the important fact 

that, in general, the crystal form depended upon the orientation 
of the substituents in the benzene complex. 

Benzoic acid is pseudo-tetragonal, the principal axis being remark- 
ably long; there is no cleavage at right angles to this axis. Direct 
nitration gives (principally) m-nitrobenzoic acid, also pseudo- 
tetragonal with a much shorter principal axis. From this two 
chlornitrobenzoic acids [C00H-N02-C1 = 1.3.6 and 1.3.4] may be 
obtained. These are also pseudotetragonat; the (1.3.6) acid has 
nearly the same values of x and \p as benzoic acid, but o> is increased ; 
compared with ra-nitrobenzoic acid, x and ^ have been diminished, 
whereas a> is much increased; the (1.3.4) acid is more closely 
related to m-nitrobenzoic acid, \ and ip being increased, 01 diminished. 
The results obtained for the (1.2) and (1.4) chlorbenzoic acids also 
illustrate the dependence of crystal form and structure on the 
orientation of the molecule. 

The hydroxyl group also resembles the methyl group in its morpho- 
tropic effects, producing, in many cases, no change in symmetry but 
a dimensional increase in one direction. This holds for benzene and 
phenol, and is supported by the observations of Gossner on [1. 3.5] 
trinitrobenzene and picric acid (1.3.5-trinitro, 2 oxybenzene); 
these last two substances assume rhombic forms, and picric acid 
differs from trinitrobenzene in having w considerably greater, 
with x and $ slightly less. A similar change, in one direction only, 
characterizes benzoic acid and salicylic acid. 

The nitro group behaves very similarly to the hydroxyl group. 
The effect of varying the position of the nitro group in the molecule 
is well marked, and conclusions may be drawn as to the orientation 
of the groups from a knowledge of the crystal form; a change in 
the symmetry of the chemical molecule being often attended by a 
loss in the symmetry of the crystal. 

It may be generally concluded that the substitution of alkyl, 
nitro, hydroxyl, and haloid groups for hydrogen in a molecule 
occasions a deformation of crystal structure in one definite 
direction, hence permitting inferences as to the configuration 
of the atoms composing the crystal; while the nature and degree 
of the alteration depends (1) upon the crystal structure of the 
unsubstituted compound; (2) on the nature of the substituting 
radicle; (3) on the complexity of the substituted molecule; 
and (4) on the orientation of the substitution derivative. 

Isomorphism. — It has been shown that certain elements and 
groups exercise morphotropic effects when substituted in a 
compound; it may happen that the effects due to two or more 
groups are nearly equivalent, and consequently the resulting 
crystal forms are nearly identical. This phenomenon was first 
noticed in 1822 by E. Mitscherlich, in the case of the acid phos- 
phate and acid arsenate of potassium, KH 2 P(As)04, who adopted 
the term isomorphism, and regarded phosphorus and arsenic as 
isomorphously related elements. Other isomorphously related 
elements and groups were soon perceived, and it has been shown 
that elements so related are also related chemically. 

Tutton's investigations of the morphotropic effects of the metals 
potassium, rubidium and caesium, in combination with the acid 
radicals of sulphuric and selenic acids, showed that the replacement 
of potassium by rubidium, and this metal in turn by caesium.was 
accompanied by progressive changes in both physical and crystal- 
lographical properties, such that the rubidium salt was always inter- 
mediate between the salts of potassium and caesium (see table; 
the space unit is taken as a pseudo-hexagonal prism) . This fact finds 
a parallel in the atomic weights of these metals. 

By taking appropriate differences the following facts will be 
observed: (1) the replacement of potassium by rubidium occasions 
an increase in the equivalent volumes by about eight units, and of rubi- 
dium by caesium by about eleven units; (2) replacement in the same 
order is attended by a general increase in the three topic parameters, a 
greater increase being met with in the replacement of rubidium by 
caesium; (3) the parameters x and i> are about equally increased, 
while the increase in a is always the greatest. Now consider the 
effect of replacing sulphur by selenium. It wiil be seen that (1) the 
increase in equivalent volume is about 6-6; (2) all the topic para- 
meters are increased; (3) the greatest increase is effected in the 
parameters x and \fr, which are equally lengthened. 

These observations admit of ready explanation in the following 




manner. The ordinary structural formula of potassium sulphate is 

k-o-s-o-k. If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 


three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur 
atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the 
third of twice as many potassiu-m atoms, the systems being so arranged 
that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect 
to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect 
the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium 
by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the 
length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller 
increase in the horizontal parameters (x and ifr) ; moreover, the 
increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing 
metal. If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a 
corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, 
it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the 
vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the 
horizontal parameters. 

Muthmann (Zeit. f. Kryst., 1894) , in his researches on the tetragonal 
potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates, 
found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended 
by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of 
phosphorus by arsenic by about 4-6 units. In the topic parameters 
the following changes were recorded : replacement of potassium by 
ammonium was attended by a considerable increase in &>, x and ^ 
being equally, but only slightly, increased; replacement of phos- 
phorus by arsenic was attended by a considerable increase, equally 
in x and 4>, while u> suffered a smaller, but not inconsiderable, increase. 
It is thus seen that the ordinary plane representation of the structure 
of compounds possesses a higher significance than could have been 
suggested prior to crystallographical researches. 

Identity, or approximate identity, of crystal form is not in 
itself sufficient to establish true isomorphism. If a substance 
deposits itself on the faces of a crystal of another substance 
of similar crystal form, the substances are probably isomorphous. 
Such parallel overgrowths, termed episomorphs, are very common 
among the potassium and sodium felspars; and K. von Hauer 
has investigated a number of cases in which salts exhibiting 
episomorphism have different colours, thereby clearly demonstrat- 
ing this property of isomorphism. For example, episomorphs 
of white potash alum and violet chrome alum, of white mag- 
nesium sulphate and green nickel sulphate, and of many other 
pairs of salts, have been obtained. More useful is the property 
of isomorphous substances of forming mixed crystals, which 
are strictly isomorphous with their constituents, for all variations 

in composition. In such 
crystals each component 
plays its own part in de- 
termining the physical pro- 
perties; in other words, 
any physical constant of a 
mixed crystal can be cal- 
culated as additively com- 
posed of the constants of 
the two components. 

Fig. 7 represents the 
specific volumes of mixtures 
of ammonium and potassium 
sulphates; the ordinates re- 
presenting specific volumes, 
and the abscissae the per- 
centage composition of the 
mixture. Fig. 8 shows the 
variation of refractive index 
of mixed crystals of potash 
alum and thallium alum with 
variation in composition. 
In these two instances the component crystals are miscible in all 
proportions; but this is by no means always the case. It may 
happen that the crystals do not form double salts, and are only 
miscible in certain proportions. Two cases then arise: (1) the 
properties may be expressed as linear functions of the composition, 
the terminal values being identical with those obtained for the 
individual components, and there being a break in the curve corre- 
sponding to the absence of mixed crystals ; or (2) similar to (1) except 
that different values must be assigned to the terminal values in order 
to preserve collinearity. Fig. 9 illustrates the first case : the ordinates 
represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition 
of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen 
phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 
20 % to form homogeneous crystals. The second case is illustrated 
in fig. 10. Magnesium sulphate (orthorhombic) takes up ferrous 

10 SO 30 40 SO 60 70 SO 90 

K s S0 4 =ioo% 
<NH 4 ) 3 SOi=o% 

K 2 SO»=o% 
(NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 =ioo% 

Fig. 7. 

Tl Alum= 0% 

K Alum= oA, 
Tl Alum-- 100 X 

Fig. 8. 

KH a P0 4 =ioo£ NH 4 H s P0 4 x 

Fig. 9. 

* M E S0.7H.O=ioo% 

Fig. 10. 

sulphate (monoclinic) to the extent of 19%, forming isomorphous 
orthorhombic crystals; ferrous sulphate, on the other hand, takes 
up magnesium sulphate to the extent of 54% to form monoclinic 
crystals. By plotting the specific volumes of these mixed crystals 
as ordinates, it is found that they fall on two lines, the upper corre- 
sponding to the orthorhombic crystals, the lower to the monoclinic. 
From this we may conclude that these salts are isodimorphous : 
the upper line represents isomorphous crystals of stable orthorhombic 
magnesium sulphate and unstable orthorhombic ferrous sulphate, 
the lower line isomor- 
phous crystals of stable 
monoclinic ferrous sul- 
phate and unstable 
monoclinic magnesium 

An important distinc- 
tion separates true mixed 
crystals and crystallized 
double salts, for in the 
latter the properties are 
not linear functions of 
the properties of the 
components ; generally 
there is a contraction in 
volume, while the re- 
fractive indices and other 
physical properties do 
not, in general, obey the 
additive law. 

Isomorphism is most Feso-7H s o=n>oX 
clearly discerned be- 
tween elements of 
analogous chemical properties; and from the wide generality 
of such observations attempts have been made to form a classifica- 
tion of elements based on isomorphous replacements. The 
following table shows where isomorphism may be generally 
expected. The elements are arranged in eleven series, and the 
series are subdivided (as indicated by semicolons) into groups; 
these groups exhibit partial isomorphism with the other groups 
of the same series (see W. Nernst, Theoretical Chemistry). 

Series 1. CI, Br, I, F; Mn (in permanganates). 

2. S, Se; Te (in tellurites) ; Cr, Mn, Te (in the acids 

H2RO4); As, Sb (in the glances MR,). 

3. As, Sb, Bi; Te (as an element); P, Vd (in salts); N, 

P (in organic bases). 

4. K, Na, Cs, Rb, Li; Tl, Ag. 

5. Ca, Ba, Sr, Pb; Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg; Ni, Co, Cu; Ce, La, 

Di, Er, Y, Ca; Cu, Hg, Pb; Cd, Be, In, Zn; Tl, Pb. 

6. Al, Fe, Cr, Mn; Ce, U (in sesquioxides). 

7. Cu, Ag (when monovalent) ; Au. 

«. Pt, Ir, Pd, Rh. Ru, Os; Au, Fe, Ni; Sn, Te. 

9. C, Si, Ti, Zr, Th, Sn; Fe, Ti. 

10. Ta, Cb (Nb). 

11. Mo, W, Cr. 

For a detailed comparison of the isomorphous relations of the 
elements the reader is referred to P. von Groth, Chemical Crystal- 
lography. Reference may also be made to Ida Freund, The Study 
of Chemical Composition; and to the Annual Reports of the Chemical 
Society for 1908, p. 258. 

Bibliography. — History: F. Hoefer, Histoire de la chimie (2nd 
ed., 1866-1869); Hermann Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie (1869), 
Entwickelung der Chemie in d. neueren Zeit (1871-1874); £. von 
Meyer, Geschichte der Chemie (3rd ed., 1905, Eng. trans.); A. 
Ladenburg, Entwickelungs geschichte der Chemie (4th ed., 1907); A. 
Stange, Die Zeitalter der Chemie (1908). Reference may also be 
made to M. M. Pattison Muir, History of Chemical Theories and Laws 
(1907); Ida Freund, Study of Chemical Composition (1904); T. E. 
Thorpe, Essays in Historical Chemistry (2nd ed., 1902). See also 
the article Alchemy. 

Principles and Physical. — W. Ostwald, Principles of Inorganic 
Chemistry (3rd Eng. ed., 1908), Outlines of General Chemistry, 
Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Chemie; W.- Nernst, Theoretische Chemie 
(4th ed., 1907, Eng. trans.) ; J. H. van't Hoff, Lectures on Theoretical 
and Physical Chemistry; J. Walker, Introduction to Physical Chemistry 
(4th ed., 1907); H. C. Jones, Outlines of Physical Chemistry (1903); 
D. Mendeleeff, Principles of Chemistry (3rd ed., 1905). 

Inorganic. — Roscoe and Schoriemmer, Inorganic Chemistry (3rd 
ed., Non-metals, 1905; Metals, 1907); R. Abegg, Handbuch der 
anorganischen Chemie; Gmelin-Kraut, Handbuch der anorganischen 
Chemie; O. Dammer, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie; H. 
Moissan, Chimie minirale. 

Organic. — F. Beilstein, Handbuch der organischen Chemie; M. M. 
Richter, Lexikon der Kohlenstojfverbindungen (these are primarily 
works of reference) ; V. Meyer and P. H. Jacobson, Lehrbuch der 
organischen Chemie; Richter-Anschutz, Organische Chemie (nth ed., 

7 6 


vol. i., 1909, Eng. trans.) ; G. K. Schmidt, Kurzes Lehrbuch der 
organischen Chemie; A. Bernthsen, Organische Chemie (Eng. trans.). 
Practical methods are treated in Lassar-Cohn, Arbeitsmethoden fur 
organisch-chemische Laboratorien (4th ed., 1906-1907). Select chap- 
ters are treated in A. Lachmann, Spirit of Organic Chemistry; J. B. 
Cohen, Organic Chemistry (1908); A. W. Stewart, Recent Advances in 
Organic Chemistry (1908); and in a series of pamphlets issued since 
1896 with the title Sammlung chemischer und chemisch-technischer 

Analytical. — For Blowpipe Analysis: C. F. Plattner, Probirkunst 
mit dem Lbthrohr. For General Analysis : C. R. Fresenius, Qualita- 
tive and Quantitative Analysis, Eng. trans, by C. E. Groves {Qualita- 
tive, 1887) and A. I. Cohn {Quantitative, 1903); F. P. Treadwell, 
Kurzes Lehrbuch der analytischen Chemie (1905) ; F. Julian, Textbook 
of Quantitative Chemical Analysis (1904) ; A. Classen, Ausgewdhlte 
Methoden der analytischen Chemie (1901-1903) ; W. Crookes, Select 
Methods in Chemical Analysis (1894). Volumetric Analysis: 
F. Sutton, Systematic Handbook of Volumetric Analysis (1904); 
F. Mohr, Lehrbuch der chemisch-analytischen Titrirmethode (1896). 
Organic Analysis: Hans Meyer, Analyse und Konstitutionsermittlung 
organischer Verbindungen (1909) ; Wilhelm Vaubel, Die physikalischen 
und chemjschen Methoden der quantitativen Bestimmung organischer 
Verbindungen. For the historical development of the proximate 
analysis of organic compounds see M. E. H. Dennstedt, Die Entwicke- 
lung der organischen Elementaranalyse (1899). 

Encyclopaedias. — The early dictionaries of Muspratt and Watts 
are out of date ; there is a later edition of the latter by H. F. Morley 
and M. M. P. Muir. A. Ladenburg, Handworterbuch der Chemie, 
A. Wurtz, Dictionnaire de chimie, and F. Selmi, Enciclopedia di 
chimica, are more valuable; the latter two are kept up to date by 
annual supplements. (C. E.*) 

CHEMNITZ (or Kemnitz), MARTIN (1522-1586), German 
Lutheran theologian, third son of Paul Kemnitz, a cloth- worker 
of noble extraction, was born at Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg, 
on the 9th of November 1522. Left an orphan at the age of 
eleven, he worked for a time at his father's trade. A relative at 
Magdeburg put him to school there ( 1 539-1 542) . Having made a 
little money by teaching, he went (1543) to the university of 
Frankfort-on-Oder; thence (1545) to that of Wittenberg. Here 
he heard Luther preach, but was more attracted by Melanchthon, 
who interested him in mathematics and astrology. Melanchthon 
gave him (1547) an introduction to his son-in-law, Georg Sabinus, 
at Konigsberg, where he was tutor to some Polish youths, and 
rector (1548) of the Kneiphof school. He practised astrology; 
this recommended him to Duke Albert of Prussia, who made him 
his librarian (1550). He then turned to Biblical, patristic and 
kindred studies. His powers were first brought out in contro- 
versy with Osiander on justification by faith. Osiander, main- 
taining the infusion of Christ's righteousness into the believer, 
impugned the Lutheran doctrine of imputation; Chemnitz 
defended it with striking ability. As Duke Albert sided with 
Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1553) 
to Wittenberg, be lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his 
lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologici (published 
posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best ex- 
position of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by 
Melanchthon. His lectures were thronged, and a university career 
of great influence lay before him, when he accepted a call to become 
coadjutor at Brunswick to the superintendent, Joachim Morlin, 
who had known him at Konigsberg. He removed to Brunswick 
on the 15 th of December 1554, and there spent the remainder of 
his life, refusing subsequent offers of important offices from 
various Protestant princes of Germany. Zealous in the duties of 
his pastoral charge, he took a leading part in theological con- 
troversy. His personal influence, at a critical period, did much to 
secure strictness of doctrine and compactness of organization 
in the Lutheran Church. Against Crypto-Calvinists he upheld 
the Lutheran view of the eucharist in his Repetitio sanae doctrinae 
de Vera Praesentia (1560; in German, 1561). To check the 
reaction towards the old religion he wrote several works of great 
power, especially his Theologiae Jesuitarum praecipua capita 
(1562), an incisive attack on the principles of the society, and the 
Examen concilii Tridentini (four parts, 1565-66-72-73), his 
greatest work. His Corpus doctrinae Prutenicum (1567), drawn 
up in conjunction with Morlin, at once acquired great authority. 
In the year of its publication he became superintendent of 
Brunswick, and in effect the director of his church throughout 
Lower Saxony. His tact was equal to his learning. In conjunc- 

tion with Andrea and Selnecker he induced the Lutherans of 
Saxony and Swabia to adopt the Formula Concordiae and so 
become one body. Against lax views of Socinian tendency he 
directed his able treatise De duabus naturis in Christo (1570). 
Resigning office in infirm health (1584) he survived till the 8th of 
April 1586. 

Lives of Chemnitz are numerous, e.g. by J. Gasmerus (1588), 
T. Pressel (1862), C. G. H. Lentz (1866), H. Hachfeld (1867), H. 
Schmid in J. J. Herzog's Realencyklopddie (1878), J. Kunze in A. 
Hauck's Realencyklop. filr prol. Theol. und Kirche (1897); that by 
Hausle, in I. Goschler's Diet, encyclopedique de la theol. cath. (1858), 
gives a Roman Catholic view. (A. Go.*) 

CHEMNITZ, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 
the capital of a governmental district, 50 m. W.S.W. of Dresden 
and 51 S.E. of Leipzig by rail. Pop. (1885) 110,817; (1895) 
161,017; (1905) 244,405. It lies 950 ft. above the sea, in a 
fertile plain at the foot of the Erzgebirge, watered by the 
river Chemnitz, an affluent of the Mulde. It is the chief 
manufacturing town in the kingdom, ranks next to Dresden 
and Leipzig in point of population, and is one of the principal 
commercial and industrial centres of Germany. It is well 
provided with railway communication, being directly connected 
with Berlin and with the populous and thriving towns of the 
Erzgebirge and Voigtland. Chemnitz is in general well built, 
the enormous development of its industry and commerce having 
of late years led to the laying out of many fine streets and 
to the embellishing of the town with handsome buildings. The 
centre is occupied by the market square, with the handsome 
medieval Rathaus, now superseded for municipal business by a 
modern building in the Post-strasse. In this square are monu- 
ments to the emperor William I., Bismarck and Moltke. The 
old inner town is surrounded by pleasant promenades, occupying 
the site of the old fortifications, and it is beyond these that 
industrial Chemnitz lies, girdling the old town on all sides with a 
thick belt of streets and factories, and ramifying far into the 
country. Chemnitz has eleven Protestant churches, among 
them the ancient Gothic church of St James, with a fine porch, 
and the modern churches of St Peter, St Nicholas and St Mark. 
There are also a synagogue and chapels of various sects. The 
industry of Chemnitz has gained for the town the name of 
" Saxon Manchester." First in importance are its locomotive 
and engineering works, which give employment to some 20,000 
hands in 90 factories. Next come its cotton-spinning, hosiery, 
textile and glove manufactures, in which a large trade is done 
with Great Britain and the United States. It is also the seat 
of considerable dyeworks, bleachworks, chemical and woollen 
factories, and produces leather and straps, cement, small vehicles, 
wire-woven goods, carpets, beer and bricks. The town is well 
provided with technical schools for training in the various 
industries, including commercial, public, economic and agri- 
cultural schools, and has a chamber of commerce. There are 
also industrial and historical museums, and collections of paint- 
ing and natural history. The local communications are main- 
tained by an excellent electric tramway system. To the north- 
west of the town is the Gothic church of a former Benedictine 
monastery, dating from 1514-1525, with a tower of 1897. 
Chemnitz is a favourite tourist centre for excursions into the 
Erzgebirge, the chain of mountains separating Saxony from 

Chemnitz {Kaminizi) was originally a settlement of the 
Sorbian Wends and became a market town in 1 1 43 . Its municipal 
constitution dates from the 14th century, and it soon became the 
most important industrial centre in the mark of Meissen. A 
monopoly of bleaching was granted to the town, and thus a 
considerable trade in woollen and linen yarns was attracted to 
Chemnitz; paper was made here, and in the 16th century the 
manufacture of cloth was very flourishing. In 1 539 the Reforma- 
tion was introduced, and in 1546 the Benedictine monastery, 
founded about 1136 by the emperor Lothair II. about 2 m. north 
of the town, was dissolved. . During the Thirty Years' War 
Chemnitz was plundered by all parties and its trade was com- 
pletely ruined, but at the beginning of the 18th century it had 
begun to recover. Further progress in this direction was made 



during the 19th century, especially after 1834 when Saxony 
joined the German Zollverein. 

See Zollner, Geschichte der Fabrik- und Handelsstadt Chemnitz 
(1891) ; and Straumer, Die Fabrik- und Handelsstadt Chemnitz (1892). 

CHEMOTAXIS (from the stem of " chemistry" and Gr. rd£is, 
arrangement), a biological term for the attraction exercised on 
living or growing organisms or their members by chemical 
substances; e.g. the attraction of the male cells of ferns or 
mosses by an organic acid or sugar-solution. 

CHENAB (the Greek Acesines), one of the " Five rivers " of the 
Punjab, India. It rises in the snowy Himalayan ranges of 
Kashmir, enters British territory in the Sialkot district, and flows 
through the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between 
the Rechna and the Jech Doabs. Finally it joins the Jhelum 
at Trimmu. 

The Chenab Colony, resulting from the great success of the 
Chenab Canal in irrigating the desert of the Bar, was formed out 
of the three adjacent districts of Gujranwala, Jhang, and 
Montgomery in 1892, and contained in 1901 a population of 
791,861. It lies in the Rechna Doab between the Chenab and 
Ravi rivers in the north-east of the Jhang district, and is designed 
to include an irrigated area of 25 million acres. The Chenab 
Canal (opened 1887) is the largest and most profitable per- 
ennial canal in India. The principal town is Lyallpur, called after 
Sir J. Broad wood Lyall, lieutenant-governor of the Punjab 1887- 
1892, which gives its name to a district created in 1904. 

French poet, was born at Vire (Calvados) on the 4th of November 
1769. He early showed a vocation for poetry, but the outbreak 
of the Revolution temporarily diverted his energy. Emigrating 
in 1 791, he fought two campaigns in the army of Conde, and 
eventually found his way to Hamburg, where he met Antoine de 
Rivarol, of whose brilliant conversation he has left an account. 
He also visited Mme de Stael in her retreat at Coppet. On his 
return to Paris in 1799 he met Chateaubriand and his sister 
Lucile (Mme de Caud), to whom he became deeply attached. 
After her death in 1804, Chenedolle returned to Normandy, 
where he married and became eventually inspector of the 
academy of Caen (1812-1832). With the exception of occasional 
visits to Paris, he spent the rest of his life in his native province. 
He died at the chateau de Coisel on the 2nd of December 1833. 
He published his Genie de I'Homme in 1807, and in 1820 his 
Etudes poetiques, which had the misfortune to appear shortly 
after the Meditations of Lamartine, so that the author did not 
receive the credit of their real originality. Chenedolle had many 
sympathies with the romanticists, and was a contributor to their 
organ, the Musefrancaise. His other works include the Esprit de 
Rivarol (1808) in conjunction with F. J. M. Fayolle. 

The works of Chlnedolle were edited in 1864 by Sainte-Beuve, 
who drew portraits of him in his Chateaubriand et son groupe and in 
an article contributed to the Revue des deux mondes (June 1849). 
See also E. Helland, Etude biographique et litleraire sur Chenedolle 
(1857); Cazin, Notice sur Chenedolle (1869). 

CHENERY, THOMAS (1826-1884), English scholar and editor 
of The Times, was born in 1826 at Barbados. He was educated at 
Eton and Caius College, Cambridge. Having been called to the 
bar, he went out to Constantinople as The Times correspondent 
just before the Crimean War, and it was under the influence there 
of Algernon Smythe (afterwards Lord Strangford) that he first 
turned to those philological studies in which he became eminent. 
After the war he returned to London and wrote regularly for The 
Times for many years, eventually succeeding Delane as editor in 
1877. He was then an experienced publicist, particularly well 
versed in Oriental affairs, an indefatigable worker, with a rapid 
and comprehensive judgment, though he lacked Delane's 
intuition for public opinion. It was as an Orientalist, however, 
that he had meantime earned the highest reputation, his 
knowledge of Arabic and Hebrew being almost unrivalled and his 
gift for languages exceptional. In 1868 he was appointed Lord 
Almoner's professor of Arabic at Oxford, and retained his 
position until he became editor of The Times. He was one of the 
company of revisers of the Old Testament. He was secretary for 

some time to the Royal Asiatic Society, and published learned 
editions of the Arabic classic The Assemblies of Al-Hariri and of 
the Machberoth Ithiel. He died in London on the nth of 
February 1884. 

CHENG, Tscheng or Tschiang (Ger. Scheng), an ancient 
Chinese wind instrument, a primitive organ, containing the 
principle of the free reed which found application in the accordion, 
concertina and harmonium. The cheng resembles a tea-pot 
filled with bamboo pipes of graduated lengths. It consists of a 
gourd or turned wooden receptacle acting as wind reservoir, in' 
the side of which is inserted an insufflation tube curved like a 
swan's neck or the spout of a tea-pot. The cup-shaped reservoir 
is closed by means of a plate of horn pierced with seventeen round 
holes arranged round the edge in an unfinished circle, into which 
fit the bamboo pipes. The pipes are cylindrical as far as they are 
visible above the plate, but the lower end inserted in the wind 
reservoir is cut to the shape of a beak, somewhat like the mouth- 
piece of the clarinet, to receive the reed. The construction of the 
free reed is very simple: it consists of a thin plate of metal — gold 
according to the Jesuit missionary Joseph Amiot, 1 but brass in 
the specimens brought to Europe — of the thickness of ordinary 
paper. In this plate is cut a rectangular flap or tongue which 
remains fixed at one end, while at the other the tongue is filed so 
that, instead of closing the aperture, it passes freely through, 
vibrating as the air is forced through the pipe (see Free-Reed 
Vibrator). The metal plate is fastened with wax longitudinally 
across the diameter of the beak end of the pipe, a little layer of 
wax being applied also to the free end of the vibrating tongue for 
the purpose of tuning by adding weight and impetus. About 
half an inch above the horn plate a small round hole or stop is 
bored through the pipe, which speaks only when this hole is 
covered by the finger. A longitudinal aperture about an inch 
long cut in the upper end of the bamboo pipe serves to determine 
the length of the vibrating column of air proper to respond to the 
vibrations of the free reed. The length of the bamboo above this 
opening is purely ornamental, as are also four or five of the 
seventeen pipes which have no reeds and do not speak, being 
merely inserted for the purposes of symmetry in design. The 
notes of the cheng, like those of the concertina, speak either by 
inspiration or expiration of air, the former being the more usual 
method. Mahillon states that performers on the cheng in China 
are rare, as the method of playing by inspiration induces in- 
flammation of the throat. 2 Amiot, who gives a description of the 
instrument with illustrations showing the construction, states 
that in the great Chinese encyclopaedia Eulh-ya, articles Yu and 
Ho, the Yu of ancient China was the large cheng with nineteen 
free reeds (twenty-four pipes), and the Ho the small cheng with 
thirteen reeds or seventeen pipes described in this article. The 
compass of the latter is given by him as the middle octave with 
chromatic intervals, the thirteenth note giving the octave of the 
first. Mahillon gives the compass of a modern cheng as follows: 




E. F. F. Chladni, 3 who examined a cheng sent from China to Herr 
Miiller, organist of the church of St Nicholas, Leipzig, at the 
beginning of the 19th century, gives an excellent description of 
the instrument, reproducing in illustration a plate from Giulio 
Ferrario's work on costume. 4 Midler's cheng had the same 
compass as Mahillcn's. Chladni's article was motived by the 
publication of an account of the exhibition of G. J. Grenie's 
Orgue expressif, invented about 18 10, in the Conservatoire of 

1 Memoire sur la musique des Chinois (Paris, 1779), pp. 78 and 82, 
pi. vi., or Memoire sur les Chinois, tome vi. pi. vi. 

2 Catalogue descriptif, vol. ii. (Ghent, 1896), p. 91 ; also vol. i. 
(1880), pp. 29, 44, 154. 

3 " Weitere Nachrichten von dem . . . chinesischen Blasinstru- 
mente Tscheng oder Tschiang," in Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 
(Leipzig, 1821), Bd. xxiii. No. 22, pp. 369, 374 et seq., and illustration 
appendix ii. 

4 27 Costume anticho e moderno (Milan, 1816), pi. 66, vol. i. 



Paris. 1 Grenie's invention, perfected by Alexandre and Debain 
about 1840, produced the harmonium. Kratzenstein (see under 
Harmonium) of St Petersburg was the first to apply the free 
reed to the organ in the second half of the 18th century. In- 
ventions of similar instruments, which after a short life were 
relegated to oblivion, followed at the beginning of the 19th 
ceiitury. An interesting reproduction of a Persian cheng dating 
from the 10th or nth century is to be seen on a Persian vase 
described and illustrated together with a shawm in the Gazette 
archeologique (tome xi., 1886). (K. S.) 

CHEN-HAI [CHiNHAi],a district town of China, in the province 
of Cheh-kiang, at the mouth of the Yung-kiang, 12 m. N.E. 
of Ningpo, in 29 58' N., 121 45' E. It lies at the foot of a hill on 
a tongue of land, and is partly protected from the sea on the N. 
by a dike about 3 m. long, composed entirely of large blocks of 
hewn granite. The walls are 20 ft. high and 3 m. in circumfer- 
ence. The defences were formerly of considerable strength, and 
included a well-built but now dismantled citadel on a precipitous 
cliff, 250 ft. high, at the extremity of the tongue of land on which 
the town is built. In the neighbourhood an engagement took 
place between the English and Chinese in 1841. 

CHfiNIER, ANDR£DE(i762-i794), French poet, was born at 
Constantinople on the 30th of October 1762. His father, Louis 
Chenier, a native of Languedoc, after twenty years of successful 
commerce in the Levant as a cloth-merchant, was appointed to a 
position equivalent to that of French consul at Constantinople. 
His mother, Elisabeth Santi-Lomaca, whose sister was grand- 
mother of A. Thiers, was a Greek. When the poet was three 
years old his father returned to France, and subsequently from 
1 768 to 1 7 7 5 served as consul-general of France in Morocco. The 
family, of which Andre was the third son, and Marie- Joseph (see 
below) the fourth, remained in France; and after a few years, 
during which Andre ran wild with " la tante de Carcasonne," he 
distinguished himself as a verse-translator from the classics at 
the College de Navarre (the school in former days of Gerson and 
Bossuet) in Paris. In 1783 he obtained a cadetship in a French 
regiment at Strassburg. But the glamour of the military life 
was as soon exhausted by Chinier as it was by Coleridge. He 
returned to Paris before the end of the year, was well received by 
his family, and mixed in the cultivated circle which frequented 
the salon of his mother, among them Lebrun-Pindare, Lavoisier, 
Lesueur, Dorat, Parmy, and a little later the painter David. He 
was already a poet by predilection, an idyllist and steeped in the 
classical archaism of the time, when, in 1784, his taste for the 
antique was confirmed by a visit to Rome made in the company 
of two schoolfellows, the brothers Trudaine. From Naples, after 
visiting Pompeii, he returned to Paris, his mind fermenting with 
poetical images and projects, few of which he was destined to 
realize. For nearly three years, however, he was enabled to 
study and to experiment in verse without any active pressure or 
interruption from his family — three precious years in which the 
first phase of his art as a writer of idylls and bucolics, imitated to 
a large extent from Theocritus, Bion and the Greek anthologists, 
was elaborated. Among the poems written or at least sketched 
during this period were L'Oaristys, L'Aveugle, La Jeune Malade, 
Bacchus, Euphrosine and La Jeune Tarentine, the last a synthesis 
of his purest manner, mosaic though it is of reminiscences of at 
least a dozen classical poets. As in glyptic so in poetic art, the 
Hellenism of the time was decadent and Alexandrine rather than 
Attic of the best period. But Chenier is always far more than an 
imitator. La Jeune Tarentine is a work of personal emotion and 
inspiration. The colouring is that of classic mythology, but the 
spiritual element is as individual as that of any classical poem by 
Milton, Gray, Keats or Tennyson. Apart from his idylls and his 
elegies, Chenier also experimented from early youth in didactic 
and philosophic verse, and when he commenced his Hermes in 
1783 his ambition was to condense the EncyclopSdie of Diderot 
into a poem somewhat after the manner of Lucretius. This poem 
was to treat of man's position in the Universe, first in an isolated 
state, and then in society. It remains fragmentary, and though 

'See Attg. mus. Zt. (Leipzig, 1821), Bd. xxiii. Nos. 9 and 10, pp. 
133 and 149 et seq. 

some of the fragments are fine, its attempt at scientific exposition 
approximates too closely to the manner of Erasmus Darwin to 
suit a modern ear. Another fragment called L'lnvention sums 
Chenier's Ars Poetica in the verse " Sur des pensers nouveaux, 
faisons des vers antiques." Suzanne represents the torso of a 
Biblical poem on a very large scale, in six cantos. 

In the meantime, Andre had published nothing, and some of 
these last pieces were in fact not yet written, when in November 
1787 an opportunity of a fresh career presented itself. The new 
ambassador at the court of St James's, M. de la Luzerne, was 
connected in some way with the Chenier family, and he offered to 
take Andre" with him as his secretary. The offer was too good to 
be refused, but the poet hated himself on the banks of the fiere 
Tamise, and wrote in bitter ridicule of 

" Ces Anglais. 
Nation toute a vendre a qui peut la payer. 
De contree en contree allant au monde entier, 
Offrir sa joie ignoble et son faste grossier." 

He seems to have been interested in the poetic diction of Milton 
and Thomson, and a few of his verses are remotely inspired by 
Shakespeare and Gray. To say, however, that he studied 
English literature would be an exaggeration. The events of 1 789 
and the startling success of his younger brother, Marie- Joseph, 
as political playwright and pamphleteer, concentrated all his 
thoughts upon France. In April 1790 he could stand London no 
longer, and once more joined his parents at Paris in the rue 
de Clery. 

The France that he plunged into with such impetuosity was 
upon the verge of anarchy. A strong constitutionalist, Chenier 
took the view that the Revolution was already complete and that 
all that remained to be done was the inauguration of the reign of 
law. Moderate as were his views and disinterested as were his 
motives, his tactics were passionately and dangerously aggressive. 
From an idyllist and elegist we find him suddenly transformed 
into an unsparing master of poetical satire. His prose Avis au 
peuple irancais (August 24, 1790) was followed by the rhetorical 
Jeu de paume, a somewhat declamatory moral ode addressed 
" a Louis David, peintre." In the meantime he orated at the 
Feuillants Club, and contributed frequently to the Journal de 
Paris from November 1791 to July 1792, when he wrote his 
scorching Tambes to Collot d'Herbois, Sur les Suisses rSvoltSs du 
regiment de Chdteauvieux. The 1 oth of August uprooted his party, 
his paper and his friends, and the management of relatives who 
kept him out of the way in Normandy alone saved him from the 
massacre of September. In the month following these events his 
democratic brother, Marie- Joseph, had entered the Convention. 
Andrews sombre rage against the course of events found vent in 
the line on the Maenads who mutilated the king's Swiss Guard, 
and in the Ode d Charlotte Corday congratulating France that 
" Un scelerat de moins rampe dans cette fange." At the express 
request of Malesherbes he furnished some arguments to the 
materials collected for the defence of the king. After the execu- 
tion he sought a secluded retreat on the Plateau de Satory at 
Versailles and took exercise after nightfall. There he wrote the 
poems inspired by Fanny (Mme Laurent Lecoulteux), including 
the exquisite Ode d Versailles, one of his freshest, noblest and 
most varied poems. 

His solitary life at Versailles lasted nearly a year. On the 7th 
of March 1794 he was taken at the house of Mme Piscatory at 
Passy. Two obscure agents of the committee of public safety 
were in search of a marquise who had flown, but an unknown 
stranger was found in the house and arrested on suspicion. 
This was Andre, who had come on a visit of sympathy. He was 
taken to the Luxembourg and afterwards to Saint-Lazare. 
During the 140 days of his imprisonment there he wrote the 
marvellous lambes (in alternate lines of 12 and 8 syllables), which 
hiss and stab like poisoned bullets, and which were transmitted to 
his family by a venal gaoler. There he wrote the best known of 
all his verses, the pathetic Jeune captive, a poem at once of 
enchantment and of despair. Suffocating in an atmosphere of 
cruelty and baseness, Chenier's agony found expression almost to 
the last in these murderous lambes which he launched against the 



Convention. Ten days before the end, the painter J. B. Suvee 
executed the well-known portrait. He might have been over- 
looked but for the well-meant, indignant officiousness of his 
father. Marie- Joseph had done' his best to prevent this, but he 
could do nothing more. Robespierre, who was himself on the 
brink of the volcano, remembered the venomous sallies in the 
Journal de Paris. At sundown on the 25th of July 1794, the very 
day of his condemnation on a bogus charge of conspiracy, Andre 
Chenier was guillotined. The record of his last moments by La 
Touche is rather melodramatic and is certainly not above 

Incomplete as was his career — he was not quite thirty-two — 
his life was cut short in a crescendo of all its nobler elements. 
Exquisite as was already his susceptibility to beauty and his 
mastership of the rarest poetic material, we cannot doubt that 
Chenier was preparing for still higher flights of lyric passion and 
poetic intensity. Nothing that he had yet done could be said 
to compare in promise of assured greatness with the Iambes, the 
Odes and the Jeune Captive. At the moment he left practically 
nothing to tell the world of his transcendent genius, and his 
reputation has had to be retrieved from oblivion page by page, 
and almost poem by poem. During his lifetime only his Jeu 
de paume (1701) and Hymne sur les Suisses (1792) had been 
given to the world. The Jeune Captive appeared in the Dicade 
philosophique, Jan. 9, 1795; La Jeune Tarentine in the Mercure 
of March 22, 1801. Chateaubriand quoted three or four passages 
in his GSnie du christianisme. Fayette and Lefeuvre-Deumier 
also gave a few fragments; but it was not until 18 19 that a 
first imperfect attempt was made by H. de la Touche to collect 
the poems in a substantive volume. Since the appearance of the 
editio princeps of Chenier's poems in La Touche's volume, many 
additional poems and fragments have been discovered, and an 
edition of the complete works of the poet, collated with the MSS. 
bequeathed to the Bibliotheque Nationale by Mme Elisa de 
Chenier in 1892, has been edited by Paul Dimoff and published 
by Delagrave. During the same period the critical estimates 
of the poet have fluctuated in a truly extraordinary manner. 
Sainte-Beuve in his Tableau of 1828 sang the praises of Chenier 
as an heroic forerunner of the Romantic movement and a 
precursor of Victor Hugo. Chenier, he said, had " inspired and 
determined " Romanticism. This suggestion of modernity in 
Chenier was echoed by a chorus of critics who worked the idea 
to death; in the meantime, the standard edition of Chenier's 
works was being prepared by M. Becq de Fouquieres and was 
issued in 1862, but rearranged and greatly improved by the 
editor in 1872. The same patient investigator gave his New 
Documents on Andre Chenier to the world in 1875. 

In the second volume of La Vie litteraire Anatole France 
contests the theory of Sainte-Beuve. Far from being an initiator, 
he maintains that Chenier's poetry is the last expression of an 
expiring form of art. His matter and his form belong of right 
to the classic spirit of the 18th century. He is a contemporary, 
not of Hugo and Leconte de Lisle, but of Suard and Moreliet. 
M. Faguet sums up on the side of M. France in his volume on the 
18th century (1890). Chenier's real disciples, according to the 
latest view, are Leconte de Lisle and M. de Heredia, mosa'istes 
who have at heart the cult of antique and pagan beauty, of 
" pure art " and of " objective poetry." Heredia himself 
reverted to the judgment of Sainte-Beuve to the effect that 
Chenier was the first to make modern verses, and he adds, 
" I do not know in the French language a more exquisite fragment 
than the three hundred verses of the Bucoliques." Chenier's 
influence has been specially remarkable in Russia, where Pushkin 
imitated him, Kogloff translated La Jeune Captive, La jeune 
Tarentine and other famous pieces, while the critic Vesselovsky 
pronounces " II a retabli le lyrisme pur dans la poesie francaise." 
The general French verdict on his work is in the main well 
summed by Morillot, when he says that, judged by the usual 
tests of the Romantic movement of the 'twenties (love for strange 
literatures of the North, medievalism, novelties and experiments), 
Chenier would inevitably have been excluded from the cinacle of 
1827. On the other hand, he exhibits a decided tendency to 

the world-ennui and melancholy which was one of the earlier 
symptoms of the movement, and he has experimented in French 
verse in a manner which would have led to his excommunication 
by the typical performers of the 18th century. What is univer- 
sally admitted is that Chenier was a very great artist, who like 
Ronsard opened up sources of poetry in P' ranee which had long 
seemed dried up. In England it is easier to feel his attraction 
than that of some far greater reputations in French poetry, for, 
rhetorical though he nearly always is, he yet reveals something 
of that quality which to the Northern mind has always been of 
the very essence of poetry, that quality which made Sainte- 
Beuve say of him that he was the first great poet " personnel 
et reveur " in France since La Fontaine. His diction is still very 
artificial, the poetic diction of Delille transformed in the direction 
of Hugo, but not very much. On the other hand, his descriptive 
power in treating of nature shows far more art than the Trianin 
school ever attained. His love of the woodland and his political 
fervour often remind us of Shelley, and his delicate perception of 
Hellenic beauty, and the perfume of Greek legend, give us 
almost a foretaste of Keats. For these reasons, among others, 
Chenier, whose art is destined to so many vicissitudes of criticism 
in his own country, seems assured among English readers of a 
place among the Dii Majores of French poetry. 

The Ch6nier literature of late years has beeome enormous. His 
fate has been commemorated in numerous plays, pictures and poems, 
notably in the fine epilogue of Sully Prudhomme, the Stello of A. de 
Vigny, the delicate statue by Puech in the Luxembourg, and the 
well-known portrait in the centre of the " Last Days of the Terror." 
The best editions are still those of Becq de Fouquieres (Paris, 1862, 
1872 and 1881), though these are now supplemented by those of 
L. Moland (2 vols., 1889) and R. Guillard (2 vols., 1899). (T. Se.) 

poet, dramatist and politician, younger brother of Andre de 
Chenier, was born at Constantinople on the nth of February 
1764. 1 He was brought up at Carcassonne, and educated in 
Paris at the College de Navarre. Entering the army at seventeen, 
he left it two years afterwards; and at nineteen he produced 
Azimire, a two-act drama (acted in 1786), and Edgar, ou le page 
suppost, a comedy (acted in 1785), which were failures. His 
Charles IX was kept back for nearly two years by the censor. 
Chenier attacked the censorship in three pamphlets, and the 
commotion aroused by the controversy raised keen interest in 
the piece. When it was at last produced on the 4th of November 
1789, it achieved an immense success, due in part to its political 
suggestion, and in part to Talma's magnificent impersonation of 
Charles IX. Camille Desmoulins said that the piece had done 
more for the Revolution than the days of October, and a con- 
temporary memoir-writer, the marquis de Ferriere, says that 
the audience came away " ivre de vengeance et tourmente d'une 
soif de sang." The performance was the occasion of a split among 
the actors of the Comedie Francaise, and the new theatre in the 
Palais Royal, established by the dissidents, was inaugurated 
with Henri VIII (1791), generally recognized as Chenier's 
masterpiece; Jean Calas, ou Vecole des juges followed in the 
same year. In 1792 he produced his Caius Gracchus, which was 
even more revolutionary in tone than its predecessors. It was 
nevertheless proscribed in the next year at the instance of the 
Montagnard deputy Albitte, for an anti-anarchical hemistich 
(Des lots et non du sang!); Finelon (1793) was suspended after 
a few representations; and in 1794 his Timolicn, set to Etienne 
M6hul's music, was also proscribed. This piece was played 
after the fall of the Terror, but the fratricide of Timoleon became 
the text for insinuations to the effect that by his silence Joseph 
de Chenier had connived at the judicial murder of Andr6, whom 
Joseph's enemies alluded to as A bel. There is absolutely nothing 
to support the calumny, which has often been repeated since. 
In fact, after some fruitless attempts to save his brother, variously 
related by his biographers, Joseph became aware that Andrews 
only chance of safety lay in being forgotten by the authorities, 
and that ill-advised intervention would only hasten the end. 
Joseph Chenier had been a member of the Convention and of 

1 This is the date given by G. de Chinier in his La Verite sur la 
famille de Chenier (1844). 



the Council of Five Hundred, and had voted for the death of 
Louis XVI.; he had a seat in the tribunate; he belonged to 
the committees of public instruction, of general security, and of 
public safety. He was, nevertheless, suspected of moderate 
sentiments, and before the end of the Terror had become a 
marked man. His purely political career ended in 1802, when 
he was eliminated with others from the tribunate for bis opposi- 
tion to Napoleon. In 1801 he was one of the educational jury 
for the Seine; from 1803 to 1806 he was inspector-general of 
public instruction. He had allowed himself to be reconciled 
with Napoleon's government, and Cyrus, represented in 1804, 
was written in his honour, but he was temporarily disgraced 
in 1806 for his Epitre a Voltaire. In 1806 and 1807 he delivered 
a course of lectures at the Athenee on the language and literature 
of France from the earliest years; and in 1808 at the emperor's 
request, he prepared his Tableau historique de I'etat et du progres 
de la litterature franqaise depuis 1789 jusqu'd 1808, a book con- 
taining some good criticism, though marred by the violent 
prejudices of its author. He died on the 10th of January 181 1. 
The list of his works includes hymns and national songs — among 
others, the famous Chant du dipart; odes, Sur la mort de 
Mirabeau, Sur I'oligarchie de Robespierre, &c; tragedies which 
never reached the stage, Brutus et Cassius, Philippe deux, 
Tiber e; translations from Sophocles and Lessing, from Gray 
and Horace, from Tacitus and Aristotle; with elegies, dithyr- 
ambics and Ossianic rhapsodies. As a satirist he possessed 
great merit, though he sins from an excess of severity, and is 
sometimes malignant and unjust. He is the chief tragic poet 
of the revolutionary period, and as Camille Desmoulins expressed 
it, he decorated Melpomene with the tricolour cockade. 

See the CEuvres completes de Joseph Chenier (8 vols., Paris, 1823- 
1826), containing notices of the poet by Arnault and Daunou; 
Charles Labitte, Etudes litleraires (1846) ; Henri Welschinger, Le 
Theatre revolutionnaire, 1789-1799 (1881); and A. Lieby, Etude sur 
le theatre de Marie-Joseph Chenier (1902). 

CHENILLE (from the Fr. chenille, a hairy caterpillar), a 
twisted velvet cord, woven so that the short outer threads 
stand out at right angles to the central cord, thus giving a 
resemblance to a caterpillar. Chenille is used as a trimming 
for dress and furniture. 

CHENONCEAUX, a village of central France, in the department 
of Indre-et-Loire, on the right bank of the Cher, 20 m. E. by S. 
of Tours on the Orleans railway. Pop. (1906) 216. Chenonceaux 
owes its interest to its chateau (see Architecture: Renaissance 
Architecture in France), a building in the Renaissance style 
on the river Cher, to the left bank of which it is united by a 
two-storeyed gallery built upon five arches, and to the right by 
a drawbridge flanked by an isolated tower, part of an earlier 
building of the 15th century. Founded in 1515 by Thomas 
Bohier (d. 1523), financial minister in Normandy, the chateau 
was confiscated by Francis I. in 1535. Henry II. presented 
it to his mistress Diane de Poitiers, who on his death was forced 
to exchange it for Chaumont-sur-Loire by Catherine de' Medici. 
The latter built the gallery which leads to the left bank of the 
Cher. Chenonceaux passed successively into the hands of 
Louise de Vaudemont, wife of Henry III., the house of Vend6me, 
and the family of Bourbon-Conde. In the 18th century it came 
into the possession of the farmer-general Claude Dupin (1684- 
1769), who entertained the most distinguished people in France 
within its walls. In 1864 it was sold to the chemist Theophile 
Pelouze, whose wife executed extensive restorations. It sub- 
sequently became the property of the Credit Foncier, and again 
passed into private occupancy. 

CHENOPODIUM, or Goose-foot, a genus of erect or prostrate 
herbs (natural order Chenopodiaceae), usually growing on the 
seashore or on waste or cultivated ground. The green angular 
stem is often striped with white or red, and, like the leaves, 
often more or less covered with mealy hairs. The leaves are 
entire, lobed or toothed, often more or less deltoid or triangular 
in shape. The minute flowers are bisexual, and borne in dense 
axillary or terminal clusters or spikes. The fruit is a membranous 
one-seeded utricle often enclosed by the persistent calyx. Ten 
species occur in Britain, one of which, C. Bonus-Henricus, Good 

King Henry, is cultivated as a pot-herb, in lieu of asparagus^ 
under the name mercury, and all-good. 

CHEOPS, in Herodotus, the name of the king who built the 
Great Pyramid in Egypt. Following on a period of good rule 
and prosperity under Rhampsinitus, Cheops closed the temples, 
abolished the sacrifices and made all the Egyptians labour for 
his monument, working in relays of 100,000 men every three 
months (see Pyramid). Proceeding from bad to worse, he 
sacrificed the honour of his daughter in order to obtain the money 
to complete his pyramid; and the princess built herself besides 
a small pyramid of the stones given to her by her lovers. Cheops 
reigned 50 years and was succeeded by his brother, Chephren, 
who reigned 56 years and built the second pyramid. During 
these two reigns the Egyptians suffered every kind of misery 
and the temples remained closed. Herodotus continues that 
in his own day the Egyptians were unwilling to name these 
oppressors and preferred to call the pyramids after a shepherd 
named Philition, who pastured his flocks in their neighbour- 
hood. At length Mycerinus, son of Cheops and successor of 
Chephren, reopened the temples and, although he built the Third 
Pyramid, allowed the oppressed people to return to their proper 

Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus are historical personages 
of the fourth Egyptian dynasty, in correct order, and they built 
the three pyramids attributed to them here. But they are 
wholly misplaced by Herodotus. Rhampsinitus, the predecessor 
of Cheops, appears to represent Rameses III. of the twentieth 
dynasty, and Mycerinus in Herodotus is but a few generations 
before Psammetichus, the founder of the twenty-sixth dynasty. 
Manetho correctly places the great Pyramid kings in Dynasty IV. 
InEgyptian the name of Cheops (ChemmisorChembisinDiodorus 
Siculus, Suphis in Manetho) is spelt Hwfw (Khufu), but the 
pronunciation, in late times perhaps Khoouf, is uncertain. 
The Greeks and Romans generally accepted the view that Hero- 
dotus supplies of his character, and moralized on the uselessness 
of his stupendous work; but there is nothing else to prove that 
the Egyptians themselves execrated his memory. Modern 
writers rather dwell on the perfect organization demanded by his 
scheme, the training of a nation to combined labour, the level 
attained here by art and in the fitting of masonry, and finally 
the fact that the Great Pyramid was the oldest of the seven 
wonders of the ancient world and now alone of them survives. 
It seems that representations of deities, and indeed any represen- 
tations at all, were rare upon the polished walls of the great 
monuments of the fourth dynasty, and Petrie thinks that he 
can trace a violent religious revolution with confiscation of 
endowments at this time in the temple remains at Abydos; 
but none the less the wants of the deities were then attended to 
by priests selected from the royal family and the highest in the 
land. Khufu's work in the temple of Bubastis is proved by a 
surviving fragment, and he is figured slaying his enemy at Sinai 
before the god Thoth. In late times the priests of Denderah 
claimed Khufu as a benefactor; he was reputed to have built 
temples to the gods near the Great Pyramids and Sphinx (where 
also a pyramid of his daughter Hentsen is spoken of), and there 
are incidental notices of him in the medical and religious 
literature. The funerary cult of Khufu and Khafre was practised 
under the twenty-sixth dynasty, when so much that had fallen 
into disuse and been forgotten was revived. Khufu is a leading 
figure in an ancient Egyptian story (Papyrus Westcar), but it 
is unfortunately incomplete. He was the founder of the fourth 
dynasty, and was probably born ip Middle Egypt near Beni 
Hasan, in a town afterwards known as " Khufu's Nurse," but 
was connected with the Memphite third dynasty. Two tablets 
at the mines of Wadi Maghara in the peninsula of Sinai, a 
granite block from Bubastis, and a beautiful ivory statuette 
found by Petrie in the temple at Abydos, are almost all that can 
be definitely assigned to Khufu outside the pyramid at Giza 
and its ruined accompaniments. His date, according to Petrie, 
is 3969-3908 B.C., but in the shorter chronology of Meyer, 
Breasted and others he reigned (23 years) about a thousand years 
later, c. 2900 B.C. 



See Herodotus ii. 124; Diodorus Siculus i. 64; Sethe in Pauly- 
Wissowa's Realencyclopadie, s.v. ; W. M. F. Petrie, History of Egypt, 
vol. i., and Abydos, part ii. p. 48; J. H. Breasted, History. 

(F. Ll. G.) 

CHEPSTOW, a market town and river-port in the southern 
parliamentary division of Monmouthshire, England, on the Wye, 
2 m. above its junction with the Severn, and on the Great Western 
railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 3067. It occupies the 
slope of a hill on the western (left) bank of the river, and is 
environed by beautiful scenery. The church of St Mary, origin- 
ally the conventual chapel of a Benedictine priory of Norman 
foundation, has remains of that period in the west front and 
the nave, but a rebuilding of the chancel and transepts was 
effected in the beginning of the 19th century. The church 
contains many interesting monuments. The castle, still a mag- 
nificent pile, was founded in the nth century by William 
Fitz-Osbern, earl of Hereford, but was almost wholly rebuilt 
in the 13th. There are, however, parts of the original building in 
the keep. The castle occupies a splendid site on the summit of 
a cliff above the Wye, and covers about 3 acres. The river is 
crossed by a fine iron bridge of five arches, erected in 1816, and 
by a tubular railway bridge designed by Sir Isambard Brunei. 
There is a free passage on the Wye for large vessels as far as the 
bridge. From the narrowness and depth of the channel the tide 
rises suddenly and to a great height, forming a dangerous bore. 
The exports are timber, bark, iron, coal, cider and millstones. 
Some shipbuilding is carried on. 

As the key to the passage of the Wye, Chepstow {Estrighorel, 
StriguU) was the site successively of British, Roman and Saxon 
fortifications. Domesday Book records that the Norman castle 
was built by William Fitz-Osbern to defend the Roman road 
into South Wales. On the confiscation of his son's estates, 
the castle was granted to the earls of Pembroke, and after its 
reversion to the crown in 1306, Edward II. in 1310 granted it 
to his half-brother Thomas de Brotherton. On the latter's 
death it passed, through his daughter Margaret, Lady Segrave, 
to the dukes of Norfolk, from whom, after again reverting to the 
crown, it passed to the earls of Worcester. It was confiscated 
by parliament and settled on Oliver Cromwell, but was restored 
to the earls in 1660. The borough must have grown up between 
13 10, when the castle and vill were granted to Thomas de 
Brotherton, and 1432, when John duke of Norfolk died seised 
» of the castle, manor and borough of Struguil. In 1524 Charles, 
first earl of Worcester and then lord of the Marches, granted a 
new charter of incorporation to the bailiffs and burgesses of the 
town, which had fallen into decay. This was sustained until 
the reign of Charles II., when, some dispute arising between the 
earl of Bridgwater and the burgesses, no bailiff was appointed 
and the charter lapsed. Chepstow was afterwards governed by 
a board of twelve members. A port since early times, when the 
lord took dues of ships going up to the forest of Dean, Chepstow 
had no ancient market and no manufactures but that of glass, 
which was carried on for a short time within the ruins of the 

CHEQUE, or Check, in commercial law, a bill of exchange 
drawn on a banker and signed by the drawer, requiring the 
banker to pay on demand a certain sum in money to or to the 
order of a specified person or to bearer. In this, its most modern 
sense, the cheque is the outcome of the growth of the banking 
system of the 19th century. For details see Banks and Bank- 
ing: Law, and Bill or Exchange. The word check, 1 of which 
" cheque " is a variant now general in English usage, signified 
merely the counterfoil or indent of an exchequer bill, or any 
draft form of payment, on which was registered the particulars 
of the principal part, as a check to alteration or forgery. The 

1 The original meaning of " check " is a move in the game of chess 
which directly attacks the king; the word comes through the Old 
Fr. eschec, eschac, from the Med. Lat. form scaccus of the Persian 
shah, king, i.e. the king in the game of chess; cf. the origin of 
" mate " from the Arabic shah-mat, the king is dead. The word was 
early used in a transferred sense of a stoppage or rebuff, and so is 
applied to anything which stops or hinders a matter in progress, or 
which controls or restrains anything, hence a token, ticket or 
counterfoil which serves as a means of identification, &c. 

check or counterfoil parts remained in the hands of the banker, 
the portion given to the customer being termed a " drawn note " 
or " draft." From the beginning of the 19th century the word 
" cheque " gradually became synonymous with " draft " as 
meaning a written order on a banker by a person having money 
in the banker's hands, to pay some amount to bearer or to a 
person named. Ultimately, it entirely superseded the word 
" draft," and has now a statutory definition (Bills of Exchange 
Act 1882, s. 73) — " a bill of exchange drawn on a banker payable 
on demand." The word " draft " has come to have a wider 
meaning, that of a bill drawn by one person on another for a sum 
of money, or an order (whether on a banker or other) to pay 
money. The employment of cheques as a method of payment 
offering greater convenience than coin is almost universal in 
Great Britain and the United States. Of the transactions 
through the banks of the United Kingdom between 86 and 90% 
are conducted by means of cheques, and an even higher propor- 
tion in the United States. On the continent of Europe the use 
of cheques, formerly rare, is becoming more general, particularly 
in France, and to some extent in Germany. 

CHER, a department of central France, embracing the eastern 
part of the ancient province of Berry, and parts of Bourbonnais, 
Nivernais and Orleanais, bounded N. by the department of 
Loiret, W. by Loir-et-Cher and Indre, S. by Allier and Creuse, 
and E. by Nievre. Pop. (1906) 343,484. Area 2819 sq. m. 
The territory of the department is elevated in the south, where 
one point reaches 1654 ft., and in the east. The centre is occupied 
by a wide calcareous table-land, to the north of which stretches 
the plain of Sologne. The principal rivers, besides the Cher and 
its tributaries, are the Grande Sauldre and the Petite Sauldre 
on the north, but the Loire and Allier, though not falling within 
the department, drain the eastern districts, and are available 
for navigation. The Cher itself becomes navigable when it 
receives the Arnon and Yevre, and the communications of the 
department are greatly facilitated by the Canal du Berry, which 
traverses it from east to west, the lateral canal of the Loire, 
which follows the left bank of that river, and the canal of the 
Sauldre. The climate is temperate, and the rainfall moderate. 
Except in the Sologne, the soil is generally fertile, but varies 
considerably in different localities. The most productive region 
is that on the east, which belongs to the valley of the Loire; 
the central districts are tolerably fertile but marshy, being often 
flooded by the Cher; while in the south and south-west there 
is a considerable extent of dry and fertile land. Wheat and oats 
are largely cultivated, while hemp, vegetables and various 
fruits are also produced. The vine flourishes chiefly in the east 
of the arrondissement of Sancerre. The department contains 
a comparatively large extent of pasturage, which has given rise 
to a considerable trade in horses, cattle, sheep and wool for the 
northern markets. Nearly one-fifth of the whole area consists 
of forest. Mines of iron are worked, and various sorts of stone 
are quarried. Brick, porcelain and glassworks employ large 
numbers of the inhabitants. There are also flour-mills, dis- 
tilleries, oil-works, saw-mills and tanneries. Bourges and Vierzon 
are metallurgical and engineering centres. Coal and wine are 
leading imports, while cereals, timber, wool, fruit and industrial 
products are exported. The department is served by the Orleans 
railway, and possesses in all more than 300 m. of navigable 
waterways. It is divided into three arrondissements (29 cantons, 
292 communes) cognominal with the towns of Bourges, Saint- 
Amand-Mont-Rond, and Sancerre, of which the first is the 
capital, the seat of an archbishop and of a court of appeal and 
headquarters of the VIII. army-corps. The department 
belongs to the academic (educational division) of Paris. Bourges, 
Saint-Amand-Mont-Rond, Vierzon and Sancerre (q.v.) are the 
principal towns. Mehun-sur- Yevre (pop. 5227), a town with an 
active manufacture of porcelain, has a Romanesque church and 
a chateau of the 14th century. Among the other interesting 
churches of the department, that at St Satur has a fine choir 
of the 14th and 15th centuries; those of Dun-sur-Auron, 
Plaimpied, Aix d'Angillon and Jeanvrin are Romanesque in 
style, while Aubigny-Ville has a church of the 12th, 13th and 



15th centuries and a chateau of later date. Drevant, built on 
the site of a Roman town, preserves ruins of a large theatre and 
other remains. Among the megalithic monuments of Cher, 
the most notable is that at Villeneuve-sur-Cher, known as the 

CHERAT, a hill cantonment and sanatorium in the Peshawar 
district of the North- West Frontier Province, India, 34 m. S.E. 
of Peshawar. It is situated at an elevation of 4500 ft., on the 
west of the Khattak range, which divides the Peshawar from the 
Kohat district. It was first used in 1861, and since then has 
been employed during the hot weather as a health station for 
the British troops quartered in the hot and malarious vale of 

CHERBOURG, a naval station, fortified town and seaport 
of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the 
department of Manche, on the English Channel, 232 m. W.N.W. 
of Paris on the Ouest-Etat railway. Pop. (1906) town, 35,710; 
commune, 43,827. Cherbourg is situated at the mouth of the 
Divette, on a small bay at the apex of the indentation formed 
by the northern shore of the peninsula of Cotentin. Apart from 
a fine hospital and the church of La Trinite dating from the 
15th century, the town has no buildings of special interest. A 
rich collection of paintings is housed in the h&tel de ville. A 
statue of the painter J. F. Millet, born near Cherbourg, stands 
in the public garden, and there is an equestrian statue of 
Napoleon I. in the square named after him. Cherbourg is a 
fortified place of the first class, headquarters of one of the five 
naval arrondissements of France, and the seat of a sub-prefect. 
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber 
of commerce, a lycee and a naval school. The chief industries 
of the town proper are fishing, saw-milling, tanning, leather- 
dressing, ship-building, iron and copper-founding, rope-making 
and the manufacture of agricultural implements. There are 
stone quarries in the environs, and the town has trade in farm 

Cherbourg derives its chief importance from its naval and 
commercial harbours, which are distant from each other about 
half a mile. The former consists of three main basins cut out 
of the rock, and has an area of 55 acres. The minimum depth 
of water is 30 ft. Connected with the harbour are dry docks, 
the yards where the largest ships in the French navy are con- 
structed, magazines, rope walks, and the various workshops 
requisite for a naval arsenal of the first class. The works and 
town are carefully guarded on every side by redoubts and 
fortifications, and are commanded by batteries on the surround- 
ing hills. There is a large naval hospital close to the harbour. 
The commerical harbour at the mouth of the Divette com- 
municates with the sea by a channel 650 yds. long. It consists 
of two parts, an outer and tidal harbour 17I acres in extent, and 
an inner basin 15 acres in extent, with a depth on sill at ordinary 
spring tide of 25 ft. Outside these harbours is the triangular 
bay, which forms the roadstead of Cherbourg. The bay is 
admirably sheltered by the land on every side but the north. On 
that side it is sheltered by a huge breakwater, over 2 m. in length, 
with a width of 650 ft. at its base and 30 ft. at its summit, which 
is protected by forts, and leaves passages for vessels to the east 
and west. These passages are guarded by forts placed on islands 
intervening between the breakwater and the mainland, and 
themselves united to the land by breakwaters. The surface 
within these barriers amounts to about 3700 acres. Cherbourg 
is a port of call for the American, North German Lloyd and other 
important lines of transatlantic steamers. The chief exports 
are stone for road-making, butter, eggs and vegetables; the 
chief imports are coal, timber, superphosphates and wine from 
Algeria. Great Britain is the principal customer. 

Cherbourg is supposed by some investigators to occupy the 
site of the Roman station of Coriallum, but nothing definite is 
known about its origin. The name was long regarded as a 
corruption of Caesaris Burgus (Caesar's Borough). William 
the Conqueror, under whom it appears as Carusbur, provided 
it with a hospital and a church; and Henry II. of England on 
several occasions chose it as his residence. In 1295 it was 

pillaged by an English fleet from Yarmouth; and in the 14th 
century it frequently suffered during the wars against the 
English. Captured by the English in 1418 after a four months' 
siege, it was recovered by Charles VII. of France in 1450. An 
attempt was made under Louis XIV. to construct a military port; 
but the fortifications were dismantled in 1688, and further 
damage was inflicted by the English in 1758. In 1686 Vauban 
planned harbour- works which were begun under Louis XVI. 
and continued by Napoleon I. It was left, however, to Louis 
Philippe, and particularly to Napoleon III., to complete them, 
and their successful realization was celebrated in* 1858, in the 
presence of the queen of England, against whose dominions they 
had at one time been mainly directed. At the close of 1857, 
£8,000,000, of which the breakwater cost over £2,500,000, had 
been expended on the works; in 1889 a further sum of £680,000 
was voted by the Chamber of Deputies for the improvement of 
the port. 

novelist and miscellaneous writer, was born on the 19th of July 
1829, at Geneva, where his father, Andre Cherbuliez (1795-1874), 
was a classical professor at the university. He was descended 
from a family of Protestant refugees, and many years later 
Victor Cherbuliez resumed his French nationality, taking 
advantage of an act passed in the early days of the Revolution. 
Geneva was the scene of his early education; thence he proceeded 
to Paris, and afterwards tp the universities of Bonn and Berlin. 
He returned to his native town and engaged in the profession of 
teaching. After his resumption of French citizenship he was 
elected a member of the Academy (1881), and having received 
the Legion of Honour in 1870, he was promoted to be officer of 
the order in 1892. He died on the 1st of July 1899. Cherbuliez 
was a voluminous and successful writer of fiction. His first book, 
originally published in i860, reappeared in 1864 under the title 
of Un Cheval de Phidias: it is a romantic study of art in the 
golden age of Athens. He went on to produce a series of novels, 
of which the following are the best known: — Le Comle Kostia 
(1863), Le Prince Vitale (1864), Le Roman d'une honnete femtne 
(1866), L'Aventure de Ladislas Bolski (1869), Miss Rovel (1875), 
Samuel Brohl et Cie (1877), L'Idee de Jean T Sterol (1878), Noirs 
et rouges (1881), La Vocation du Comte Ghislain (1888), Vne 
Gageure (1890), Le Secret du pricepleur (1893), Jacquine Vanesse 
(1898), &c. Most of these novels first appeared in the Revue des 
deux mondes, to which Cherbuliez also contributed a number 
of political and learned articles, usually printed with the pseu- 
donym G. Valbert. Many of these have been published in 
collected form under the titles L'Allemagne politique (1870), 
L'Espagne politique (1874), Profils Strangers (1889), L' Art et la 
nature (1892) , &c. The volume Etudes dc litterature et d'art (1873) 
includes articles for the most part reprinted from Le Temps. 
The earlier novels of Cherbuliez have been said with truth to 
show marked traces of the influence of George Sand; and in 
spite of modification, his method was that of an older school. 
He did not possess the sombre power or the intensely analytical 
skill of some of his later contemporaries, but his books are 
distinguished by a freshness and honesty, fortified by cosmo- 
politan knowledge and lightened by unobtrusive humour, which 
fully account for their wide popularity in many countries besides 
his own. His genius was the reverse of dramatic, and attempts 
to present two of his stories on the stage have not succeeded. 
His essays have all the merits due to liberal observation and 
thoroughness of treatment; their style, like that of the novels, 
is admirably lucid and correct. (C.) 

CHERCHEL, a seaport of Algeria, in the arrondissement and 
department of Algiers, 55 m. W. of the capital. It is the centre 
of an agricultural and vine-growing district, but is commercially 
of no great importance, the port, which consists of part only of 
the inner port of Roman days, being small and the entry difficult. 
The town is chiefly noteworthy for the extensive ruins of former 
cities on the same site. Of existing buildings the most remarkable 
is the great Mosque of the Hundred Columns, now used as a 
military hospital. The mosque contains 89 columns of diorite, 
surmounted by a variety of capitals brought from other buildings. 



The population of the town in 1906 was 4733; of the commune 
of which Cherchel is the centre 11,088. 

Cherchel was a city of the Carthaginians, who named it Jol. 
Juba II. (25 B.C.) made it the capital of the Mauretanian king- 
dom under the name of Caesarea. Juba's tomb, the so-called 
Tombeau de la Chretienne (see Algeria), is ^k m. E. of the town. 
Destroyed by the Vandals, Caesarea regained some of its im- 
portance under the Byzantines. Taken by the Arabs it was 
renamed by them Cherchel. Khair-ed-Din Barbarossa captured 
the city in 1520 and annexed it to his Algerian pashalik. In 
the early years of the 18th century it was a commercial city 
of some importance, but was laid in ruins by a terrible earthquake 
in 1738. In 1840 the town was occupied by the French. The 
ruins suffered greatly from vandalism during the early period 
of French rule, many portable objects being removed to 
museums in Paris or Algiers, and most of the monuments 
destroyed for the sake of their stone. Thus the dressed stones 
of the ancient theatre served to build barracks; the material 
of the hippodrome went to build the church; while the portico 
of the hippodrome, supported by granite and marble columns, 
and approached by a fine flight of steps, was destroyed by 
Cardinal Lavigerie in a search for the tomb of St Marciana. The 
fort built by Arouj Barbarossa, elder brother of Khair-ed-Din, 
was completely destroyed by the French. There are many 
fragments of a white marble temple. The ancient cisterns still 
supply the town with water. The museum contains some of 
the finest statues discovered in Africa. They include colossal 
figures of Aesculapius and Bacchus, and the lower half of a 
seated Egyptian divinity in black basalt, bearing the cartouche 
of Tethmosis (Thothmes) I. This statue was found at Cherchel, 
and is held by some archaeologists to indicate an Egyptian 
settlement here about 1500 B.C. 

See Africa, Roman, and the description of the museum by 
P. Gauckler in the Musees et collections archeologiques de VAlgerie. 

CHERCHEN, a town of East Turkestan, situated at the 
northern foot of the Altyn-tagh, a range of the Kuen-lun, in 
85 35' E., and on the Cherchen-darya, at an altitude of 4100 ft. 
It straggles mostly along the irrigation channels that go off from 
the left side of the river, and in 1900 had a population of about 
2000. The Cherchen-darya, which rises in the Arka-tagh, a more 
southerly range of the Kuen-lun, in 87° E. and 36 20' N., flows 
north until it strikes the desert below Cherchen, after which it 
turns north-east and meanders through a wide bed (300-400 ft.), 
beset with dense reeds and flanked by older channels. It is 
probable that anciently it entered the disused channel of the 
Ettek-tarim, but at present it joins the existing Tarim in the 
lake of Kara-buran, a sort of lacustrine " ante-room " to the 
Kara-koshun (N. M. Przhevalsky's Lop-nor). At its entrance 
into the former lake the Cherchen-darya forms a broad delta. 
The river is frozen in its lower course for two to three months 
in the winter. From the foot of the mountains to the oasis of 
Cherchen it has a fall of nearly 4000 ft., whereas in the 300 m. 
or so from Cherchen to the Kara-buran the fall is 140c ft. The 
total length is 500-600 m., and the drainage basin measures 
6000-7000 sq. m. 

See Sven Hedin, Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia, 
i8gg-ig02, vols. i. and ii. (1905-1906) ; also Takla-Makan. 

CHEREMISSES, or Tcheremisses, a Finnish people living in 
isolated groups in the governments of Kazan, Viatka, Novgorod, 
Perm, Kostroma and Ufa, eastern Russia. Their name for 
themselves is Mori or Mari (people) , possibly identifiable with the 
ancient Merians of Suzdalia. Their language belongs to the 
Finno-Ugrian family. They number some 240,000. There are 
two distinct physical types: one of middle height, black-haired, 
brown skin and flat-faced; the other short, fair-haired, white 
skinned, with narrow eyes and straight short noses. Those 
who live on the right bank of the Volga are sometimes known 
as Hill Cheremis, and are taller and stronger than those who 
inhabit the swamps of the left bank. They are farmers and herd 
horses and cattle. Their religion is a hotchpotch of Shamanism, 
Mahommedanism and Christianity. They are usually mono- 
gamous. The chief ceremony of marriage is a forcible abduction 

of the bride. The women, naturally ugly, are often disfigured 
by sore eyes caused by the smoky atmosphere of the huts. They 
wear a head-dress, trimmed with glass jewels, forming a hood 
behind stiffened with metal. On their breasts they carry a 
breastplate formed of coins, small bells and copper disks. 

See Smirinov, Mordres et Tcheremisses (Paris, 1895) ; J- Aber- 
cromby, Pre- and Proto-historic Finns (London, 1898). 

CHERIBON, a residency of the island of Java, Dutch East 
Indies, bounded S. and W. by the Preanger regencies, N.W. by 
Krawang, N. by the Java Sea, and E. by the residencies of Tegal 
and Banyumas. Pop. (1897) 1,577,521, including 867 Europeans, 
2 1 ,108 Chinese, and 2016 Arabs and other Asiatic foreigners. The 
natives consist of Middle Javanese in the north and Sundanese 
in the south. Cheribon has been for many centuries the centre 
of Islamism in western Java, and is also the seat of a fanatical 
Mahommedan sect controlled from Mecca. The native population 
is on the whole orderly and prosperous. The northern half of the 
residency is flat and marshy in places, especially in the north- 
western corner, while the southern half is mountainous. In the 
middle stands the huge volcano Cherimai, clad with virgin 
forest and coffee plantations, and surrounded at its foot by rice 
fields. South-south-west of Cherimai on the Preanger border is 
the Sawal volcano, at whose foot is the beautiful Penjalu lake. 
Sulphur and salt springs occur on the slopes of Cherimai, and 
near Palimanan there is a cavernous hole called Guwagalang (or 
Payagalang) , which exhales carbonic acid gas, and is considered 
holy by the natives and guarded by priests. There is a similar 
hole in the Preanger. The principal products of cultivation are 
sugar, coffee, rice and also tea and pulse (rachang), the planta- 
tions being for the most part owned by Europeans. The chief 
towns are Cheribon, a seaport and capital of the residency, the 
seaport of Indramaya, Palimanan, Majalengka, Kuningan and 
Chiamis. Cheribon has a good open roadstead. The town is 
very old and irregularly built, and the climate is unhealthy; 
nevertheless it has a lively export trade in sugar and coffee and 
is a regular port of call. In 1908 the two descendants of the old 
sultans of Cheribon still resided there in their respective Kratons 
or palaces, and each received an annual income of over £1500 for 
the loss of his privileges. A country residence belonging to one 
of the sultans is situated close to Cheribon and is much visited 
on account of its fantastic architecture. Indramaya was a 
considerable trading place in the days of the early Portuguese 
and Dutch traders. Kuningan is famous for a breed of small 
but strong horses. 

CHERKASY (Polish, Czerkasy), a town of Russia, in the 
government of Kiev, 96 m. S.E. of Kiev, on the right bank of the 
Dnieper. Pop. (1883) 15,740; (1897) 26,619. The inhabitants 
(Little Russians) are mostly employed in agriculture and garden- 
ing; but sugar and tobacco are manufactured and spirits distilled. 
Cherkasy was an important town of the Ukraine in the 15th 
century, and remained so, under Polish rule, until the revolt 
of the Cossack hettnan Chmielnicki (1648). It was annexed by 
Russia in 1795. 

CHERNIGOV, a government of Little Russia, on the left bank 
of the Dnieper, bounded by the governments of Mogilev and 
Smolensk on the N., Orel and Kursk on the E., Poltava on the 
S., and Kiev and Minsk on the W. Area, 20,233 sq. m. Its 
surface is an undulating plain, 650 to 750 ft. high in the north 
and 370 to 600 ft. in the south, deeply grooved by ravines and 
the valleys of the rivers. In the north, beyond the Desna river, 
about one-third of the area is under forest (rapidly disappearing), 
and marshes occur along the courses of the rivers; while to the 
south of the Desna the soil is dry and sometimes sandy, and 
gradually it assumes the characters of a steppe-land as one 
proceeds southward. The government is drained by the Dnieper, 
which forms its western boundary for 180 m., and by its tributary 
the Desna. The latter, which flows through Chernigov for 
nearly 350 m., is navigable, and timber is brought down its 
tributaries. The climate is much colder in the wooded tracts 
of the north than in the south; the average yearly temperature 
at the city of Chernigov is 44-4° F. (January, 23°; July 68-5°). 

The population reached 1,996,250 in 1883, 2,316,818 in 1897, 



and 2,746,300 (estimate) in 1906. It is chiefly Little Russian 
(85-6%); but Great Russians (6-i%), mostly Raskolniks, 
i.e. nonconformists, and White Russians (S'6%) inhabit the 
northern districts. There are, besides, some Germans, as well 
as Greeks, at Nyezhin. Agriculture is the principal occupation; 
in the north, however, many of the inhabitants are engaged in 
the timber trade, and in the production of tar, pitch, wooden 
wares, leather goods and so forth. Cattle-breeding is carried 
on in the central districts. Beet is extensively cultivated. The 
cultivation of tobacco is increasing. Hemp is widely grown in 
the north, and the milder climate of the south encourages 
gardening. Bee-keeping is extensively carried on by the Raskol- 
niks. Limestone, grindstones, china-clay and building-stone 
are quarried. Manufactures have begun to develop rapidly of 
late, the most important being sugar-works, distilleries, cloth- 
mills and glass-works. The government is divided into fifteen 
districts, their chief towns being Chernigov (g.v.), Borzna (pop. 
12,458 in 1897), Glukhov (14,856), Gorodnya (4197), Konotop 
(23,083), Kozelets (5160), Krolevets (10,375), Mglin (7631), 
Novgorod-Syeversk (9185), Novozybkov (15,480), Nyezhin 
(32,481), Oster (5384), Sosnitsa (2507), Starodub (12,451) and 
Surazh (4004). 

CHERNIGOV, a town of Russia, capital of the above govern- 
ment, on the right bank of the Desna, nearly half a mile 
from the river, 141 m. by rail N.E. of Kiev on a branch line. 
Pop. (1897) 27,006. It is an archiepiscopal see and possesses a 
cathedral of the nth century. In 907 the city is mentioned 
in the treaty of Oleg as next in importance to Kiev, and in the 
nth century it became the capital of the principality of Syeversk 
and an important commercial city. The Mongol invasion put 
an end to its prosperity in 1239. Lithuania annexed it in the 
14th century, but it was soon seized by Poland, which held it until 
the 1 7th century. In 1686 it was definitely annexed to Russia. 

CHEROKEE (native Tsalagi, " cave people "), a tribe of North 
American Indians of Iroquoian stock. Next to the Navaho they 
are the largest "tribe in the United States and live mostly in 
Oklahoma (formerly Indian territory). Before their removal 
they possessed a large tract of country now distributed among 
the states of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee and the 
west of Florida. Their chief divisions were then settled around 
the head-waters of the Savannah and Tennessee rivers, and 
were distinguished as the Elati Tsalagi or Lower Cherokees, 
i.e. those in the plains, and Atali Tsalagi or Upper Cherokees, 
i.e. those on the mountains. They were further divided into 
seven exogamous clans. Fernando de Soto travelled through 
their country in 1540, and during the next three centuries they 
were important factors in the history of the south. They 
attached themselves to the English in the disputes and contests 
which arose between the European colonizers, formally recog- 
nized the English king in 1730, and in 1755 ceded a part of 
their territory and permitted the erection of English forts. 
Unfortunately this amity was interrupted not long after; 
but peace was again restored in 1761. When the revolutionary 
war broke out they sided with the royalist party. This led 
to their subjugation by the new republic, and they had to 
surrender that part of their lands which lay to the south of the 
Savannah and east of the Chattahoochee. Peace was made in 
1781, and in 1785 they recognized the supremacy of the United 
States and were confirmed in their possessions. In 1820 they 
adopted a civilized form of government, and in 1827, as a 
" Nation," a formal constitution. The gradual advance of white 
immigration soon led to disputes with the settlers, who desired 
their removal, and exodus after exodus took place; a small part 
of the tribe agreed (1835) to remove to another district, but 
the main body remained. An appeal was made by them to 
the United States government; but President Andrew Jackson 
refused to interfere. A force of 2000 men, under the command 
of General Winfield Scott, was sent in 1838, and the Cherokees 
were compelled to emigrate to their present position. After 
the settlement various disagreements between the eastern and 
western Cherokees continued for some time, but in 1839 a union 
was effected. In the Civil War they all at first sided with the 

South; but before long a strong party joined the North, and 
this led to a disastrous internecine struggle. On the close of the 
contest they were confirmed in the possession of their territory, 
but were forced to give a portion of their lands to their eman- 
cipated slaves. Their later history is mainly a story of hopeless 
struggle to maintain their tribal independence against the white 
man. In 1892 they sold their western territory known as the 
" Cherokee outlet." Until 1906, when tribal government 
virtually ceased, the " nation " had an elected chief, a senate and 
house of representatives. Many of them have become Christians, 
schools have been established and there is a tribal press. Those 
in Oklahoma still number some 26,000, though most are of mixed 
blood. A group, known as the Eastern Band, some 1400 strong, 
are on a reservation in North Carolina. Their language consists 
of two dialects — a third, that of the " Lower " branch, having 
been lost. The syllabic alphabet invented in 182 1 by George 
Guess (Sequoyah) is the character employed. 

See also Handbook of American Indians (Washington, 1907); 
T. V. Parker, Cherokee Indians (N. Y., 1909) ; and Indians, North 

CHEROOT, or Sheroot (from the Tamil word " shuruttu," 
a roll) , a cigar made from tobacco grown in southern India and 
the Philippine Islands. It was once esteemed very highly for 
its delicate flavour. A cheroot differs from other cigars in having 
both ends cut square, instead of one being pointed, and one end 
considerably larger than the other. 

CHERRAPUNJI, a village in the Khasi hills district of Assam. 
It is notable as having the heaviest known rainfall in the world. 
In 1861 it registered a total of 905 in., and its annual average 
is 458 in. This excessive rainfall is caused by the fact that 
Cherrapunji stands on the edge of the plateau overlooking the 
plains of Bengal, where it catches the full force of the monsoon 
as it rises from the sea. There is a good coal-seam in the vicinity. 

CHERRY. As a cultivated fruit-tree the cherry is generally 
supposed to be of Asiatic origin, whence, according to Pliny, it 
was brought to Italy by Lucullus after his defeat of Mithradates, 
king of Pontus, 68 B.C. As with most plants which have been 
long and extensively cultivated, it is a matter of difficulty, if not 
an impossibility, to identify the parent stock of the numerous 
cultivated varieties of cherry; but they are generally referred 
to two species: Prunus Cerasus, the wild or dwarf cherry, the 
origin of the morello, duke and Kentish cherries, and P. Avium, 
the gean, the origin of the geans, hearts and bigarreaus. Both 
species grow wild through Europe and western Asia to the 
Himalayas, but the dwarf cherry has the more restricted range 
of the two in Britain, as it does not occur in Scotland and is rare 
in Ireland. The cherries form a section Cerasus of the genus 
Prunus; and they have sometimes been separated as a distinct 
genus from the plums proper; both have a stone-fruit or drupe, 
but the drupe of the cherry differs from that of the plum in not 
having a waxy bloom; further, the leaves of the plum are rolled 
(convolute) in the bud, while those of the cherry are folded (con- 
duplicate) . 

The cherries are trees of moderate size and shrubs, having 
smooth, serrate leaves and white flowers. They are natives 
of the temperate regions of both hemispheres ; and the cultivated 
varieties ripen their fruit in Norway as far as 63° N. The geans 
are generally distinguished from the common cherry by the 
greater size of the trees, and the deeper colour and comparative 
insipidity of the flesh in the ripe fruit, which adheres firmly 
to the " nut " or stone; but among the very numerous cultivated 
varieties specific distinctions shade away so that the fruit 
cannot be ranged under these two heads. The leading varieties 
are recognized as bigarreaus, dukes, morellos and geans. Severa' 
varieties are cultivated as ornamental trees and on account 
of their flowers. 

The cherry is a well-flavoured sub-acid fruit, and is much 
esteemed for dessert. Some of the varieties are particularly 
selected for pies, tarts, &c, and others for the preparation of 
preserves, and for making cherry brandy. The fruit is also very 
extensively employed in the preparation of the liqueurs known 
as kirschwasser, ratafia and maraschino. Kirschwasser is made 



chiefly on- the upper Rhine from the wild' black gean, and in 
the manufacture the entire fruit-flesh and kernels are pulped up 
and allowed to ferment. By distillation of the fermented pulp 
the liqueur is obtained in a pure, colourless condition. Ratafia 
is similarly manufactured, also by preference from a gean. 
Maraschino, a highly valued liqueur, the best of which is produced 
at Zara in Dalmatia, differs from these in being distilled from 
a cherry called marasca, the pulp of which is mixed with honey, 
honey or sugar being added to the distillate for sweetening. 
It is also said that the flavour is heightened by the use of the 
leaves of the perfumed cherry, Prunus Mahaleb, a native of 
central and southern Europe. 

The wood of the cherry tree is valued by cabinetmakers, 
and that of the gean tree is largely used in the manufacture 
of tobacco pipes. The American wild cherry, Prunus serotina, 
is much sought after, its wood being compact, fine-grained, not 
liable to warp, and susceptible of receiving a brilliant polish. 
The kernels of the perfumed cherry, P. Mahaleb, are used in 
confectionery and for scent. A gum exudes from the stem of 
cherry trees similar in its properties to gum arabic. 

The cherry is increased by budding on the wild gean, obtained 
by sowing the stones of the small black or red wild cherries. To 
secure very dwarf trees the Prunus Mahaleb has been used for 
the May duke, Kentish, morello and analogous sorts, but it is 
not adapted for strong-growing varieties like the bigarreaus. 
The stocks are budded, or, more rarely, grafted, at the usual 
seasons. The cherry prefers a free, loamy soil, with a well- 
drained subsoil. Stiff soils and dry gravelly subsoils are both 
unsuitable, though the trees require a large amount of moisture, 
particularly the large-leaved sorts, such as the bigarreaus. For 
standard trees, the bigarreau section should be planted 30 ft. 
apart, or more, in rich soil, and the May duke, morello and 
similar varieties 20 or 25 ft. apart; while, as trained trees against 
walls and espaliers, from 20 to 24 ft. should be allowed for the 
former, and from 1 5 to 20 ft. for the latter. In forming the stems 
of a standard tree the temporary side-shoots should not be 
allowed to attain too great a length, and should not be more 
than two years old when they are cut close to the stem. The 
first three shoots retained to form the head should be shortened 
to about 15 in., and two shoots from each encouraged, one at the 
end, and the other 3 or 4 in. lower down. When these have 
become established, very little pruning will be required, and 
that chiefly to keep the principal branches as nearly equal in 
strength as possible for the first few years. Espalier trees 
should have the branches about a foot apart, starting from the 
stem with an upward curve, and then being trained horizontally. 
In summer pruning the shoots on the upper branches must be 
shortened at least a week before those on the lower ones. After 
a year or two clusters of fruit buds will be developed on spurs 
along the branches, and those spurs will continue productive 
for an indefinite period. For wall trees any form of training 
may be adopted; but as the fruit is always finest on young 
spurs, fan-training is probably the most advantageous. A 
succession of young shoots should be laid in every year. The 
morello, which is of twiggy growth and bears on the young wood, 
must be trained in the fan form, and care should be taken to 
avoid the very common error of crowding its branches. 

Forcing. — The cherry will not endure a high temperature nor 
dose atmosphere. A heat of 45° at night will be sufficient at 
starting, this being gradually increased during the first few 
weeks to 55°, but lowered again when the blossom buds are about 
to open. After stoning the temperature may be again gradually 
raised to 60°, and may go up to 70 by day, or 75° by sun heat, 
and 6o° at night. The best forcing cherries are the May duke 
and the royal duke, the duke cherries being of more compact 
growth than the bigarreau tribe and generally setting better; 
nevertheless a few of the larger kinds, such as bigarreau Napoleon, 
black tartarian and St Margaret's, should be forced for variety. 
The trees may be either planted out in tolerably rich soil, or 
grown in large pots of good turfy friable calcareous loam mixed 
with rotten dung. If the plants are small, they may be put into 
12-in. pots in the first instance, and after a year shifted into 

15-in. pots early in autumn, and plunged in some loose or even 
very slightly fermenting material. The soil of the pots should 
be protected from snow-showers and cold rains. Occasionally 
trees have been taken up in autumn with balls, potted and 
forced in the following spring; but those which have been 
established a year in the pots are to be preferred. Such only as 
are well furnished with blossom-buds should be selected. The 
trees should be removed to the forcing house in the beginning 
of December, if fruit be required very early in the season. During 
the first and second weeks it may be kept nearly close; but, as 
vegetation advances, air becomes absolutely necessary during 
the day, and even at night when the weather will permit. If 
forcing is commenced about the middle or third week of December, 
the fruit ought to be ripe by about the end of March. After the 
fruit is gathered, the trees should be duly supplied with water 
at the root, and the foliage kept well syringed till the wood is 
mature. (See also Fruit and Flower Farming.) 

CHERRYVALE, a city of Montgomery county, Kansas, U.S.A., 
about 140 m. S.S.E. of Kansas City. Pop, (1890) 2104; (1000) 
3472, including 180 negroes; (1905, state census) 5089; (1910) 
4304. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the 
main line and a branch (of which it is a terminus) of the St Louis 
& San Francisco railways. It is in a farming district and in the 
Kansas natural-gas and oil-field, and has large zinc smelters, an 
oil refinery, and various manufactures, including vitrified brick, 
flour, glass, cement and ploughs. Cherryvale was laid out in 
1 87 1 by the Kansas City, Lawrence & South Kansas Railway 
Company (later absorbed by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe). 
The main part of the town was destroyed by fire in 1873, but 
was soon rebuilt, and in 1880 Cherryvale became a city of the 
third and afterwards of the second class. Natural gas, which 
is used as a factory fuel and for street and domestic lighting, 
was found here in 1889, and oil several years later. 

CHERRY VALLEY, a village of Otsego county, New York, 
U.S.A., in a township of the same name, 68 m. N.W. of Albany. 
Pop. (1890) 685; (1900) 772; (1905) 746; (1910) 792; of the 
township (1910) 1706. It is served by the Delaware & 
Hudson railway. Cherry Valley is in the centre of a rich farming 
and dairying region, has a chair factory, and is a summer resort 
with sulphur and lithia springs. It was the scene of a terrible 
massacre during the War of Independence. The village was 
attacked on the nth of November 1778 by Walter Butler 
(d. 1781) and Joseph Brant with a force of 800 Indians and Tories, 
who killed about 50 men, women and children, sacked and 
burned most of the houses, and carried off more than 70 prisoners, 
who were subjected to the greatest cruelties and privations, 
many of them dying or being tomahawked before the Canadian 
settlements were reached. Cherry Valley was incorporated 
in 1812. 

CHERSIPHRON, a Cretan architect, the traditional builder 
(with his son Metagenes) of the great Ionic temple of Artemis 
at Ephesus set up by the Greeks in the 6th century. Some 
remains of this temple were found by J. T. Wood and brought 
to the British Museum. In connexion with the pillars, which 
are adorned with archaic reliefs, a fragmentary inscription has 
been found, recording that they were presented by King Croesus, 
as indeed Herodotus informs us. This temple was burned on 
the day on which Alexander the Great was born. 

CHERSO, an island in the Adriatic Sea, off the east coast 
of Istria, from which it is separated by the channel of Farasina. 
Pop. (1900) 8274. It is situated in the Gulf of Quarnero, and is 
connected with the island of Lussin, lying on the S.W. by a 
turn bridge over the small channel of Ossero, and with the 
island of Veglia, lying on the E. by the Canale di Mezzo. These 
three are the principal islands of the Quarnero group, and form 
together the administrative district of Lussin in the Austrian 
crownland of Istria. Cherso is an elongated island about 40 m. 
long, 1 J to 7 m. wide, and has an area of 150 sq. m. It is traversed 
by a range of mountains, which attain in the peak of Syss an 
altitude of 2090 ft. and form natural terraces, planted with vines 
and olive trees, specially in the middle and southern parts of 
the island. The northern part is covered with bushes of laurel 



and mastic, but there are scarcely any large trees. There is a 
scarcity of springs, and the bouses are generally furnished with 
cisterns for rain water. In the centre of the island is an interesting 
lake called the Vrana or Crow's Lake, situated at an altitude of 
40 ft. above, the level of the sea, 3J m. long, 1 m. wide and 184 
ft. deep. This lake is in all probability fed by subterranean 
sources. The- chief town of the island is Cherso, situated on 
the west coast. It possesses a good harbour and is provided 
with a shipwright's wharf. 

CHERSONESE, Chersonesus, or Cherronesus (Gr. ykpacK, 
dry, and vrjaos, island), a word equivalent to " peninsula." 
In ancient geography the Chersonesus Thracica, Chersonesus 
Taurica or Scythica, and Chersonesus Cimbrica correspond to 
the peninsulas of the Dardanelles, the Crimea and Jutland; and 
the Golden Chersonese is usually identified with the peninsula 
of Malacca. The Tauric Chersonese was further distinguished 
as the Great, in contrast to the Heracleotic or Little Chersonese 
at its S.W. corner, where Sevastopol now stands. 

The Tauric Chersonese 1 (from 2nd century a.d. called 
Cherson) was a Dorian colony of Heraclea in Bithynia, founded 
in the 5th century B.C. in the Crimea about 2 m. S. of the 
modern Sevastopol. After defending itself against the kingdom 
of Bosporus (q.v.), and the native Scythians and Tauri, and even 
extending its power over the west coast of the peninsula, it 
was compelled to call in the aid of Mithradates VI. and his 
general Diophantus, c. no B.C., and submitted to the Pontic 
dynasty. On regaining a nominal independence, it came more 
or less under the Roman suzerainty. In the latter part of the 
1st century a.d., and again in the succeeding century, it received 
a Roman garrison and suffered much interference in its internal 
affairs. In the time of Constantine, in return for assistance 
against the Bosporans and the native tribes, it regained its 
autonomy and received special privileges. It must, however, 
have been subject to the Byzantine authorities, as inscriptions 
testify to restorations of its walls by Byzantine officials. Under 
Theophilus the central government sent out a governor to take 
the place of the elected magistrate. Even so it seems to have 
preserved a measure of self-government and may be said to 
have been the last of the Greek city states. Its ruin was brought 
about by the commercial rivalry of the Genoese, who forbade 
the Greeks to trade there and diverted its commerce to Caffa 
and Sudak. Previous to this it had been the main emporium 
of Byzantine commerce upon the N. coast of the Euxine. 
Through it went the communications of the empire with the 
Petchenegs and other native tribes, and more especially with 
the Russians. The commerce of Cherson is guaranteed in the 
early treaties between the Greeks and Russians, and it was in 
Cherson, according to Ps. Nestor's chronicle, that Vladimir was 
baptized in 988 after he had captured the city. The constitution 
of the city was at first democratic under Damiorgi, a senate and 
a general assembly. Latterly it appears to have become aristo- 
cratic, and most of the power was concentrated in the hands of 
the first archon or Proteuon, who in time was superseded by 
the strategus sent out from Byzantium. Its most interesting 
political document is the form of oath sworn to by all the citizens 
in the 3rd century B.C. 

The remains of the city occupy a space about two-thirds of a 
mile long by half a mile broad. They are enelosed by a Byzantine 
wall. Foundations and considerable remains of a Greek wall 
going back to the 4th century B.C. have been found beneath 
this in the eastern or original part of the site. Many Byzantine 
churches, both cruciform and basilican, have been excavated. 
The latter survived here into the 13th century when they had 
long been extinct in other Greek-speaking lands. The churches 
were adorned with frescoes, wall and floor mosaics, some well 
preserved, and marble carvings similar to work found at Ravenna; 
The fact that the site has not been inhabited since the 14th 
century makes it important for our knowledge of Byzantine 
life. The city was used by the Romans as a place of banishment : 
St Clement of Rome was exiled hither and first preached the 

1 In Pliny " Heraclea Chersonesus," probably owing to a confusion 
with the name of the mother city. 

Gospel; another exile was Justinian II., who is said to 'have 
destroyed the city in revenge. We have a considerable series 
of coins from the 3rd century b.c. to about a.d. 200, and also 
some of Byzantine date. 

See B. Koehne, Beitrdge zur Geschichte von Cherronesus in Taurien 
(St Petersburg, 1848) ; art. " Chersonesos " (20) by C. G. Brandis in 
Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, vol. iii. 221; A. A. Bobrinskoj, 
Chersonesus Taurica (St Petersburg, 1905) (Russian) ; V. V. Laty- 
shev, Inscrr. Orae Seplentr . Ponti Euxini,vo\s.i. and iv. Reports of ex- 
cavations appear in the Compte rendu of the Imperial Archaeological 
Commission of St Petersburg from 1888 and in its Bulletin. See 
E. H. Minns, Scythians and Creeks (Cambridge, 1907). (E. H. M.) 

CHERTSEY, a market town in the Chertsey parliamentary 
division of Surrey, England, 22 m. W.S.W. from London by 
the London & South- Western railway. Pop. of urban district 
(1901) 12,762. It is pleasantly situated on the right bank of 
the Thames, which is crossed by a bridge of seven arches, built 
of Purbeck stone in 1785. The parish church, rebuilt in 1808; 
contains a tablet to Charles James Fox, who resided at St 
Anne's Hill in the vicinity, and another to Lawrence Tomson, a 
translator of the New Testament in the 17th century. Hardly 
any remains are left of a great Benedictine abbey, whose buildings 
at one time included an area of 4 acres. They fell into almost 
complete decay in the 17th century, and a " fair house " was 
erected out of the ruins by Sir Nicholas Carew of Beddington. 
The ground-plan can be traced; the fish-ponds are complete; 
and carved stones, coffins and encaustic tiles of a peculiar 
manufacture are frequently exhumed. Among the abbots the 
most famous was John de Rutherwyk, who was appointed in 
1307, and continued, till his death in 1346, to carry on a great 
system of alteration and extension, which almost made the abbey 
a new building. The house in which the poet Cowjey spent the 
last years of his life remains, and the chamber in which he 
died is preserved unaltered. The town is the centre of a large 
residential district. Its principal trade is in produce for the 
London markets. 

The first religious settlement in Surrey, a Benedictine abbey, 
was founded in 666 at Chertsey (Cerotesei, Certesey), the manor 
of which belonged to the abbot until 1 539, since when it has been 
a possession of the crown. In the reign of Edward the Confessor 
Chertsey was a large village and was made the head of Godley 
hundred. The increase of copyhold under Abbot John de 
Rutherwyk led to discontent, the tenants in 1381 rising and 
burning the rolls. Chertsey owed its importance primarily to 
the abbey, but partly to its geographical position. Ferries over 
the Redewynd were subjects of royal grant in 1340 and 1399; 
the abbot built a new bridge over the Bourne in 1333, and 
wholly maintained the bridge over the Thames when it replaced 
the 14th century ferry. In 1410 the king gave permission to 
build a bridge over the Redewynd. As the centre of an agri- 
cultural district the markets of Chertsey were important and aire 
still held. Three days' fairs were granted to the abbots in 1 1 29 
for the feast of St Peter ad Vincula by Henry III. for Holy Rood 
day; in 1282 for Ascension day; and a market on Mondays 
was obtained in 1282. In 1 590 there were many poor, for whose 
relief Elizabeth gave a fair for a day in Lent and a market on 
Thursdays. These fairs still survive. 

See Lucy Wheeler, Chertsey A bbey (London, 1905) ; Victoria 
County History, Surrey. 

CHERUBIM, the Hebrew plural of "cherub" (kgrub), 
imaginary winged animal figures of a sacred character, referred 
to in the description of Solomon's temple (1 Kings vi. 23-35, 
vii. 29, viii. 6, 7), and also in that of the ark of the tabernacle 
(Ex. xxv. 18-22, xxvi. 1, 31, xxxvii. 7-9). The cherub-images, 
where such occur, represent to the imagination the supernatural 
bearers of Yahweh's throne or chariot, or the guardians of His 
abode; the cherub-carvings at least symbolize His presence, 
and communicate some degree of His sanctity. In Gen. iii. 24 
the cherubim are the guards of Paradise; Ezek. xxviii. 14, 16 
cannot be mentioned here, the text being corrupt. We also find 
(1 Sam. iv. 4; 2 Sam. vi. 2) as a divine title " that sitteth upon 
the cherubim"; here it is doubted whether the cherubim are 
the material ones in the temple, or those which faith assumes and 



the artist tries to represent — the supernatural steeds upon which 
Yahweh issues forth to interfere in human affairs. In a poetic 
theophany (Ps. xviii. 10) we find " upon a cherub " parallel to 
"upon the wings of the wind" (cp. Isa. xix. 1; Ps. civ. 3). 
One naturally infers from this that the " cherub " was sometimes 
viewed as a bird. For the clouds, mythologically, are birds. 
" The Algonkins say that birds always make the winds, that they 
create the waterspouts, and that the clouds are the spreading 
and agitation of their wings." " The Sioux say that the thunder 
is the sound of the cloud-bird flapping his wings." If so, Ps. xviii. 
10 is a solitary trace of the archaic view of the cherub. The 
bird, however, was probably a mythic, extra-natural bird. At 
any rate the cherub was suggested by and represents the storm- 
cloud, just as the sword in Gen. iii. 24 corresponds to the lightning. 
In Ezek. i. the four visionary creatures are expressly connected 
with a storm-wind, and a bright cloud (ver. 4). Elsewhere 
(xli. 18) the cherub has two faces (a man's and a bird's), but 
in i. 10 and x. 14 each cherub has four faces, a view tastefully 
simplified in the Johannine Apocalypse (Rev. iv. 7). 

It is best, however, to separate Ezekiel from other writers, 
since he belongs to what may be called a great mythological 
revival. Probably his cherubim are a modification of older 
ones, which may well have been of a more sober type. His own 
accounts, as we have seen, vary. Probably the cherub has 
passed through several phases. There was a mythic bird-cherub, 
and then perhaps a winged animal-form, analogous to the winged 
figures of bulls and lions with human faces which guarded 
Babylonian and Assyrian temples and palaces. Another analogy 
is furnished by the winged genii represented as fertilizing the 
sacred tree — the date-palm (Tylor); here the body is human, 
though the face is sometimes that of an eagle. It is perhaps even 
more noteworthy that figures thought to be cherubs have been 
found at Zenjirli, within the ancient North Syrian kingdom of 
Ya'di (see Jeremias, Das Alte Testament im Lichte des Alien 
Orients, pp. 350 f.); we may combine this with the fact that one 
of the great gods of this kingdom was called Rakab'el or Rekub'el 
(also perhaps Rakab or Rekub). A Sabaean (S. Arabian) 
name Karab'el also exists. The kerubim might perhaps be 
symbolic representatives of the god Rakab'el or Rekub'el, 
probably equivalent to Hadad, whose sacred animal was the bull. 
That the figures symbolic of Rakab or Hadad were compounded 
or amalgamated by the Israelites with those symbolic of Nergal 
(the lion-god) and Ninib (the eagle-god), is not surprising. 

See further " Cherubim," in Ency. Bib. and Hast. D.B.; Cheyne, 
Genesis; Tylor, Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch. xii. 383 ft.; Zimmern, Die 
Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, pp. 529 f., 631 f . ; Dibelius, 
Die Lade Jahves (1906), pp. 72-86. (T. K. C.) 


(1 760-1842), Italian musical composer, was born at Florence 
on the 14th of September 1760, and died on the 15th of March 
1842 in Paris. His father was accompanist {Maestro al Cembalo) 
at' the Pergola theatre. Cherubini himself, in the preface of his 
autograph catalogue of his own works, states, " I began to learn 
music at six and composition at nine, the former from my father, 
the latter from Bartolomeo and Alessandro Felici, and, after 
their death, from Bizzarri and J Castrucci." By the time he 
was sixteen he had composed a great deal of church music, and 
in 1777 he went to Bologna, where for four years he studied under 
Sarti. This deservedly famous master well earned the gratitude 
which afterwards impelled Cherubini to place one of his double 
choruses by the side of his own Et Vitam Venturi as the crown 
of his Treatise on Counterpoint and Fugue, though the juxta- 
position is disastrous for Sarti. But besides grounding Cherubini 
in the church music for which he had early shown so special a 
bent, Sarti also trained him in dramatic composition; some- 
times, like the great masters of painting, entrusting his pupil 
with minor parts of his own works. From 1780 onwards for the 
next fourteen years dramatic music occupied Cherubini almost 
entirely. His first complete opera, Quinto Fabio, was produced 
in 1780, and was followed in 1782 by Armida, Adriano in Siria, 
and other works. Between 1782 and 1784 the successful pro- 
duction of five operas in four different towns must have secured 

Cherubini a dignified position amongst his Italian contemporaries; 
and in 1784 he was invited to London to produce two works for 
the Italian opera there, one of which, La Finta Principessa, was 
favourably received, while the other, Giulio Sabino, was, accord- 
ing to a contemporary witness, " murdered " by the critics. 

In 1 786 he left London for Paris, which became his home after 
a visit to Turin in 1 787-1 788 on the occasion of the production 
there of his Ifigenia in Aulide. With Cherubini, as with some 
other composers first trained in a school where the singer reigned 
supreme, the influence of the French dramatic sensibility prQved 
decisive, and his first French opera, Demopkon (1788), though 
not a popular success, already marks a departure from the 
Italian style, which Cherubini still cultivated in the pieces he 
introduced into the works of Anfossi, Paisiello and Cimarosa, 
produced by him as director of the Italian opera in Paris (estab- 
lished in 1789). As in Paris Gluck realized his highest ambitions, 
and even Rossini awoke to a final effort of something like dra- 
matic life in Guillaume Tell, so in Paris Cherubini became a 
great composer. If his melodic invention had been as warm as 
Gluck's, his immensely superior technique in every branch of 
the art would have made him one of the greatest composers that 
ever lived. But his personal character shows in quaint exaggera- 
tion the same asceticism that in less sour and more negative 
form deprives even his finest music of the glow of that lofty 
inspiration that fears nothing. 

With Lodoiska (1791) the series of Cherubini's masterpieces 
begins, and by the production of Medee (1797) his reputation was 
firmly established. The success of this sombre classical tragedy, 
which shows Cherubini's genius in its full power, is an honour to 
the Paris public. If Cherubini had known how to combine his 
high ideals with an urbane tolerance of the opinions of persons of 
inferior taste, the severity of his music would not have prevented 
his attaining the height of prosperity. But Napoleon Bonaparte 
irritated him by an enthusiasm for the kind of Italian music 
against which his whole career, from the time he became Sarti's 
pupil, was a protest. When Cherubini said to Napoleon, " Citoyen 
General, I perceive that you love only that music which does not 
prevent you thinking of your politics," he may perhaps have been 
as firmly convinced of his own conciliatory manner as he was 
when many years afterwards he " spared the feelings " of a 
musical candidate by " delicately " telling him that he had " a 
beautiful voice and great musical intelligence, but was too ugly for 
a public singer." Napoleon seems to have disliked opposition in 
music as in other matters, and the academic offices held by 
Cherubini under him were for many years far below his deserts. 
But though Napoleon saw no reason to conceal his dislike of 
Cherubini, his appointment of Lesueur in 1804 as his chapel- 
master must not be taken as an evidence of his hostility. Lesueur 
was not a great genius, but, although recommended for the post 
by the retiring chapelmaster, Paesiello (one of Napoleon's 
Italian favourites), he was a very meritorious and earnest 
Frenchman whom the appointment saved from starvation. 
Cherubini's creative genius was never more brilliant than at this 
period, as the wonderful two-act ballet, Anacreon, shows; but 
his temper and spirits were not improved by a series of dis- 
appointments which culminated in the collapse of his prospects of 
congenial success at Vienna, where he went in 1805 in compliance 
with an invitation to compose an opera for the Imperial theatre. 
Here he produced, under the title of Der Wassertrdger, the great 
work which, on its first production on the 7th of January 1801 
(26 Nivose, An 8) as Les Deux lournies, had thrilled Paris with the 
accents of a humanity restored to health and peace. It was 
by this time an established favourite in Austria. On the 25th 
of February Cherubini produced Faniska, but the war between 
Austria and France had broken out immediately after his 
arrival, and public interest in artistic matters was checked by 
the bombardment and capitulation of Vienna. Though the 
meeting between Cherubini and the victorious Napoleon was 
not very friendly, he was called upon to direct the music at 
Napoleon's soirees at Schonbrunn. But this had not been his 
object in coming to Vienna, and he soon returned to a retired 
and gloomy life in Paris. 



His stay at Vienna is memorable for his intercourse with 
Beethoven, who had a profound admiration for him which he 
could neither realize nor reciprocate. It is too much to expect 
that the mighty genius of Beethoven, which broke through all 
rules in vindication of the principles underlying them, would 
be comprehensible to a mind like Cherubini's, in which, while 
the creative faculties were finely developed, the critical faculty 
was atrophied and its place supplied by a mere disciplinary 
code inadequate even as a basis for the analysis of his own 
works. On the other hand, it would be impossible to exaggerate 
the influence Les Deux Journies had on the lighter parts of 
Beethoven's Fidelio r Cherubini's librettist was also the author 
of the libretto from which Fidelio was adapted, and Cherubini's 
score was a constant object of Beethoven's study, not only 
before the production of the first version of Fidelio. us Leonore, 
but also throughout Beethoven's life. Cherubini's record of 
his impressions of Beethoven as a man is contained in the 
single phrase, " II etait toujours brusque," which at least shows 
a fine freedom from self-consciousness on the part of the man 
whose only remark on being told of the death of Brod, the famous 
oboist, was, " Ah, he hadn't much tone " (" Ah, petit son "). 
Of the overture to Leonore Cherubini only remarked that he 
could not tell what key it was in, and of Beethoven's later 
style he observed, " It makes me sneeze." Beethoven's brusque- 
ness, notorious as it was, did not prevent him from assuring 
Cherubini that he considered him the greatest composer of the 
age and that he loved him and honoured him. In 1806 Haydn 
had just sent out his pathetic " visiting card " announcing that 
he was past work; Weber was still sowing wild oats, and Schubert 
was only nine years old. We need not, then, be surprised at 
Beethoven's judgment. And though we must regret that 
Cherubini's disposition prevented him from understanding 
Beethoven, it would be by no means true to say that he was 
uninfluenced at least by the sheer grandeur of the scale which 
Beethoven had by that time established as the permanent 
standard for musical art. Grandeur of proportion was, in fact, 
eminently characteristic • of both composers, and the colossal 
structure of such a movement as the duet Perfides ennemis in 
MedSe is almost inconceivable without the example of Beethoven's 
C minor trio, op. 1, No. 3, published two years before it; while 
the cavatina Eterno iddio in Faniska is not only worthy of 
Beethoven but surprisingly like him in style. 

After Cherubini's disappointing visit to Vienna he divided 
his time between teaching at the conservatoire and cutting up 
playing-cards into figures and landscapes, which he framed and 
placed round the walls of his study. Not until 1800 was he 
aroused from this morbid indolence. He was staying in retire- 
ment at the country seat of the prince de Chimay, and his 
friends begged him to write some music for the consecration of 
a church there. After persistent refusals he suddenly surprised 
them with a mass in F for three-part chorus and orchestra. 
With this work the period of his great church music may be said 
to begin; although it was by no means the end of his career 
as an opera writer, which, in fact, lasted as late as his seventy- 
third year. This third period is also marked by some not un- 
important instrumental compositions. An early event in the 
annals of the Philharmonic Society was his invitation to London 
in 1815 to produce a symphony, an overture and a vocal piece. 
The symphony (in D) was afterwards arranged with a new slow 
movement as the string quartet in C (1829), a fact which, taken 
in connexion with the large scale of the work, illustrates Cheru- 
bini's deficient sense of style in chamber music. Nevertheless all 
the six string quartets written between 1814 and 1837 are 
interesting works performed with success at the present day, 
though the last three, discovered in 1889, are less satisfactory 
than the earlier ones. The requiem in C minor (181 7) caused 
Beethoven to declare that if he himself ever wrote a requiem 
Cherubini's would be his model. 

At the eleventh hour Cherubini received recognition from 
Napoleon, who, during the Hundred Days, made him chevalier of 
the Legion of Honour. Then, with the restoration of the Bour- 
bons, the very fact that Cherubini had not been persona grata 

with Napoleon brought him honour and emoluments. He 
was appointed, jointly with Lesueur, as composer and conductor 
to the Chapel Royal, and in 1822 he obtained the permanent 
directorship of the conservatoire. This brought him into con- 
tact, for the most part unfriendly, with all the most talented 
musicians of the younger generation. It is improbable that 
Berlioz would have been an easy subject for the wisest and 
kindest of spiritual guides; but no influence, repellent or 
attractive, could have been more disastrous for that passionate, 
quick-witted and yet eminently puzzle-headed mixture of 
Philistine and genius, than the crabbed old martinet whose 
regulations forbade the students access to Gluck's scores in the 
library, and whose only theory of art (as distinguished from his 
practice) is accurately formulated in the following passage from 
Berlioz's Grande Traiti de I 'instrumentation et d 'orchestration: 
" It was no use for the modern composer to say, ' But do just 
listen! See how smoothly this is introduced, how well motived, 
how deftly connected with the context, and how splendid it 
sounds!' He was answered, 'That is not the point. This 
modulation is forbidden; therefore it must not be made.' " 
The lack of really educative teaching, and the actual injustice 
for which Cherubini's disciplinary methods were answerable, 
did much to weaken Berlioz's at best ill-balanced artistic sense, 
and it is highly probable that, but for the kindliness and com- 
parative wisdom of his composition master, Lesueur, he would 
have broken down from sheer lack of any influence which could 
command the respect of an excitable youth starving in the 
pursuit of a fine art against the violent opposition of his family. 
Only when Mendelssohn, at the age of seventeen, visited Paris 
in 1825, did Cherubini startle every one by praising a young 
composer to his face. 

In 1833 Cherubini produced his last work for the stage, AH 
Baba, adapted (with new and noisy features which excited 
Mendelssohn's astonished disgust) from a manuscript opera, 
Koukourgi, written forty years earlier. It is thus, perhaps, not 
a fair illustration of the vigour of his old age; but the requiem 
in D minor (for male voices) , written in 1836, is one of his greatest 
works, and, though not actually his last composition, is a worthy 
close to the long career of an artist of high ideals who, while 
neither by birth nor temperament a Frenchman, must yet be 
counted with a still greater foreigner, Gluck, as the glory of 
French classical music. In this he has no parallel except his 
friend and contemporary, Mehul, to whom he dedicated Medee, 
and who dedicated to him the beautiful Ossianic one-act opera 
Uthal. The direct results of his teaching at the conservatoire 
were the steady, though not as yet unhealthy, decline of French 
opera into a lighter style, under the amiable and modest Boieldieu 
and the irresponsible and witty Auber; for, as we have seen, 
Cherubini was quite incapable of making his ideals intelligible 
by any means more personal than his music; and the crude 
grammatical rules which he mistook for the eternal principles 
of his own and of all music had not the smallest use as a safeguard 
against vulgarity and pretentiousness. 

Lest the passage above quoted from Berlioz should be suspected 
of bias or irrelevance, we cite a few phrases from Cherubini's 
Treatise on Counterpoint and Fugue, of which, though the letter- 
press is by his favourite pupil, Halevy, the musical examples 
and doctrine are beyond suspicion his own. Concerning the 
16th-century idiom, incorrectly but generally known as the 
" changing note " (an idiom which to any musical scholar is as 
natural as " attraction of the relative " is to a Greek scholar), 
Cherubini remarks, " No tradition gives us any reason why the 
classics thus faultily deviated from the rule." Again, he dis- 
cusses the use of " suspensions " in a series of chords which 
without them would contain consecutive fifths, and after making 
all the observations necessary for the rational conclusion that 
the question whether the fifths are successfully disguised or not 
depends upon the beauty and force of the suspensions, he merely 
remarks that " The opinion of the classics appears to me 
erroneous, notwithstanding that custom has sanctioned it, for, 
on the principle that the discord is a mere suspension of the 
chord, it "hould not affect the nature of the chord. But since 


8 9 

the classics have pronounced judgment we must of course 
submit." In the whole treatise not one example is given from 
Palestrina or any other master who handled as a living language 
what are now the forms of contrapuntal discipline. As a dead 
language Cherubini brought counterpoint up to date by abandon- 
ing the church modes; but in true severity of principle, as 
in educational stimulus, his treatise shows a deplorable falling 
off from the standard set a hundred years before in Fux's Gradus 
ad Parnassum with its delightful dialogues between master and 
pupil and its continual appeal to artistic experience. Whatever 
may have been Cherubini's success in imparting facility and 
certainty to his light-hearted pupils who established 19th-century 
French opera as a refuge from the terrors of serious art, there 
can be no doubt that his career as a teacher did more harm than 
good. In it the punishment drill of an incompetent schoolmaster 
was invested with the authority of a great composer, and by it 
the false antithesis between the " classical " and the " romantic " 
was erected into a barrier which many critics still find an insuper- 
able obstacle to the understanding of the classical spirit. And 
yet as a composer Cherubini was no pseudo-classic but a really 
great artist, whose purity of style, except at rare moments, just 
failed to express the ideals he never lost sight of, because in his 
love of those ideals there was too much fear. 

His principal works are summarized by Fetis as thirty-two operas, 
twenty-nine church compositions, four cantatas and several instru- 
mental pieces, besides the treatise on counterpoint and fugue. 

Good modern full scores of the two Requiems and of Les Deux 
Journees (the latter unfortunately without the dialogue, which, 
however, is accessible in its fairly good German translation in the 
Reclam Bibliolhek), and also of ten opera overtures, are current in 
the Peters edition. Vocal scores of some of the other operas are not 
difficult to get. The great Credo is in the Peters edition, but is 
becoming scarce. The string quartets are in Payne's Miniature 
Scores. It is very desirable that the operas, from Demophon onwards, 
should be republished in full score. 

See also E. Bellasis, Cherubini (1874) ; and an article with personal 
reminiscences by the composer Ferdinand Hiller, in Macmillan' s 
Magazine (1875). A complete catalogue of his compositions (1773- 
1841) was edited by Bottee du Toulmon. (D. F. T.J 

CHERUEL, PIERRE ADOLPHE (1809-1891), French historian, 
was born at Rouen on the 17th of January 1809. He was 
educated at the Ecole Normale Superieure, and became a fellow 
(agregS) in 1830. His early studies were devoted to his native 
town. His Histoire de Rouen sous la domination anglaise au 
XV' siecle (1840) and Histoire de Rouen pendant I'Spoque com- 
munale, 1150-1382 (Rouen, 1843-1844), are meritorious pro- 
ductions for a time when the archives were neither inventoried 
nor classified, and contain useful documents previously un- 
published. His theses for the degree of doctor, De I'adminis- 
tration de Louis XIV d'apres les MSmoires inidits d'Olivier 
d'Ormesson and De Maria Sluarta et Henrico III. (1849), led 
him to the study of general history. The former was expanded 
afterwards under the title Histoire de I' administration monarchique 
en France depuis I'avenemsnt de Philippe- Auguste jusqu'd la 
mort de Louis XIV (1855), and in 1855 he also published his 
Dictionnaire historique des institutions, mceurs et coutumes de 
la France, of which many editions have appeared. These works 
may still be consulted for the 17th century, the period upon 
which Cheruel concentrated all his scientific activity. He edited 
successively the Journal d'Olivier Lefevre d'Ormesson (1860-1862) , 
interesting for the history of the parlement of Paris during the 
minority of Louis XIV.; Lettres du cardinal Mazarin pendant 
son ministere (6 vols., 1870-1891), continued by the vicomte 
G. d'Avenel; and Memoires du due de Saint-Simon, published 
for the first time according to the original MSS. (2 editions, 
1856-1858 and 1878-1881). To Saint-Simon also he devoted 
two critical studies, which are acute but not definitive: Saint- 
Simon considers comme historien de Louis XIV (1865) and 
Notice sur la vie et sur les mSmoires du due de Saint-Simon (1876). 
The latter may be considered as an introduction to the famous 
Mimoires. Among his later writings may be mentioned the 
Histoire de la France pendant la minorite de Louis XIV (4 vols., 
1880) and Histoire de la France sous le ministere de Mazarin 
(3 vols., 1882-1883). These two works are valuable for abund- 
ance of facts, precision of details, and clear and intelligent 

arrangement, but are characterized by a slightly frigid style. 
In their compilation Cheruel used a fair number of unpublished 
documents. To the student of the second half of the 1 7th century 
in France the works of Cheruel are a mine of information. He 
died in Paris on the 1st of May 1891. 

CHERUSCI, an ancient German tribe occupying the basin 
of the Weser to the north of the Chatti. Together with the 
other tribes of western Germany they submitted to the Romans 
in 1 1-9 B.C., but in a.d. 9 Arminius, one of their princes, rose in 
revolt, and defeated and slew the Roman general Quintilius 
Varus with his whole army. Germanicus Caesar made several 
unsuccessful attempts to bring them into subjection again. By 
the end of the 1st century the prestige of the Cherusci had 
declined through unsuccessful warfare with the Chatti. Their 
territory was eventually occupied by the Saxons. 

Tacitus, Annals, i. 2, 11, 12, 13; Germania, 36; Strabo, p. 291 f. ; 
E. Devrient, in Neue Jahrb. f. d. klass. Alter. (1900), p. 517. 

CHESELDEN, WILLIAM (1688-1752), English surgeon, was 
born at Somerby, Leicestershire, on the 19th. of October 1688. 
He studied anatomy in London under William Cowper (1666- 
1709), and in 1713 published his Anatomy of the Human Body, 
which achieved great popularity and went through thirteen 
editions. In 17 18 he was appointed an assistant surgeon at 
St Thomas's hospital (London), becoming full surgeon in the 
following year, and he was also chosen one of the surgeons to 
St George's hospital on its foundation in 1733. He retired from 
St Thomas's in 1738, and died at Bath on the 10th of April 
1752. Cheselden is famous for his " lateral operation for the 
stone," which he first performed in 1727. He also effected a 
great advance in ophthalmic surgery by his operation of iridec- 
tomy, described in 1728, for the treatment of certain forms of 
blindness by the production of an " artificial pupil." He at- 
tended Sir Isaac Newton in his last illness, and was an intimate 
friend of Alexander Pope and of Sir Hans Sloane. 

CHESHAM, a market town in the Aylesbury parliamentary 
division of Buckinghamshire, England, 26 m. W.N.W. of London 
by the Metropolitan railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 
7245. It is pleasantly situated in the narrow valley of the river 
Chess, closely flanked by low wooded hills. The church of St 
Mary is cruciform and mainly Perpendicular. Some ancient 
frescoes and numerous monuments are preserved. All sorts of 
small dairy utensils, chairs, malt-shovels, &c, are made of 
beech, the growth of which forms a feature of the surrounding 
country. Shoemaking is also carried on. In Waterside hamlet, 
adjoining the town, are flour-mills, duck farms, and some of the 
extensive watercress beds for which the Chess is noted, as it is 
also for its trout-fishing. 

CHESHIRE, a north-western county of England, bounded N. 
by Lancashire, N.E. by Yorkshire and Derbyshire, S.E. by 
Staffordshire, S. by Shropshire, W. by Denbighshire and Flint, 
and N.W. by the Irish Sea. Its area is 1027-8 sq. m. The 
coast-line is formed by the estuaries of the Dee and the- Mersey, 
which are separated by the low rectangular peninsula of Wirral. 
The estuary of the Dee is dry at low tide on the Cheshire shore, 
but that of the Mersey bears upon its banks the ports of Liverpool 
(in Lancashire) and Birkenhead (on the Wirral shore). The 
Dee forms a great part of the county boundary with Denbigh- 
shire and Flint, and the Mersey the boundary along the whole 
of the northern side. The principal river within the county is 
the Weaver, which crosses it with a north-westerly course, and, 
being joined by the Dane at Northwich, discharges into the 
estuary of the Mersey south of Runcorn. The surface of Cheshire 
is mostly low and gently undulating or flat; but the broken 
line of the Peckforton hills, seldom exceeding 600 ft. in height, 
runs north and south flanking the valley of the Weaver on the 
west. A low narrow gap in these hills is traversed by the small 
river Gowy, which rises to the east but has the greater part of 
its course to the west of them. Commanding this gap on the 
west, the Norman castle of Beeston stands on an isolated 
eminence. The northern part of the hills coincides approxi- 
mately with. the district still called Delamere Forest, formerly 
a chase of the earls of Chester, and finally disforested in 18 12. 



In certain sequestered parts the forest has not wholly lost its 
ancient character. On the east Cheshire includes the western 
face of the broad belt of high land which embraces the Peak 
district of Derbyshire; these hills rise sharply to the east of 
Congleton, Macclesfield and Hyde, reaching a height of about 
1800 ft. within Cheshire. Distributed over the county, but 
principally in the eastern half, are many small lakes or meres, 
such as Combermere, Tatton, Rostherne, Tabley, Doddington, 
Marbury and Mere, and it was a common practice among the 
gentry of the county to build their mansions on the banks of 
these waters. The meres form one of the most picturesque 
features of the county. 

Geology. — With the exception of a small area of Carboniferous 
rocks on the eastern border, and a small patch of Lower Lias near 
Audlem, the whole country is occupied by Triassic strata. The 
great central plain is covered by red and mottled Keuper Marls. 
From these marls salt is obtained ; there are many beds of rock- 
salt, mostly thin ; two are much thicker than the others, being from 
75 ft. to over 100 ft. thick. Thin beds and veins of gypsum are 
common in the marls. The striking features of the Peckforton Hills 
are due to the repeated faulting of the Lower Keuper Sandstone, 
which lies upon beds of Bunter Sandstone. Besides forming this 
well-marked ridge, the Lower Keuper Sandstones or " Waterstones " 
form several ridges north-west of Macclesfield and appear along 
most of the northern borders of the county and in the neighbourhood 
of New Brighton and Birkenhead. The Lower Keuper Sandstone is 
quarried near the last-named place, also at Storeton, Delamere and 
Manley. This is a good building stone and an important water- 
bearing stratum; it is often ripple-marked, and bears the footprints 
of the Cheirotherium. At Alderley Edge ores of copper, lead and 
cobalt are found. West of the Peckforton ridge, Bunter Sandstones 
and pebble beds extend to the border. They also form low foothills 
between Cheadle and Macclesfield. They fringe the northern bound- 
ary and appear on the south-eastern boundary as a narrow strip 
of hilly ground near Woore. The oldest rock exposed in the county 
is the small faulted anticline of Carboniferous limestone at Astbury, 
followed in regular succession eastward by the shale, and thin 
limestones and sandstones of the Pendleside series. These rocks 
extend from Congleton Edge to near Macclesfield, where the outcrop 
bends sharply eastward and runs up the Goyt valley. Some hard 
quartzites in the Pendleside series, known locally as " Crowstones," 
have contributed to the formation of the high Bosley Min and neigh- 
bouring hills. East of Bosley Min, on either side of the Goyt valley, 
are the Millstone Grits and Shales, forming the elevated moorland 
tracts. Cloud Hill, a striking feature near Congleton, is capped by 
the " Third Grit," one of the Millstone Grit series. From Maccles- 
field northward through Stockport is a narrow tongue of Lower and 
Middle Coal-Measures — an extension of the Lancashire coalfield. 
Coal is mined at Neston in the Wirral peninsula from beneath the 
Trias; it is a connecting link between the Lancashire and Flintshire 
coalfields. Glacial drift is thickly spread over all the lower ground; 
laminated red clays, stiff clay with northern erratics and lenticular 
sand masses with occasional gravels, are the common types. At 
Crewe the drift is over 400 ft. thick. Fatches of Drift sand, with 
marine shells, occur on the high ground east of Macclesfield at an 
elevation of 1250 ft. 

Agriculture and Industries. — The climate is temperate and 
rather damp; the soil is varied and irregular, but a large pro- 
portion is a thin-skinned clay. More than four-fifths of the total 
area is under cultivation. The crop of wheat is comparatively 
insignificant; but a large quantity of oats is grown, and a great 
proportion of the cultivated land is in permanent pasture. The 
vicinity of such populous centres as Liverpool and Manchester, as 
well as the several large towns within the county, makes cattle 
and dairy-farming profitable. Cheese of excellent quality is 
produced, the name of the county being given to a particular 
brand (see Dairy). Potatoes are by far the most important 
green crop. Fruit-growing is carried on in some parts, especially 
the cultivation of stone fruit and, among these, damsons; while 
the strawberry beds near Farndon and Holt arc celebrated. In 
the first half of the 19th century the condition of agriculture 
in Cheshire was notoriously backward; and in 1865-1866 the 
county suffered with especial severity from a visitation of cattle 
plague. The total loss of stock amounted to more than 66,000 
head, and it was necessary to obtain from the Treasury a loan of 
£270,000 on the security of the county rate, for purposes of 
relief and compensation. The cheese-making industry naturally 
received a severe blow, yet to agriculture at large an ultimate 
good resulted as the possibility and even the necessity of new 
methods were borne in upon the farmers. 

The industries of the county are various and important. The 
manufacture of cotton goods extends from its seat in Lancashire 
into Cheshire, at the town of Stockport and elsewhere in the 
north-east. Macclesfield and Congleton are centres of silk 
manufacture. At Crewe are situated the great workshops of the 
London & North- Western railway company, the institution of 
which actually brought the town into being. Another instance of 
the modern creation of a town by an individual industrial 
corporation is seen in Port Sunlight on the Mersey, where the 
soap-works of Messrs Lever are situated. On the Mersey there 
are shipbuilding yards, and machinery and iron works. Other 
important manufactures are those of tools, chemicals, clothing 
and hats, and there are printing, bleaching and dye works, and 
metal foundries. Much sandstone is quarried, but the mineral 
wealth of the county lies in coal and salt. The second is a 
specially important product. Some rock-salt is obtained at 
Northwich and Winsford, but most of the salt is extracted from 
brine both here and at Lawton, Wheelock and Middlewich. At 
Northwich and other places in the locality curious accidents 
frequently occur owing to the sinking of the soil after the brine is 
pumped out; walls crack and collapse, and houses are seen 
leaning far out of the perpendicular. A little copper and lead 
are found. 

Communications. —The county is well served with railways. 
The main line of the London & North- Western railway, passing 
north from Crewe to Warrington in Lancashire, serves no large 
town, but from Crewe branches diverge fanwise to Manchester, 
Chester, North Wales and Shrewsbury. The Great Western 
railway, with a line coming northward from Wrexham, obtains 
access through Cheshire to Liverpool and Manchester. These two 
companies jointly work the Birkenhead railway from Chester 
to Birkenhead. The heart of the county is traversed by the 
Cheshire Lines, serving the salt district, and reaching Chester 
from Manchester by way of Delamere Forest. In the east the 
Midland and Great Central systems enter the county, and the 
North Staffordshire line serves Macclesfield. The Manchester, 
South Junction & Altrincham and the Wirral railways are small 
systems serving the localities indicated by their names. The 
river Weaver is locked as far up as Winsford, and the transport of 
salt is thus expedited. The profits of the navigation, which was 
originally undertaken in 1720 by a few Cheshire squires, belong 
to the county, and are paid annually to the relief of the county 
rates. In the salt district through which the Weaver passes 
subsidence of the land has resulted in the formation of lakes of 
considerable extent, which act as reservoirs to supply the 
navigation. There are further means of inland navigation by the 
Grand Trunk, Shropshire Union and other canals, and many 
small steamers are in use. The Manchester Ship Canal passes 
through a section of north Cheshire, being entered from the 
estuary of the Mersey by locks near Eastham, and following its 
southern shore up to Runcorn, after which it takes a more direct 
course than the river. 

Population and Administration. — The ancient county, which is 
a county palatine, has an area of 657,783 acres, with a population 
in 1891 of 730,058 and in 1901 of 815,099. Cheshire has been 
described as a suburb of Liverpool, Manchester and the Potteries 
of Staffordshire, and many of those whose business lies in these 
centres have colonized such districts as Bowdon, Alderley, Sale 
and Marple near Manchester, the Wirral, and Alsager on the 
Staffordshire border, until these localities have come to resemble 
the richer suburban districts of London. On the short seacoast of 
the Wirral are found the popular resorts of New Brighton and 
Hoylake. This movement and importance of its industries have 
given the county a vast increase of population in modern times. 
In 1871 the population was 561,201; from 1801 until that year it 
had increased 191%. The area of the administrative county is 
654,825 acres. The county contains 7 hundreds. The municipal 
boroughs are Birkenhead (pop. 110,915), Chester (38,309), 
Congleton (10,707), Crewe (42,074), Dukinfield (18,929), Hyde 
(32,766), Macclesfield (34,624), Stalybridge (27,673), Stockport 
(92,832). Chester, the county town, is a city, county of a city, and 
county borough, and Birkenhead and Stockport are county 



boroughs. The other urban districts with their populations are 
as follows:— 

Alderley Edge (a) 

Alsager . . . 

Altrincham (a) 

Ashton-upon-Mersey (a) . 

Bollington (a) . 

Bowdon (a) ... 

Bredbury and Romiley (a) 

Bromborough. (ft) 

Buglawton (Congleton) 

Cheadle and Gatley (a) . 

Compstall (a) . 

Ellesmere Port and Whitby (b) 

Hale (a) . 

Handforth (a) 

Hazel Grove and Bramhall (o 

Higher Bebington (6) 

Hollingworth (a) 

Hoole (Chester) 




. 911 


Hoylake and West Kirby (b) 

Knutsford (a) . 

Lower Bebington (6) 

Lymm (a) . 

Marple (a) . 



Nantwich . 

Neston and Parkgate (b) 

Northwich . 

Runcorn ... 

Sale (a) 

Sandbach . ... 

Tarporley . 

Wallasey (b) 

Wilmslow (a) 


Yeardsley-cum-Whaley (a) 






Of the townships in this table, those marked (a) are within a radius 
of about 15 m. from Manchester (Knutsford being taken as the 
limit), while those marked (b) are in the Wirral. The localities of 
densest population are thus clearly illustrated. 

The county is in the North Wales and Chester circuit, and 
assizes are held at Chester. It has one court of quarter sessions, 
and is divided into fourteen petty sessional divisions. The 
boroughs already named, excepting Dukinfield, have separate 
commissions of the peace, and Birkenhead and Chester have 
separate courts of quarter sessions. There are 464 civil parishes. 
Cheshire is almost wholly in the diocese of Chester, but small 
parts are in those of Manchester, St Asaph or Lichfield. There 
are 268 ecclesiastical parishes or districts wholly or in part 
within the county. There are eight parliamentary divisions, 
namely, Macclesfield, Crewe, Eddisbury, Wirral, Knutsford, 
Altrincham, Hyde and Northwich, each returning one member; 
the county also includes the parliamentary borough of Birkenhead 
returning one member, and parts of the borough of Stockport, 
which returns two members, and of Ashton-under-Lyne, Chester, 
Stalybridge, and Warrington, which return one member 

History. — The earliest recorded historical fact relating to the 
district which is now Cheshire is the capture of Chester and 
destruction of the native Britons by the Northumbrian king 
^Ethelfrith about 614. After a period of incessant strife between 
the Britons and their Saxon invaders the district was subjugated 
by Ecgbert in 830 and incorporated in the kingdom of Mercia. 
During the 9th century .flJthelwulf held his parliament at Chester, 
and received the homage of his tributary kings from Berwick to 
Kent, and in the 10th century ^Etheifted rebuilt the city, and 
erected fortresses at Eddisbury and Runcorn. Edward the 
Elder garrisoned Thelwall and strengthened the passages of the 
Mersey and the Irwell. On the splitting up of Mercia in the 
10th century the dependent districts along the Dee were made a 
shire for the fortress of Chester. The shire is first mentioned in 
the Abingdon Chronicle, which relates that in 980 Cheshire was 
plundered by a fleet of Northmen. At the time of the Domesday 
Survey the county was divided into twelve hundreds, exclusive 
of the six hundreds between the Ribble and the Mersey, now 
included in Lancashire, but then a part of Cheshire. These 
divisions have suffered great modification, both in extent and 
in name, and of the seven modern hundreds Bucklow alone 
retains its Domesday appellation. The hundreds of Atiscross 
and Exestan have been transferred to the counties of Flint and 
Denbigh, with the exception of a few townships now in the 
hundred of Broxton. The prolonged resistance of Cheshire to 
the Conqueror was punished by ruthless harrying and sweeping 
confiscations of property, and no Englishman retained estates 
of importance after the Conquest. In order that the shire 
might be relieved of all obligations beyond the ever-pressing 
necessity of defending its borders against the inroads of hostile 
neighbours, it was constituted a county palatine which the earl 
of Chester " held as freely by his sword as the king held England 
by his crown." The County had its independent parliament 

consisting of the barons and clergy, and courts, and all lands 
except those of the bishop were held of the earl. The court of 
exchequer was presided over by a chamberlain, a 
vice-chamberlain, and a baron of the exchequer. 
It was principally a court of revenue, but prob- 
ably a court of justice also, before that of the 
justiciary was established, and had besides the 
functions of a chancery court, with an exclusive 
jurisdiction in equity. Other officers of the 
palatinate were the constable, high-steward and 
the Serjeants of the peace and of the forests. 
The abbots of St Werburgh and Combermere 
and all the eight barons held courts, in any of 
which cases of capital felony might be tried. 

During the 12th and 13th centuries the county 
was impoverished by the constant inroads of the 
Welsh. In 1264 the castle and city of Chester 
were granted to Simon de Montfort, and in 1 267 
the treaty of Shrewsbury procured a short interval of peace. 
Richard II., in return for the loyal support furnished him by 
the county, made it a principality, but the act was revoked in 
the next reign. In 1403 Cheshire was the headquarters of 
Hotspur, who roused the people by telling them that Richard 
II. was still living. At the beginning of the Wars of the Roses 
Margaret collected a body of supporters from among the Cheshire 
gentry, and Lancastrian risings occurred as late as 1464. At 
the time of the Civil War feeling was so equally divided that 
an attempt was made to form an association for preserving 
internal peace. In 1643, however, Chester was made the head- 
quarters of the royalist forces, while Nantwich was garrisoned 
for the parliament, and the county became the scene of con- 
stant skirmishes until the surrender of Chester in 1646 put an 
end to the struggle. 

From the number of great families with which it has been 
associated Chester has been named " the mother and nurse of 
English gentility." Of the eight baronies of the earldom none 
survives, but the title of that of Kinderton was bestowed in 1762 
on George Venables- Vernon, son of Anne, sister of Peter Venables, 
last baron of Kinderton, from whom the present Lord Vernon 
of Kinderton is descended. Other great Domesda,y proprietors 
were William FitzNigel, baron of Halton, ancestor of the Lacys; 
Hugh de Mara, baron of Montalt, ancestor of the Ardens; 
Ranulph, ancestor of the Mainwarings; and Hamo de Massey. 
The Davenports, Leighs and Warburtons trace their descent 
back to the 12th century, and the Grosvenors are descended 
from a nephew of Hugh Lupus. 

In the reign of Henry VIII. the distinctive privileges of 
Cheshire as a county palatine were considerably abridged. The 
right of sanctuary attached to the city of Chester was abolished; 
justices of the peace were appointed as in other parts of the 
kingdom, and in 1 542 it was enacted that in future two knights 
for the shire and two burgesses for the city of Chester should be 
returned to parliament. After the Reform Act of 1832 the 
county returned four members from two divisions, and Maccles- 
field and Stpckport returned two members each. Birkenhead 
secured representation in 1859. From 1868 until the Redistribu- 
tion Act of 1885 the county returned six members from three 

From earliest times the staple products of Cheshire have been 
salt and cheese. The salt-pits of Nantwich, Middlewich and 
Northwich were in active operation at the time of Edward the 
Confessor, and at that date the mills and fisheries on the Dee 
also furnished a valuable source of revenue. Twelfth century 
writers refer to the excellence of Cheshire cheese, and at the 
time of the Civil War three hundred tons at £33 per ton were 
ordered in one year for the troops in Scotland. The trades of 
tanners, skinners and glove-makers existed at the time of 
the Conquest, and the export trade in wool in the 13th and 
14th centuries was considerable. The first bed of rock-salt 
was discovered in 1670. Weaving and wool-combing were 
introduced in 1674. 

Antiquities. — The main interest in the architecture of the 

9 2 


county lies in the direction of domestic buildings rather than 
ecclesiastical. Old half-timbered houses are common in almost 
every part of the county; many of these add to the picturesque- 
ness of the streets in the older towns, as in the case of the famous 
Rows in Chester, while in the country many ancient manor- 
houses remain as farm-houses. Among the finest examples 
are Bramhall Hall, between Stockport and Macclesfield, and 
Moreton Old Hall, near Congleton (see House, Plate IV., fig. 13). 
The first, occupying three sides of a quadrangle (formerly 
completed by a fourth side), dates from the 13th and 14th 
centuries, and contains a splendid panelled hall and other rooms. 
Of Moreton Hall, which is moated, only three sides similarly 
remain; its date is of the 16th century. Other buildings of the 
Elizabethan period are not infrequent, such as Brereton and 
Dorfold Halls, while more modern mansions, set in fine estates, 
are numerous. Crewe Hall is a modern building on an ancient 
site, and Vale Royal near Winsford incorporates fragments of a 
Cistercian monastery founded in 1277. A noteworthy instance 
of the half-timbered style applied to an ecclesiastical building 
is found in the church of Lower Peover near Knutsford, of which 
only the tower is of stone. The church dates from the 13th 
century, and was carefully restored in 1852. Cheshire has no 
monastic remains of importance, save those attached to the 
cathedral of Chester, nor are its village churches as a rule of 
special interest. There is, however, a fine late Perpendicular 
church (with earlier portions) at Astbury near Congleton, and 
of this style and the Decorated the churches of Bunbury and 
Malpas may be noticed as good illustrations. In Chester, besides 
the cathedral, there is the massive Norman church of St John; 
and St Michael's church and the Rivers chapel at Macclesfield 
are noteworthy. No more remarkable religious monuments 
remain in the county than the two sculptured Saxon crosses in 
the market-place at Sandbach. Ruins of two Norman castles 
exist in Beeston and Halton. 

Authorities. — Sir John Doddridge, History of the Ancient and 
Modern State of the Principality of Wales, Duchy of Cornwall, and 
Earldom of Chester (London, 1630; 2nd ed., 1714); D. King, The 
Vale-Royall of England, or the County Palatine of Cheshire Illustrated, 
4 parts (London, 1656) ; D. and S. Lysons, Magna Britannia, vol. ii. 
pt. ii. (London, 1810) ; J. H. Hanshall, History of the County Palatine 
of Chester (Chester, 1817-1823); J. O. Halliwell, Palatine Anthology 
(London, 1850) ; G. Orraerod, History of the County Palatine and 
City of Chester (London, 1819; new ed., London, 1875-1882); 
J. P. Earwaker, East Cheshire (2 vols., London, 1877) ; R. Wilbraham, 
Glossary (London, 1820; 2nd ed., London, 1826); and Glossary 
founded on Wilbraham by E. Leigh (London, 1877); J. Croston, 
Historic Sites of Cheshire (Manchester, 1883) ; and County Families of 
Cheshire (Manchester, 1887); W. E. A. Axon, Cheshire Gleanings 
(Manchester, 1884) ; Holland, Glossary of Words used in the County 
of Cheshire (London, 1884-1886); N. G. Philips, Views of Old Halls 
in Cheshire (London, 1893) ; Victoria County History, Cheshire. 
See also various volumes of the Chetham Society and of the Record 
Society of Manchester, as well as the Proceedings of the Cheshire 
Antiquarian Society, and Cheshire Notes and Queries. 

CHESHUNT, an urban district in the Hertford parliamentary 
division of Hertfordshire, England, on the Lea, 14 m. N. of 
London by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1891) 9620; 
(1901) 12,292. The church of St Mary is Perpendicular and 
has been enlarged in modern times. A college was founded, 
for the education of young men to the ministry of the Connexion, 
by Selina countess of Huntingdon in 1768 at Trevecca-isaf near 
Talgarth, Brecknockshire. In 1792 it was moved to Cheshunt, 
and became known as Cheshunt College. In 1904, as it was 
felt that the college was unable properly to carry on its work 
under existing conditions, it was proposed to amalgamate it 
with Hackney College, but the Board of Education refused to 
sanction any arrangement which would set aside the require- 
ments of the deed of foundation, namely that the officers and 
students of Cheshunt College should subscribe the fifteen articles 
appended to the deed, and should take certain other obligations. 
In 1905 it was decided by the board to reorganize the college 
and remove it to Cambridge. 

Nursery and market gardening, largely under glass, brick- 
making and saw-mills are the chief industries of Cheshunt. 
Roman coins and other remains have been found at this place, 
and an urn appears built into the wall of an inn. A Romano- 

British village or small town is indicated. There was a Bene- 
dictine nunnery here in the 13th century. Of several interesting 
mansions in the vicinity one, the Great House, belonged to 
Cardinal Wolsey, and a former Pengelly House was the residence 
of Richard Cromwell the Protector after his resignation. Theo- 
balds Park was built in the 18th century, but the original 
mansion was acquired by William Cecil, Lord Burghley, in 
1561; being taken in 1607 by James I. from Robert Cecil, first 
earl of Salisbury, in exchange for Hatfield House. James died 
here in 1625, and Charles I. set out from here for Nottingham in 
1642 at the outset of the Civil War. One of the entrances to 
Theobalds Park is the old Temple Bar, removed from Fleet 
Street, London, in 1878. 

CHESIL BANK (A.S. ceosol, pebble bank), a remarkable 
beach of shingle on the coast of Dorsetshire, England. It is 
separated from the mainland for 8 m. by an inlet called the Fleet, 
famous for its swannery, and continues in all for 18 m. south- 
eastward from Abbotsbury, terminating at the so-called Isle 
of Portland. The height of the bank at the Portland end is 
35 ft. above spring- tide level, and its breadth 200 yds. The 
greater height at this end accords with the general -movement 
of shingle along this coast from west to east; and for the same 
reason the pebbles of the bank decrease in size from 1 to 3 in. 
in diameter at Portland to the size of peas at the western end, 
where the breadth is only 170 yds. 

politician, was born at Orthez in the department of the Basses- 
Pyrenees, on the 14th of April 1820. In 1848 he proclaimed 
himself a Republican; but after the establishment of the Second 
Empire he changed his views, and in 1865 was returned to the 
chamber as the official candidate for his native place. He at 
once became conspicuous, both for his eloquence and for his 
uncompromising clericalism, especially in urging the necessity 
for maintaining the temporal power of the papacy. In 1869 he 
was again returned, and, devoting himself with exceptional 
ability to financial questions, was in 1870 appointed to report 
the budget. During and after the war, for which he voted, he 
retired for a while into private life; but in 1872 he was again 
elected deputy, this time as a Legitimist, and took his seat 
among the extreme Right. He was the soul of the reactionary 
opposition that led to the fall of Thiers; and in 1873 it was he 
who, with Lucien Brun, carried to the comte de Chambord the 
proposals of the chambers. Through some misunderstanding, 
he reported on his return that the count had accepted all the 
terms offered, including the retention of the tricolour flag; and 
the count published a formal denial. Chesnelong now devoted 
himself to the establishment of Catholic universities and to the 
formation of Catholic working-men's clubs. In 1876 he was 
again returned for Orthez, but was unseated, and then beaten 
by the republican candidate. On the 24th of November, how- 
ever, he was elected to a seat in the senate, where he continued 
his vigorous polemic against the progressive attempts of the 
republican government to secularize the educational system of 
France until his death in 1894. 

soldier and military writer, the third son of Charles Cornwallis 
Chesney, captain on the retired list of the Bengal Artillery, and 
nephew of General F. R. Chesney, was born in Co. Down, Ireland, 
on the 29th of September 1826. Educated at Blundell's school, 
Tiverton, and afterwards at the Royal Military Academy, 
Woolwich, he obtained his first commission as second lieutenant 
of engineers in 1845, passing out of the academy at the head of 
his term. His early service was spent in the ordinary course 
of regimental duty at home and abroad, and he was stationed 
in New Zealand during the Crimean War. Among the various 
reforms in the British military system which followed from that 
war was the impetus given to military education; and in 1858 
Captain Chesney was appointed professor of military history 
at Sandhurst. In 1864 he succeeded Colonel (afterwards Sir 
Edward) Hamley in the corresponding chair at the Staff College. 
The writings of these two brilliant officers had a great influence 
not only at home, but on the continent and in America. Chesney's 



first published work (1863) was an account of the Civil War in 
Virginia, which went through several editions. But the work 
which attained the greatest reputation was his Waterloo Lectures 
(1868), prepared from the notes of lectures orally delivered at 
the Staff College. Up to that time the English literature on the 
Waterloo campaign, although voluminous, was made up of 
personal reminiscences or of formal records, useful materials 
for history rather than history itself; and the French accounts 
had mainly taken the form of fiction. In Chesney's lucid and 
vigorous account of the momentous struggle, while it illustrates 
both the strategy and tactics which culminated in the final 
catastrophe, the mistakes committed by Napoleon are laid bare, 
and for the first.time an English Writer is found to point out that 
the dispositions of Wellington were far from faultless. And in 
the Waterloo Lectures the Prussians are for the first time credited 
by an English pen with their proper share in the victory. The 
work attracted much attention abroad as well as at home, and 
French and German translations were published. 

Chesney was for many years a constant contributor to the 
newspaper press and to periodic literature, devoting himself 
for the most part to the critical treatment of military operations, 
and professional subjects generally. Some of his essays on 
military biography, contributed mainly to the Edinburgh Review, 
were afterwards published separately (1874). In 1868 he was 
appointed a member of the royal commission on military educa- 
tion, under the presidency first of Earl De Grey and afterwards 
of Lord Dufferin, to whose recommendations were due the 
improved organization of the military colleges, and the develop- 
ment of military education in the principal military stations 
of the British army. In 1871, on the conclusion of the Franco- 
German War, he was sent on a special mission to France and 
Germany, and furnished to the government a series of valuable 
reports on the different siege operations which had been carried 
out during the war, especially the two sieges of Paris. These 
reports were published in a large volume, which was issued 
confidentially. Never seeking regimental or staff preferment, 
Colonel Chesney never obtained any, but he held at the time of 
his death a unique position in the army, altogether apart from 
and above his actual place in it. He was consulted by officers 
of all grades on professional matters, and few have done more 
to raise the intellectual standard of the British officer. Con- 
stantly engaged in literary pursuits, he was nevertheless laborious 
and exemplary in the discharge of his public duties, while 
managing also to devote a large part of his time to charitable 
and religious offices. He was abstemious to a fault; and, 
overwork of mind and body telling at last on a frail constitution, 
he died after a short illness on the 19th of March 1876. He had 
become lieutenant-colonel in 1873, and at the time of his death 
he was commanding Royal Engineer of the London district. 
He was buried at Sandhurst. 

CHESNEY, FRANCIS RAWDON (1780-1872), British general 
and explorer, was the son of Captain Alexander Chesney, an 
Irishman of Scottish descent who, having emigrated to South 
Carolina in 1772, did brilliant service under Lord Rawdon 
(afterwards marquess of Hastings) in the War of Independence, 
and subsequently received an appointment as coast officer at 
Annalong, Co. Down, Ireland. There F. R. Chesney was born 
on the 16th of March 1 789. Lord Rawdon gave the boy a cadet- 
ship at Woolwich, and he was gazetted to the Royal Artillery 
in 1805. But though he rose to be lieutenant-general and 
colonel-commandant of the 14th brigade Royal Artillery (1864), 
and general in 1868, Chesney's memory lives not for his military 
record, but for his connexion with the Suez Canal, and with the 
exploration of the Euphrates valley, which started with his being 
sent out to Constantinople in the course of his military duties 
in 1829, and his making a tour of inspection in Egypt and Syria. 
His report in 1830 on the feasibility of making the Suez Canal 
was the original basis of Lesseps' great undertaking (in 1869 
Lesseps greeted him in Paris as the "father" of the canal); 
and in 1831 he introduced to the home government the idea of 
opening a new overland route to India, by a daring and ad- 
venturous journey (for the Arabs were hostile and he was ignorant 

of the language) along the Euphrates valley from Anah to the 
Persian Gulf. Returning home, Colonel Chesney (as he then 
was) busied himself to get support for the latter project, to 
which the East India Company's board was favourable; and 
in 1835 he was sent out in command of a small expedition, for 
which parliament voted £20,000, in order to test the navigability 
of the Euphrates. After encountering immense difficulties, from 
the opposition of the Egyptian pasha, and from the need of 
transporting two steamers (one of which was lost) in sections 
from the Mediterranean over the hilly country to the river, 
they successfully arrived by water at Bushire in the summer of 
1836, and proved Chesney's view to be a practicable one. In 
the middle of 1837 he returned to England, and was given the 
Royal Geographical Society's gold medal, having meanwhile 
been to India to consult the authorities there; but the preparation 
of his two volumes on the expedition (published in 1850) was 
interrupted by his being ordered out in 1843 to command the 
artillery at Hong Kong. In 1847 his period of service was 
completed, and he went home to Ireland, to a life of retirement; 
but both in 1856 and again in 1862 he went out to the East to 
take a part in further surveys and negotiations for the Euphrates 
valley railway scheme, which, however, the government would 
not take up, in spite of a favourable report from the House of 
Commons committee in 187 1. In 1868 he published a further 
volume of narrative on his Euphrates expedition. He died on 
the 30th of January 1872. 

His Life, edited by Stanley Lane Poole, appeared in 1885. 

CHESNEY, SIR GEORGE TOMKYNS (1830-1895), English 
general, brother of Colonel C. C. Chesney, was born at Tiverton, 
Devonshire, on the 30th of April 1830. Educated at Blundell's 
school, Tiverton, and at Addiscombe, he entered the Bengal 
Engineers as second lieutenant in 1848. He was employed for 
some years in the public works department and, on the outbreak' 
of the Indian Mutiny in 1857, joined the Ambala column, was' 
field engineer at the battle of Badli-ke-serai, brigade-major of 
engineers throughout the siege of Delhi, and was severely 
wounded in the assault (medal and clasp and a brevet majority). 
In 1 860 he was appointed head of a new department in connexion 
with the public works accounts. His work on Indian Polity 
(1868), dealing with the administration of the several departments 
of the Indian government, attracted wide attention and remains 
a permanent text-book. The originator of the Royal Indian 
Civil Engineering College at Cooper's Hill, Staines, he was also 
its first president (1871-1880). In 1871 he contributed to 
Blackwood's Magazine, " The Battle of Dorking," a vivid 
account of a supposed invasion of England by the Germans 
after their victory over France. This was republished in many 
editions and translations, and produced a profound impression. 
He was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 1869; colonel, 1877; 
major-general, 1886; lieutenant-general, 1887; colonel-com- 
mandant of Royal Engineers, 1890; and general, 1892. From 
1 88 1 to 1886 he was secretary to the military department of 
the government of India, and was made a C.S.I, and a CLE. 
From 1886 to 1892, as military member of the governor-general's 
council, he carried out many much-needed military reforms. 
He was made a C.B. at the jubilee of 1887, and a K.C.B. on 
leaving India in 1892. In that year he was returned to parlia- 
ment, in the Conservative interest, as member for Oxford, and 
was chairman of the committee of service members of the House 
of Commons until his death on the 3 1st of March 1895. He wrote 
some novels, The Dilemma, The Private Secretary, The Lesters, 
&c, and was a frequent contributor to periodical literature. 

CHESS, once known as " checker," a game played with certain 
" pieces " on a special " board " described below. It takes its 
name from the Persian word shah, a king, the name of one of the 
pieces or men used in the game. Chess is the most cosmopolitan 
of all games, invented in the East (see History, below), intro- 
duced into the West and now domiciled in every part of the 
world. As a mere pastime chess is easily learnt, and a very 
moderate amount of study enables a man to become a fair player, 
but the higher ranges of chess-skill are only attained by persistent 
labour. The real proficient or " master " not merely must know 




the subtle variations in which the game abounds, but must be able 
to apply his knowledge in the face of the enemy and to call to his 
aid, as occasion demands, all that he has of foresight, brilliancy 
and resource, both in attack and in defence. Two chess players 
fighting over the board may fitly be compared to two famous 
generals encountering each other on the battlefield, the strategy 
and the tactics being not dissimilar in spirit. 

The Board, Pieces and Moves. — The chessboard is divided 
(see accompanying diagrams) into sixty-four chequered squares. 
In diagram i, the pieces, or chess-men, are arranged for the 
beginning of a game, while diagram 2 shows the denomination of 
the squares according to the English and German systems of 
notation. Under diagram 1 are the names of the various " pieces " 
—each side, White or Black, having a King, a Queen, two Rooks 
(or Castles), two Knights, and two Bishops. The eight men in 
front are called Pawns. At the beginning of the game the queen 
always stands upon a square of her own colour. The board is so 
set that each player has a white square at the right hand end of 
the row nearest to him. The rook, knight and bishop on the right 
of the king are known as King's rook, King's knight, and King's 
bishop; the other three as Queen's rook, Queen's knight, and 
Queen's bishop. 

Briefly described, the powers of the various pieces and of the 
pawns are as follows. 

The king may move in any direction, only one square at a time, 
except in castling. Two kings can never be on adjacent squares. 

The queen moves in any direc- 
tion square or diagonal, whether 
forward or backward. There is 
no limit to her range over vacant 
squares; an opponent she may 
take; a piece of her own colour 
stops her. She is the most power- 
ful piece on the board, for her 
action is a union of those of the 
rook and bishop. The rooks (from 
the Indian rukh and Persian rokh, 
meaning a soldier or warrior) 
move in straight lines — forward 
or backward — but they cannot 
Their range is 
arrangement of the" piecWat Iike tne queen's, unlimited, with 
the commencement of a game, the same exceptions. 

The bishops move diagonally 
in any direction whether backward or forward. They have 
an unlimited range, with the same exceptions. 

The knights' moves are of an absolutely different kind. They 
move from one corner of any rectangle of three squares by two to 
the opposite corner; thus, in diagram 3, the white knight can 
move to the square occupied by the black one, and vice versa, or a 
knight could move from C to D, or D to C. The move may be 
made in any direction. It is no obstacle to the knight's move if 
squares A and B are occupied. It will be perceived that the 
knight always moves to a square of a different colour. 

The king, queen, rooks and bishops may capture any foeman 
which stands anywhere within their respective ranges; and the 
knights can capture the adverse men which stand upon the 
squares to which they can leap. The piece which takes occupies 
the square of the piece which is taken, the latter being removed 
from the board. The king cannot capture any man which is 
protected by another man. 

The moves and capturing powers of the pawns are as follows:— 
Each pawn for his first move may advance either one or two 
squares straight forward, but afterwards one square only, and 
this whether upon starting he exercised his privilege of moving 
two squares or not. A pawn can never move backwards. He can 
capture only diagonally — one square to his right or left front. A 
pawn moves like a rook, captures like a bishop, but only one 
square at a time. When a pawn arrives at an eighth square, 
viz. at the extreme limit of the board, he may, at the option of 
his owner, be exchanged for any other piece, so that a player 
may, e.g., have two or more queens on the board at once. 

Rk. Kt. Bp. Q. K. Bp. Kt. Kk. 

DiAGRA M T-Showing the move diagonally. 

" Checkand Checkmate." Thekingcan never be captured, but 
when any piece or pawn attacks him, he is said to be " in check," 
and the fact of his being so attacked should be announced by the 


a b c d e f g h 

d e 


Diagram 2. — Showing English and German Methods of Notation, 
adverse player saying " check," whereupon the king must move 
from the square he occupies, or be screened from check by the 
interposition of one of his own men, or the attacking piece must 
be captured. If, however, when the king is in check, none of 
these things can be done, it is " checkmate " (Persian, shah mat, 
the king is dead), known generally as " mate," whereupon the 
game terminates, the player whose king has been thus check- 
mated being the loser. When the adversary has only his king 
left, it is very easy to checkmate him with only a queen and 
king, or only a rook and king. The problem is less easy with 
king and two bishops, and still less easy with king, knight and 
bishop, in which case the opposing king has to be driven into a 
corner square whose colour corresponds with the bishop's, mate 
being given with the bishop. A king and two knights cannot 
mate. To mate with king and rook the opposing king must be 
driven on to one of the four side files and kept there with the 
rook on the next file, till it is held by the other king, when the 
rook mates. 

The pawn gives check in the same way as he captures, viz. 
diagonally. One king cannot give check to another, nor may a 
king be moved into check. 

" Check by discovery " is given when a player, by moving one 

of his pieces, checks with another of them. "Double check" 

means attacking the king at once with two 

pieces — one of the pieces in this case giving 

check by discovery. 

" Perpetual check " occurs when one player, 

seeing that he cannot win the game, finds the 

men so placed that he can give check ad 

infinitum, while his adversary cannot possibly 

avoid it. The game is then drawn. A game is 

also drawn " if, before touching a man, the 

player whose turn it is to play, claims that the Kn 'g nt ' s move. 

game be treated as drawn, and proves that the existing position 

existed, in the game and at the commencement of his turn of play, 

twice at least before the present turn." 

" Stalemate." When a king is not in check, but his owner has 

no move left save such as would place the king in check, it is 

" stalemate," and the game is drawn. 

" Castling." This is a special move permitted to the king once 

only in the game. It is performed in combination with either 

rook, the king being moved two squares laterally, while the rook 

towards which he is moved (which must not have previously 



moved from its square) is placed next him on the other side; the 
king must be touched first. The king cannot castle after having 
been once moved, nor when any piece stands between him and 
the rook, nor if he is in check, nor when he has to cross a square 
commanded by an adverse piece or pawn, nor into check. It will 
be perceived that after castling with the king's rook the latter 
will occupy the KB square, while the king stands on the KKt 
square, and if with the queen's rook, the latter will occupy the 
queen's square while the king stands on the QB square. 

" Taking en passant." This is a privilege possessed by any 
of the pawns under the following circumstances:— If a pawn, 
say of the white colour, stands upon a fifth square, say upon K5 
counting from the white side, and a black pawn moves from Q2 
or KB 2 to Q4 or KB4 counting from the black side, the white 
pawn can take the black pawn en passant. For the purposes of 
such capture the latter is dealt with as though he had only moved 
to Q3 or KB3, and the white pawn taking him diagonally then 
occupies the square the captured pawn would have reached had 
he moved but one square. The capture can be made only 
on the move immediately succeeding that of the pawn to be 

" Drawn Game." This arises from a stalemate (noticed 
above), or from either player not having sufficient force where- 
with to effect checkmate, as when there are only two kings 
left on the board, or king and bishop against king, or king with 
one knight, or two knights against king, or from perpetual 
check. One of the players can call upon the other to give check- 
mate in fifty moves, the result of failure being that the game is 
drawn. But, if a pawn is moved, or a piece is captured, the 
counting must begin again. 

A " minor piece " means either a knight or a bishop. " Winning 
the exchange " signifies capturing a rook in exchange for a 
minor piece. A " passed pawn " is one that has no adverse 
pawn either in front or on either of the adjoining files. A 
" file " is simply a line of squares extending vertically from 
one end of the board to the other. An " open file " is one on 
which no piece or pawn of either colour is standing. A pawn 
or piece is en prise when one of the enemy's men can capture it. 
" Gambit " is a word derived from the Ital. gambetto, a tripping 
up of the heels; it is a term used to signify an opening in which 
a pawn or piece is sacrificed at the opening of a game to obtain 
an attack. An " opening," or debut, is a certain set method 
of commencing the game. When a player can only make one 
legal move, that move is called a " forced move." 

Value of the Pieces. — The relative worth of the chess-men 
cannot be definitely stated on account of the increase or decrease 
of their powers according to the position of the game and the 
pieces, but taking the pawn as the unit the following will be 
an estimate near enough for practical purposes: — pawn 1, 
bishop 3-25, knight 3 ■ 2 5 , rook 5 , queen 9-50. Three minor pieces 
may mere often than not be advantageously exchanged for the 
queen. The knight is generally stronger than the bishop in the 
end game, but two bishops are usually stronger than two knights, 
more especially in open positions. 

Laws. — The laws of chess differ, although not very materially, 
in different countries. Various steps have been taken, but as 
yet without success, to secure the adoption of a universal code. 
In competitions among English players the particular laws to 
be observed are specially agreed upon, — the regulations most 
generally adopted being those laid down at length in Staunton's 
Chess Praxis, or the modification of the Praxis laws issued in 
the name of the British Chess Association in^i862. 

First Move and Odds. — To decide who moves first, one player 
conceals a white pawn in one hand and a black pawn in the 
other, his adversary not seeing in which hand the different pawns 
are put. The other holds out his hands with the pawns concealed, 
and his adversary touches one. If that contains the white pawn, 
he takes the white men and moves first. If he draws the black 
pawn his adversary has the first move, since white, by convention, 
always plays first. Subsequently the first move is taken alter- 
nately. If one player, by way of odds, " gives " his adversary 
a pawn or piece, that piece is removed before play begins. If 

the odds are " pawn and move," or " pawn and two," a black 
pawn, namely, the king's bishop's pawn, is removed and white 
plays one move, or any two moves in succession. " Pawn and 
two " is generally considered to be slightly less in point of odds 
than to give a knight or a bishop; to give a knight and a bishop 
is to give rather more than a rook; a rook and bishop less than 
a queen; two rooks rather more than a queen. The odds of 
" the marked pawn" can only be given to a much weaker player. 
A pawn, generally KB's pawn, is marked with a cap of paper. 
If the pawn is captured its owner loses the game; he can also 
lose by being checkmated in the usual way, but he cannot give 
mate to his adversary with any man except the marked pawn, 
which may not be moved to an eighth square and exchanged 
for a piece. 

Rules. — If a player touch one of his men he must move it, 
unless he says j'adoube (I adjust), or words of a similar meaning, 
to the effect that he was only setting it straight on its square. 
If he cannot legally move a touched piece, he must move his 
king, if he can, but may not castle; if not, there is no penalty. 
He must say j'adoube before touching his piece. If a player 
touch an opponent's piece, he must take it, if he can: if not, 
move his king. If he can do neither, no penalty. A move is 
completed and cannot be taken back, as soon as a player, having 
moved a piece, has taken his hand off it. If a player is called 
upon to mate under the fifty-move rule, " fifty moves " means 
fifty moves and the forty-nine replies to them. A pawn that 
reaches an eighth square must be exchanged for some other piece, 
the move not being complete until this is done; a second king 
cannot be selected. 

Modes of Notation. — The English and German methods of 
describing the moves made in a game are different. According to 
the English method each player counts from his own side of 
the board, and the moves are denoted by the names of the files 
and the numbers of the squares. Thus when a player for his 
first move advances the king's pawn two squares, it is described 
as follows: — " 1. P- K4." The following moves, with the aid 
of diagram 2, will enable the reader to understand the principles 
of the British notation. The symbol X is used to express 
" takes "; a dash - to express " to." 

White. Black. 

1. P-K4 1. P-K4 

2. KKt-KB3 2. QKt-QB3 

(i.e. King's Knight to the (i.e. Queen's Knight to the 

third square of the King's third square of the Queen's 
Bishop's file) Bishop'-s file) 

3. KB-QB4 3. KB-QB4 

(King's Bishop to the fourth 
square of the Queen's 
Bishop's file) 

4- P-QB3 4. KKt-KB 3 

5- P-Q4 5- P takes P (or PXP) 

(King's pawn takes White's 
Queen's pawn) 
6. P takes P (or PXP) 6. KB-QKt5 (ch., i.e. check) 

(Queen's Bishop's pawn 

takes pawn : no other pawn 

has a pawn en prise) 

It is now usual to express the notation as concisely as possible; 
thus, the third moves of White and Black would be given as 
3. B - B4, because it is clear that only the fourth square of the 
queen's bishop's file is intended. 

The French names for the pieces are, King, Roi; Queen, Dame; 
Rook, Tour; Knight, Cavalier; Pawn, Pion; for Bishop the 
French substitute Fou, a jester. Chess is Les Echecs. 

The German notation employs the alphabetical characters 
a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h, proceeding from left to right, and the 
numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, running upwards, these being 
always calculated from the white side of the board (see diagram 
2). Thus the White Queen's Rook's square is 01, the White 
Queen's square is di; the Black Queen's square, d&; the 
White King's square, ex; the Black King's square, e8, and so 
with the other pieces and squares. The German names of the 
pieces are as follows:— King, Konig; Queen, Dame; Rook, 
Turm; Bishop, Laufer; Knight, Springer; Pawn, Bauer; 
Chess, Schach. • 

9 6 


The initials only of the pieces are given, the pawns (Bauern) 
being understood. The Germans use the following signs in their 
notation, viz.: — for " check " (f); " checkmate " (j); " takes " 
(:); " castles on king's side " (o-o); "castles on queen's side " 
(o-o-o); for " best move " a note of admiration (!); for " weak 
move" a note of interrogation (?). The opening moves just given 
in the English will now be given in the German notation: — 


1. e2— e4 

2. S gi -f3 

3. L fl -C4 

4. C2 -C3 

5. d2-d4 

6. c3-d4 = 


1. e7-e5 

2. Sb8-c6 

3. Lf8-c5 

4. Sg8-f6! 
5- e5-d4: 
6. Lc5-b4t 

In both notations the moves are often given in a tabular form, 
thus: — 

I. Ti — rr^ 1. 21., the moves above the line being White's 

P-K4 e7-e5 6 

and below the line Black's. 

Illustrative Games. — The text-books should be consulted by 
students who wish to improve their game. The following are 
some of the leading openings:— 

Giuoco Piano. 





1. P-K4 



2. QKt-B 3 



3- B-B4 



4. Kt-KB 3 



5- PXP 



6. B-Kt5 (ch) 



7. BXB (ch) 



8. P-Q4 



9. KKtXP 


Q-Kt 3 

10. QKt-K2 


Castles (K' 

s side) 


11. Castles 







1. P-K4 



2. QKt-B 3 


B-Kt 5 

3- P-QR3 



4- Kt-B 3 



5- PXP 



6. Kt-Ks 



7. B-K2 



8. Kt-B4 



9- QPXB 



10. Castles 


Kt-QB 3 



11. P-KB3 







1. P-K4 


KKt-B 3 

2. QKt -B 3 



3- PXP 



4. B-B4 



5- Kt-B 3 



The position here arrived at is 

the same as in the Giuoco Piano 

opening above. 







1. P-K4 



2. QKt-B 3 



3- B-B4 



4. BxKtP 



5- B-B4 



6. PXP 



7- P-Q3 



8. B-Kt3 

White has for its ninth move 1 

three approved continuations, viz. 

B-Kt2, P- 

-Q5, and Kt 

— B3. To take one of them : — 



9. Kt-R4 



10. Kt-K2 



11. Castles 


Kt-B 3 

12. Kt — Kt3 



13. P-QB4 



H - g-§ 3 



15. B-B2 


QR-B sq 

16. R-Kt sq 

This game r 

nay be considered about even. 

King's Knight's Gambit (Proper). 

White. Black. 

1. P-K4 1. P-K4 

2. P-KB4 2. PXP 

3. KKt-B 3 3 . P-KKt4 
4- B-B4 4. B-Kt2 

5. Castles 5. P-Q3 

6. P-Q4 6. P-KR3 

7. P-B3 7. Kt-K2 

Black has the advantage. 

Allgaier-Kieseritzki Gambit. 
White. Black. 

P-K4 1. P-K4 

P-KB4 2. PXP 

Kt-KB 3 3. P-KKt 4 

P-KR4 4. P-Kt5 

Kt-K 5 5. KKt-B 3 

B-B4 6. P-Q4 

7. PXP 7. B-Kt2 

8. P-Q4 8. Castles 

9. BXP 9. KtXP 

10. BXKt 10. QXB 

11. Castles 11. P-QB4 

Black has the better game. 

King's Bishop's Gambit. 



1. P-K4 



2. P-KB4 



3- B-B4 



4. BXP 


Q-R5 (ch) 

5. K-B sq 



6. KKt-B3 



7- P-Q4 



8. P-KR4 



9. Kt-B 3 



10. K — Kt sq 


P-Kt 5 

11. Kt-K5 



12. PXB 



13. Q-B sq 



14. P-P 


Q-Kt6 (ch) 

15. Q-Kt2 

Drawn game. 





1. P-K4 



2. P-KB4 



3. KKt-B 3 



4. B-B4 


P-Kt 5 

5- Kt-K 5 


Q-R5 (ch) 

6. K-B sq 


Kt-KR 3 

7- P-Q4 



8. Kt-QB 3 



9- Kt-Q 3 


PXP (ch) 

10. KXP 



11. Kt-KB4 


Kt-B 3 

12. B-K3 



13. QKt-Q5 



14- P-B3 

White has a slight advantage. 



X -P-Ki 2 - 


KKt-B 3 B-B4 
3 ' P-KKt4 4- P-Kt5 



5. Castles 



6. QXP 



7- P-K5 



8. P-Q3 



9. B-Q2 



10. Kt-B3 


QKt-B 3 

n. QR-Ksq 



12. R-K4 



13. QBXP 



14. Q-K2 



15- BXBP 


Q-Kt 4 

16. P-KR4 


Q-Kt 3 

17- KtXP 



18. BXKt 



19. QR-KB4 



20. BXB 



21. R-K4 


RXR (ch) 

22. KXR 


R-B sq (ch) 

23. K — Kt sq 


Kt-Q 5 

And Black has the better 





2. PXP 

3- P-K 4 

4- PXP 

5- B-Q 3 
Kt-KB 3 

7- Castles 
8. P-KR3 


Queen's Gambit. 

i. P-Q4 
2. P-QB 4 

3- P-.K3 

4. BXP 
5- PXP 

6. Kt-KB 3 

7. Castles 

8. P-KR3 ». 

9. Kt-QB 3 9. 

The game is about equal, though White has a somewhat freer 

The following is a selection of noteworthy games played by 

great masters: — 

King's Bishop's Gambit. 

White. Black. 

Anderssen. Kieseritzki. 

1. P-K4 1. P-K4 

2. P-KB4 2. PXP 

3- B-B4 3- Q-R5(ch) 

4. K-B sq 4- P-QKt 4 

5. BxKtP 5- Kt-KB 3 

6. Kt-KB 3 6. Q-R3 

7. P-Q3 7- Kt-R4 

8. Kt-R4 8. Q-Kt 4 
9- Kt-B 5 9. P-QB3 

10. P-KKt4 10. Kt-B3 

11. R-Kt sq 11. PXB 

12. P-KR4 12. Q-Kt3 
13- P-R5 13- Q-Kt 4 

14. Q-B3 14. Kt-Kt sq 

15. BXP 15- Q-B3 

16. Kt-B3 16. B-B4 
17- Kt-Q 5 17- QXKtP 

18. B-Q6 18. QXR (ch) 

19. K-K2 19. BXR 

20. P-K5 20. Kt-QR3 

White mates in three moves. 









. P-K4 











R-B sq 


Kt-QR 3 




B-Kt 3 

K-Kt sq 

Kt-K 5 

Kt-Q 3 


Philidor's Defence. 

And White resigns. 











. P-K4 

■ P-Q3 
. P-KB4 






Kt-QB 3 


Kt-B 3 

Kt-QKt 5 


Kt-Q6 (ch) 



P-Q7 (ch) 


K-B sq 



Bishop's Gambit. 



Charousek. Tchigorin. 

1. P-K4 P-K4 

2. P-KB4 PXP 

3. B-B4 Kt-QB 3 

4. P-Q4 Kt-B 3 

5. P-K5 P-Q4 

6. B-Kt3 B-Kt5 

7. Q-Q3 Kt-KR 4 

8. Kt-KR3 Kt-Kt5 

9. Q-QB3 Kt-R 3 

10. Castles B — K7 

11. B-R4 (ch)P-B 3 

12. BXP (ch) PXB 

This pretty game was played 
the Budapest tournament, 1896. 

vi. 4 


13. QXP (ch) 

14. KtXP 

15. BxKt 

16. Kt-B3 

17. P-K6 

18. B-B7 

19. BXQ (ch) 

20. Q-Kt7 (ch) 

21. R-B7 (ch) 

22. QXR (ch) 

23. R — K sq 
_ 24. P-QKt 3 

in the tie match for 


R-B sq 
first prize at 

Queen's Gambit Declined. 

W. Steinitz. 

1. P-Q4 

2. P-QB4 

3. Kt-QB 3 

4. B-B4 
5- P-K3 

6. R-B sq 

7. QPXP 

8. PXP 

9- Kt-B 3 

10. B-O3 

11. PXP 

12. Castles 

13. Kt-QKt5 

14. P-B 
15- B-K5 

16. K-Rsq 

17. B-Kt 3 

18. Q-B2 
19- QR-Q sq 
20. Q-Kt 3 

Dr E. Lasker. 



Kt-KB 3 






Kt-B 3 





Kt-K 3 



R-B sq 


W. Steinitz. 

21. Kt-B3 

22. QXP 

23. PXKt 

24. QXP 
25- Q- B 4 

26. P-KR4 

27. B-K4 

28. P-B4 

29. B-Kt2 

30. Q-Q3 

31. Kt-K 4 

32. R-B3 
33- KXR 

34. K-R2 

35. K-Kt2 

36. K-R2 

37. R-QKt sq 

38. R-Kt5 
39- P-R3. 


Dr E. Lasker. 
Kt-Q 5 , 
KtXB (ch) 
R-Kt sq 
R-Kt 3 



Q-Kt 5 

Kt-B 4 




KtXR (ch) 

Kt-R 5 (ch) 

Kt-B 4 




This game was played in the St Petersburg tournament, 1895, a 
fine specimen of Lasker's style. The final attack, beginning with 
21. with Kt-Q5, furnishes a gem of an ending. 

White. Black. White. Black. 

Professor Major Professor Major 

Rice. Hanham. Rice. Hanham. 

1. P-K4 P-K4 15. Q-R3 Kt-B7 

2. P-KB4 PXP 16. RXB (ch) B-K3 

3. Kt-KB 3 P-KKt4 17. K-Bsq Q-R8 (ch) 

4. P-KR4 P-Kt5 18. Kt-Kt sq Kt-R6 

5. Kt-I<5 Kt-KB3 19. PXKt P-B6 

6. B-B4 P-Q4 20. B-Kt5 Q-Kt7(ch) 

7. PXP B-Q3 21. K-Ksq P-B7(ch) 

8. Castles BxKt 22. K-Q2 P-B8 = Kt 

9. R-Ksq Q-K2 (ch) 

10. P-B3 P-Kt6 23. K-Q3 K-Q2 

11. P-Q4 Kt-Kt5 24. PXB (ch) K-B2 

12. Kt-Q2 QXP 25. Q-K7 (ch) K-Kt 3 

13. Kt-B 3 Q-R3 26. Q-Q8 (ch) RXQ 

14. Q-R4 (ch)P-B3 27. BXQ and mates 

The Rice Gambit (so called after its inventor, Prof. Isaac L. Rice 
of New York), whether right or not, is only possible if Black plays 
7. B-Q3. Paulsen's 7. B~Kt2 is better, and avoids unnecessary 
complications. 8. P-Q4is the usual move. Leaving the knight 
en prise, followed by 9. R-Ksq, constitutes the Rice Gambit. 
The interesting points in the g^ame are that White subjects himself 
to a most violent attack with impunity, for in the end Black could 
not save the game by 22. P-B8 claiming a second queen with a 
discovered check, nor by claiming a knight with double check, as 
it is equally harmless to White. 

White. Black. White. Black. 

Steinitz. Bardeleben. Steinitz. Bardeleben. 

1. P-K4 P-K4 14. R-Ksq P-KB3 

2. Kt-KB 3 Kt-QB 3 15. Q-K2 Q-Q2 

3. B-B4 B-B4 16. QR-Bsq P-B3 

4. P-B3 Kt-B 3 17. P-Q5 PXP 

5. P-Q4 PXP 18. Kt-Q4 K-B2 

6. PXP B-Kt5 (ch) 19. Kt-K6 KR-QBsq 

7. Kt-B 3 P-Q4 20. Q-Kt 4 P-KKt 3 

8. PXP KKtXP 21. Kt-Kt5 (ch) K-K sq 

9. Castles B-K3 . 22. RXKt (ch) K-B sq 

10. B-KKt5 B-K2 23. R-B7 (ch) K-Kt sq 

11. BXKt QBXB 24. R-Kt7 (ch) K-R sq 

12. KtXB QXKt 25. RXP (ch) Resigns. 

13. BXB KtXB 

As a matter of fact, Bardeleben left the board here, and lost the 

game by letting his clock run out the time-limit ; but Steinitz, 

who remained at the board, demonstrated afterwards the following 
variation leading to a forced win : — 


K-Kt sq 


26. R-Kt7 (ch) 

27. Q-R 4 (ch) 

28. Q-R7 (ch) 

29. Q — R8 (ch) is. — rv2 35. y — yo man 

30. Q-Kt 7 (ch) K-K sq 
This game was awarded the prize for " brilliancy ' 

tournament, 1895. 


31. Q-Kt8 (ch) 

32. Q-B7 (ch) 

33. Q-B8 (ch) 

34. Kt-B 7 (ch) 
"5- Q-Q6 mate. 

Q — K sq 

at the Hastings 



Ruy Lopez. 











P-K4 , 







Kt-B 3 

Kt-Kt 5 


Kt-QB 3 
Kt-B 3 
Kt-Q 3 




Kt-Kt 3 





, Black. 

16. KR-K sq (ch) K-B sq 

17- R-Rs 

18. RXKt 

19. R-B3 (ch) 

20. B-R6 

21. BXP 

22. R-Kt3 (qh) 

23. R-B3 (ch) 

24. R-Kt3 (ch) 

25. R-B3 (ch) 











This brilliant game, played at the Munich tournament, 1900, 
would be unique had the combinations occurred spontaneously in 
the game. As a matter of fact, however, the whole variation had 
been elaborated by Maroczy and Halprin previously, on the chance 
of Pillsbury adopting the defence in the text. The real merit 
belongs to Pillsbury, who had to find the correct defence to an 
attack which Halprin had committed to memory and simply had to 
be careful to make the moves in regular order. 

Sicilian Defence. 









1. P-K4 





2. Kt-KB 3 





3- P-Q4 




B-K 3 ■ 

4. KtXP 

Kt-KB 3 




5. Kt-QB 3 

Kt-B 3 




6. KKt-Kt5 

B-Kt 5 



B-Q 4 . 

7- P-QR3 

BXKt (ch) 




8. KtXB 




Q-Kt 4 (ch) 

9. PXP 




QXR ; 

10. B-KKt.5 





11. B-K2 



R-Ktsq ; 


12. Kt-K 4 

Q-R 4 (ch) 




13. P-Kt 4 




QXB (ch) 

14. KtXKt (ch) PXKt 




15. B-R6 





Drawn e 


This brilliant game occurred 

at the Paris tournament, 1900. 












1. P-K4 




B-Kt 3 

2. Kt-KB 3 

Kt-QB 3 




3- B-B4 ■ 




8~§ 4 

4. P-QKt 4 





5- P-B3 





6. P-Q4 

7. Castles 









8. Q-Kt 3 

Q-B 3 


RXKt (ch) 


9- P-K5 

Q-Kt 3 


QXP (ch) 


10. R — K sq 



B-B 5 (ch) 


11. B-R3 



BXKt mate. 

K moves 

12. QXP 



This game is most remarkable and brilliant. The coup de repos 
of 19. QR — Q sq is the key-move to the brilliant final combination, 
the depth and subtlety of which have never been equalled, except 
perhaps in the following game between Zukertort and Blackburne :— 


1. P-QB4 

2. P-K 3 
Kt-KB 3 
Kt-B 3 
P-QKt 3 
Kt-QKt 5 
P-B 3 

14. QXKt 
15- BXP 

16. B-Q3 

17. QR-Ksq 







White. . 




18. P-K4J 

19. P-K 5 

P-QKt 3 

20. P-B4 


21. R-K 3 


22. PXPe. p. 


23. P-B5 


24. BXKt 


25. PXKtP 


26. PXP (ch) 

Kt-K 5 

27- P-Qsdis. (ch) 

28. Q-Kt4 

29. R-B8(ch) 


QKt-B 3 


3 o. QXP (ch) 


31. BXP(ch) 


32. B-Kt7 (ch) 

33- QXQ 



P-Kt 3 



Kt-K 5 







End Games. — A game of chess consists of three branches — the 
opening, the middle and the end game. The openings have 
been analysed and are to be acquired by the study of the books 
on the subject. The middle game can only be acquired practically. 
The combinations being inexhaustible in their variety, individual 
ingenuity has its full scope. Those endowed with a fertile 
imagination will evolve plans and combinations leading to 
favourable issues. The less endowed player, however, is not left 
quite defenceless; he has necessarily to adopt a different system, 
namely, to try to find a weak point in the arrangement of his 
opponent's forces and concentrate his attack on that weak spot. 
As a matter of fact, in a contest between players of equal strength, 
finding the weak point in the opponent's armour is the only 
possible plan, and this may be said to be the fundamental 
principle of the modern school. In the good old days the battles 
were mostly fought in the neighbourhood of the king, each side 
striving for a checkmate. Nowadays the battle may be fought 
anywhere. It is quite immaterial where the advantage is gained 
be it ever so slight. Correct continuation will necessarily increase 
it, and the opponent may be compelled to surrender in the end 
game without being checkmated, or a position may be reached 
when the enemies, in consequence of the continual fight, are so 
reduced that the kings themselves have to take the field — the 
end game. The end game, therefore, requires a special study. 
It has its special laws and the value of the pieces undergoes a 
considerable change. The kings leave their passive role- and 
become attacking forces. The pawns increase in value, whilst 
that of the pieces may diminish in certain cases. Two knights, 
for instance, without pawns, become valueless, as no checkmate 
can be effected with them. In the majority of cases the players 
must be guided by general principles, as the standard examples 
do not meet all cases. 

The handbooks as a rule give a sprinkling of elementary endings, 
such as to checkmate with queen, rook, bishop and knight, 
two bishops, and pawn endings pure and simple, as well as pawns 
in connexion with pieces in various forms. Towards the end of 
the 19th century a valuable work on end games was published 
in England by the late B. Horwitz; thus for the first time a 
theoretical classification of the art was given. This was followed 
by a more comprehensive work by Professor J. Berger of Gratz, 
which was translated a few years later by the late Mr Freeborough. 

A few specimens of the less accessible positions are given 
below: — 

Position from a Came played by the late J. G. Campbell in 1863. 


Obviously White has to lose the 
game, not being able to prevent the 
pawns from queening. By a re- 
markably ingenious device White 
averts the loss of the game by 
stalemating himself as follows: — 

1. B-Q2, P-Kt7; 2. B-R5, 
P-Kt8 = Q; 3 . P-Kt4 stale- 

Position by Sarratt, 1808. 



This game, played in the London tournament, i88 3 , is one of the 
most remarkable productions of modern times, neither surpassed 
nor indeed equalled hitherto. 

White wins as follows: — 

1. P-Kt6, RPXP; 2. P-B6, 
P(Kt2)XP; 3 . P-R6 and wins 
by queening the pawn. If 
I. . . . BPXP then 2. P-R6, 
KtPXP; 3 . P-B6 and queens 
the pawn. 




Problems. — A chess problem 1 has been described as " merely 
a position supposed to have occurred in a game of chess, being 
none other than the critical point where your antagonist announces 
checkmate in a given number of moves, no matter what defence 
you play," but the above description conveys no idea of the 

Position by B. Horwitz. 


As a rule the game should be 
drawn. Supposing by a series of 
checks White were to compel Black 
to abandon the pawn, he would 
move K-R8; QXP and Black is 
stale-mate. Therefore the ingenious 
way to win is : — 

i. K-B4, P-B8=Q ch; K- 
Kt3 and wins. Or 1 . . . . K — 
R8 (threatening P-B8 = Kt); then 
2. Q — Q2 preliminary to K — Kt3 
now wins. 


Without Black's pawn White 
could only draw. The pawn being 
on the board, White wins as 
follows : — 

1. Kt-B4, "K-Kt sq; '2. 
Kt (B 4 )-K 3 , K-R sq; 3. 
K - Kt4, K-Kt sq; 4. K - R3, 
K-Rsq; 5. Kt-B4, K-Kt sq; 
6. Kt (B4)-Q2, K-R sq; 7. 
Kt - Kt3 ch, K-Kt sq; 8. 
Kt — B3 mate. 

Position by B. Horwitz. 


Position by B. Horwitz. 



White wins with two pieces against 
one — a rare occurrence. 

1. Kt-K6, B-R3; 2. B-Q4 
ch, K-R2; 3. B-B3, B moves 
anywhere not en prise ; 4. B — Kt7 
and Kt mates. 


White wins as follows : — 

1. P-Kt5, Kt-Kt5; 2. K-B3, 
Kt-K6; 3. B-K6, Kt-B8; 4. 
BXP, Kt-Q7 ch; 5. K-Kt4, 
KtXP; 6. P-Kt6, Kt-B3, ch; 
7. K-Kt5, P-K 5 ; 8. KXKt, 
P-K6; 9. B-B4, KXB; 10. 
P-Kt7, P-K7; 11. P-Kt8 = Q 
ch, and wins by the simple process 
of a series of checks so timed that 
the king may approach systematic- 
ally. The fine points in this instruc- 
tive ending are the two bishop's 
moves, 3. B — K6, and 9. B — B4, 
the latter move enabling White to 
queen the pawn with a check. 

Position by 0. Schubert. 



degree to which problem-composing has become a specialized 
study. Owing its inception, doubtless, to the practice of recording 
critical phases from actual play, the art of problem composition 
has so grown in favour as to earn the title of the " poetry " of 
the game. 

1 The earliest known problem is ascribed to an Arabian caliph of 
the 9th century. The first known collection is in a manuscript (in 
the British Museum) of King Alphonso of Castile, dated 1250; it 
contains 103 problems. The collection of Nicolas of Lombardy, 
dated 1300, comprises 192 problems. 

A good chess problem exemplifies chess strategy idealized and 
concentrated. In examples of actual play there will necessarily 
remain on the board pieces immaterial to the issue (checkmate), 
whereas in problems the composer employs only indispensable 
force so as to focus attention on the idea, avoiding all material 
Position by F. Amelung. 



White with the inferior position 
saves the game as follows : — 

1. P-R6, PXP; 2. K-B3 dis. 
gh, K moves; 3. R — R2, or Kt2 ch, 
KXR; 4. K-Kt2 and draw, as 
Black has to give up the rook, and 
the RP cannot be queened, the Black 
bishop having no power on the 
White diagonal. Extremely subtle. 

Position by B. Horwitz. 



The main idea being to checkmate 
with the bishop, this is accomplished 
thus:—!. B-K4 ch, K-R4; 2. 
QXR, QXQ; 3 - K-B7, Q-B sq 
ch; 4. KXQ, BXP; 5. K-B7, 
BXP; 6. B-Kt6mate. 

Position by A. Troitzky. 




White wins as follows ;— 

1. P-R8 = Q, R-Kt7 ch; 2. 
K-Kt 5 , RXQ; 3. Kt-Q 7 ch, 
K-Kt2; 4. P-B6 ch, K-R2; 
5- QPXKt, R-R sq; 6. Kt-B 7 
ch, RXKt; 7. PXR = Kt mate. 

Position by Hoffer. 


A position from actual play. 
White plays 1. R — B5 threatening 
to win a piece. Black replies with 
the powerful Kt — Kt5, threatening 
two mates, and finally White (Mr 
Hoffer) finds an ingenious sacrifice 
of the Queen — the saving clause. 

The following are the moves : — 

1. R-B5, Kt-Kt5; 2- Q-Kt8 
ch, K-Kt3; 3. Q-K6 ch, K-R2; 
4. Q — Kt8 ch, and drawn by per- 
petual check, as Black cannot cap- 
ture the Queen with K or R without 
losing the game. 


which would tend to "obscure the issue." Hence the first 
object in a problem is to extract the maximum of finesse with a 
sparing use of the pieces, but " economy of force " must be 
combined with " purity of the mate." A very common mistake, 
until comparatively recent years, was that of appraising the 
" economy " of a position according to the slenderness of the 
force used, but economy is not a question of absolute values. The 
true criterion is the ratio of the force employed to the skill 
demanded. The earliest composers strove to give their produc- 
tions every appearance of real play, and indeed their compositions 



partook of the nature of ingenious end-games, in which it was 
usual to give Black a predominance of force, and to leave the 
White king in apparent jeopardy. From this predicament he 
was extricated by a series of checking moves, usually involving 
a number of brilliant sacrifices. The number of moves was 
rarely less than five. In the course of time the solutions were 
reduced to shorter limits and the beauty of quiet (non-checking) 
moves began to make itself felt. The early transition school, as 
it has been called, was the first to recognize the importance of 
economy, i.e. the representation of the main strategic point 
without any extraneous force. The mode of illustrating 
single-theme problems, often of depth and beauty, was being 
constantly improved, and the problems of C. Bayer, R. Willmers, 
S. Loyd, J. G. Campbell, F. Healey, "J. B." of Bridport, and W. 
Grimshaw are, of their kind, unsurpassed. In the year 1845 the 
" Indian " problem attracted much notice, and in 1861 appeared 
Healey's famous " Bristol " problem. To this period must be 
ascribed the discovery of most of those clever ideas which have 
been turned to such good account by the later school. In an 
article written in 1899 F. M. Teed mentions the fact that his 
incomplete collection of " Indians " totalled over three hundred. 

In 1870 or thereabouts, the later transition period, a more 
general tendency was manifest to illustrate two or more finished 
ideas in a single problem with strict regard to purity and economy, 
the theory of the art received greater attention than before and 
the essays of C. Schwede, Kohtz and Kockelkorn, Lehner and 
Gelbfuss, helped to codify hitherto unwritten rules of taste. The 
last quarter of the 19th century, and its last decade especially, 
saw a marked advance in technique, until it became a common 
thing to find as much deep and quiet play embodied in a single 
first-class problem as in three or four of the old-time problems, 
and hence arose the practice of blending several distinct ideas in 
one elaborate whole. 

In the composition of " two-movers " it is customary to allow 
greater elasticity and a less rigorous application of the principles 
of purity and economy. By this means a greater superficial 
complexity is attained; but the Teutonic and Bohemian schools, 
and even English and American two-move specialists, recognize 
that complexity, if it involves the sacrifice of first principles, is 
liable to abuse. The blind master, A. F. Mackenzie of Jamaica, 
however, with a few others (notably T. Taverner, W. Gleave, 
H. and E. Bettman and P. F. Blake) have won some of their 
greatest successes with problems which, under stricter ruling, 
would not be allowed. 

Bohemian (Czech) composers have long stood unrivalled as 
exponents of that blending of ideas which is the distinguishing 
trait of the later problem. Such is their skill in construction 
that it is rare to find in a problem of the Bohemian school fewer 
than three or four lines of play which, in economy and purity, 
are unimpeachable. Amongst [the earliest composers of this 
class Anton Konig, the founder of the school, Makovky, Drtina, 
Palct and Pilnacek deserve to be honourably mentioned, but it 
was not until the starting of a chess column in the weekly journal 
Svetozor that the merits of the new school were fully asserted. It 
was in 187 1 that Jan Dobrusky contributed his first composition 
to that paper: he was followed by G. Chocholous, C. Kondelik, 
Pospisil, Dr Mazel, Kviciala, Kesl, Tuzar, Musil and J. Kotrc; 
and later still, Havel, Traxler and Z. Mach were no unworthy 
followers of Dobrusky. 

The faculty for blending variations is not without " the defects 
of its qualities," and consequently among the less able composers 
a certain tendency to repeat combinations of similar companion 
ideas is discernible at times, while the danger that facile con- 
struction might usurp the place of originality and strategy was 
already apparent to Chocholous when, in an article on the 
classification of chess problems (Deutsche Schachzeitung, 1890), he 
warned the younger practitioners of the Bohemian school against 
what has been dubbed by H. Von Gottschall Varianten-leierei, 
or " the grinding out of variations." When this one reservation 
is made few will be inclined to dispute the pre-eminence 
of the Bohemian school. To some tastes, however, a greater 
appeal is made by the deeper play of the older German school, 

the quaint fancy of the American composer Samuel Loyd, or the 
severity and freedom from " duals " which mark the English 

The idea of holding a problem competition open to the world 
was first mooted in connexion with the chess congress of 1851, 
but it was in 1854 that a tourney (confined to British composers) 
was first held. Since then a number of important problem 
tournaments have been held. 

ffistory of Chess. 
The origin of chess is lost in obscurity. Its invention has been 
variously ascribed to the Greeks, Romans, Babylonians, Scythians, 
Egyptians, Jews, Persians, Chinese, Hindus, Arabians, Arau- 
canians, Castilians, Irish and Welsh. Some have endeavoured 
to fix upon particular individuals as the originators of the game; 
amongst others upon Japheth, Shem, King Solomon, the wife of 
Ravan, king of Ceylon, the philosopher Xerxes, the Greek chieftain 
Palamedes, Hermes, Aristotle, the brothers Lydo and Tyrrhene, 
Semiramis, Zenobia, Attalus (d. c. 200 B.C.), the mandarin Han- 
sing, the Brahman Sissa and Shatrenscha, stated to be a celebrated 
Persian astronomer. Many of these ascriptions are fabulous, 
others rest upon little authority, and some of them proceed from 
easily traceable errors, as where the Roman games of Ludus 
Latrunculorum and Ludus Calculorum, the Welsh recreation of 
Tawlbwrdd (throw-board) and the ancient Irish pastime of 
Fithcheall are assumed to be identical with chess; so far as the 
Romans and Welsh are concerned, the contrary can be proved, 
while from what little is known of the Irish game it appears not 
to have been a sedentary game at all. The claims of the Chinese 
were advocated in a letter addressed by Mr Eyles Irwin in 1 793 
to the earl Charlemont. This paper was published in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Irish Academy, and its purport was that chess, 
called in the Chinese tongue chong-ki (the " royal game ") was 
invented in the reign of Kao-Tsu, otherwise Lin-Pang, then king, 
but afterwards emperor of Kiang-Nang, by a mandarin named 
Han-sing, who was in command of an army, invading the Shen-Si 
country, and who wanted to amuse his soldiers when in winter 
quarters. Thte invasion of the Shen-Si country by Han-Sing took 
place about 174 b.c. Capt. Hiram Cox states that the game is 
called by the Chinese choke-choo-hong hi, " the play of the science 
of war." (See also a paper published by the Hon. Daines 
Barrington in the 9th vol. of the Archaeologia.) Mr N. Bland, 
M.R.A.S., in his Persian Chess (London, 1850), endeavours to 
prove that the Persians were the inventors of chess, and maintains 
that the game, born in Persia, found a home in India, whence 
after a series of ages it was brought back to its birthplace. The 
view, however, which has obtained the most credence, is that 
which attributes the origin of chess to the Hindus. Dr Thomas 
Hyde of Oxford, writing in 1694 (De Ludis Orientalibus) , seems 
to have been the first to propound this theory, but he appears to 
have been ignorant of the game itself, and the Sanskrit records 
were not accessible in his time. About 1 783-1 789 Sir William 
Jones, in an essay published in the 2nd vol. of Asiatic Researches, 
argued that Hindustan was the cradle of chess, the game having 
been known there from time immemorial by the name of chatur- 
anga, that is, the four angas, or members of an army, which are 
said in the Amarakosha to be elephants, horses, chariots and foot 
soldiers. As applicable to real armies, the term chaturanga is fre- 
quently used by the epic poets of India. Sir William Jones's essay 
is substantially a translation of the Bhawishya Purana, in which 
is given a description of a four-handed game of chess played with 
dice. A pundit named Rhadhakant informed him that this was 
mentioned in the oldest law books, and also that it was invented 
by the wife of Ravan, king of Lanka (Ceylon), in the second age 
of the world in order to amuse that monarch while Rama was 
besieging his metropolis. This account claims for chess an 
existence of 4000 or 5000 years. Sir William, however, grounds 
his opinions as to the Hindu origin of chess upon the testimony of 
the Persians and not upon the above manuscript, while he con- 
siders the game described therein to be more modern than the 
Persian gamo. Though sure that the latter came from India and 
was invented there, he admits that he could not find any account 



of it in the classical writings of the Brahmans. He lays it down 
thatchess,underthe Sanskrit name chatwanga, was exported from 
India into Persia in the 6th century of our era; that by a natural 
corruption the old Persians changed the name into chatrang, but 
when their country was soon afterwards taken possession of by the 
Arabs, who had neither the initial nor final letter of the word in 
their alphabet, they altered it further into shatranj, which name 
found its way presently into modern Persian and ultimately into 
the dialects of India. 

Capt. Hiram Cox, in a letter upon Burmese chess, written in 
1799 an d published in the 7th vol. of Asiatic Researches, refers to 
the above essay, and considers the four-handed game described 
in the Sanskrit manuscript to be the most ancient form of chess, 
the Burmese and Persian games being second and third in order 
of precedence. Later, in the nth and 24th vols, of the Archaeo- 
logia, Mr Francis Douce and Sir Frederick Madden expressed 
themselves in favour of the views held by Hyde and his followers. 

InProfessorDuncan Forbes's History oj 'Chess(i86o) Capt. Cox's 
views, as founded upon Sir William Jones's Sanskrit manuscript, 
are upheld and are developed into an elaborate theory. Professor 
Forbes holds that the four-handed game of chaturanga described 
in the Bhawishya Pur ana was the primeval form of chess; that 
it was invented by a people whose language was Sanskrit (the 
Hindus) ; and that it was known and practised in India from a 
time lost in the depths of a remote antiquity, but for a period the 
duration of which may have been from 3000 to 4000 years before 
the 6th century of the Christian era. He endeavours to show, but 
adduces no proof, how the four armies commanded by four kings 
in Sir William Jones's manuscript became converted into two 
opposing armies, and how two of the kings were reduced to a 
subordinate position, and became " monitors " or " counsellors," 
one standing by the side of the White and the other of the Black 
king, these counsellors being the farzins from which we derive our 
" queens." Among other points he argues, apparently with justice, 
that chaturanga was evidently the root of shatranj, the latter word 
being a mere exotic in the language of the inhabitants of Persia. 

Van der Linde, in his exhaustive work, Geschichte und Litteratur 
des Schachspiels (Berlin, 1874), has much to say of the origin- 
theories, nearly all of which he treats as so many myths. He 
agrees with those who consider that the Persians received the 
game from the Hindus; but the elaborate chaturanga theories 
of Forbes receive but scant mercy. Van der Linde argues that 
chaturanga is always used by the old Indian poets of an army 
and never of a game, that all Sanskrit scholars are agreed that 
chess is not mentioned in really ancient Hindu records; that the 
Puranas generally, though formerly considered to be extremely 
old, are held in the light of modern research to reach no farther 
back than the 10th century — while the copies of the Bhawishya 
Purana in the British Museum and the Berlin Library do not 
contain the extract relied upon by Forbes, though it is to be found 
in the Raghunandana, which was translated by Weber in 1872, 
and is stated by Biihler to date from the 16th century. The 
outcome of van der Linde's studies appears to be that chess cer- 
tainly existed in Hindustan in the 8th century, and that probably 
that country is the land of its birth. He inclines to the idea that 
the game originated among the Buddhists, whose religion was 
prevalent in India from the 3rd to the gth century. According to 
their ideas, war and the slaying of one's fellow-men, for any pur- 
poses whatever, is criminal, and the punishment of the warrior 
in the next world will be much worse than that of the simple 
murderer; hence chess was invented as a substitute for war. In 
opposition to Forbes, therefore, and in agreement with Sir William 
Jones, van der Linde takes the view that the four-handed game of 
the original manuscript is a comparatively modern adaptation of 
the Hindu chess, and he altogether denies that there is any proof 
that any form of the game has the antiquity attributed to it. 
Internal evidence certainly seems to contradict the theory that 
Sir William Jones's manuscript is very ancient testimony; for it 
mentions two great sages, Vyasa and Gotama, the former as 
teaching chaturanga to Prince Yudhishthira, and the other as 
giving an opinion upon certain principles of the game; but this 
could not well be, seeing that it was played with dice, and that all 

games of hazard were positively forbidden by Manu. It would 
appear also that Indian manuscripts are not absolutely trust- 
worthy as evidence of the antiquity of their contents; for the 
climate has the effect of destroying such writings in a period of 300 
or 400 years. They must, therefore, be recopied from time to time 
and in this way later interpolations may easily creep in. 

Von der Lasa, who had, in an article prefixed to the Hand- 
buch in 1864, accepted Forbes's views, withdrew his support in 
a review of the work just noticed, published in the September 
and November numbers of the Deutsche Schachzeitung, 1874, and 
expressed his adherence to the opinions of van der Linde. 

Altogether, therefore, we find the best authorities agreeing that 
chess existed in India before it is known to have been played 
anywhere else. In this supposition they are strengthened by the 
names of the game and of some of the pieces. Shatranj, as Forbes 
has pointed out,isaforeignwordamongthePersiansandArabians, 
whereas its natural derivation from the termchaturanga is obvious. 
Again ai-jU, the Arabic name of the bishop, means the elephant, 
otherwise alephhind, the Indian ox. Our earliest authority on 
chess is Masudi, an Arabic author who wrote about a.d. 950. 
According to him, shatranj had existed long before his time; and 
though he may speak not only for his own generation but for a 
couple of centuries before, that will give to chess an existence of 
over a thousand years. 

Early and Medieval Times. — The dimness which shrouds the 
origin of chess naturally obscures also its early history. We 
have seen that chess crossed over from India into Persia, and 
became known in the latter country by the name of shatranj. 
Some have understood that word to mean " the play of the 
king "; but undoubtedly Sir William Jones's derivation carries 
with it the most plausibility. How and when the game was 
introduced into Persia we have no means of knowing. The 
Persian poet Firdusi, in his historical poem, the Shahnama, 
gives an account of the introduction of shatranj into Persia 
in the reign of Chosroes I. Anushirwan, to whom came am- 
bassadors from the sovereign of Hind (India), with a chess- 
board and men asking him to solve the secrets of the game, if 
he could, or pay tribute. Chosroes I. was the contemporary 
of Justinian, and reigned in the 6th century a.d. Professor 
Forbes seems to think that this poem may be looked upon as 
an authentic history. This appears, however, to be somewhat 
dangerous, especially as Firdusi lived some 450 years after the 
supposed event took place; but since other Persian and Arabian 
writers state that shatranj came into Persia from India, there 
appears to be a consensus of opinion that may be considered to 
settle the question. Thus we have the game passing from the 
Hindus to the Persians and thence to the Arabians, after the 
capture of Persia by the Caliphs in the 7 th century, and from 
them, directly or indirectly, to various parts of Europe, at a 
time which cannot be definitely fixed, but either in or before the 
nth century. That the source of the European game is Arabic 
is clear enough, not merely from the words " check " and " mate," 
which are evidently from Shah mat (" the king is dead "), but 
also from the names of some of the pieces. There are various 
chess legends having reference to the 7th and 8th centuries, but 
these may be neglected as historically useless; and equally use- 
less appear the many oriental and occidental romances which 
revolve around those two great central figures, Harun al-Rashid 
and Charlemagne. There is no proof that either of them knew 
anything of chess or, so far as the latter is concerned, that it had 
been introduced into Europe in his time. True, there is an 
account given in Gustavus Selenus, taken from various old 
chronicles, as to the son of Prince Okar or Otkar of Bavaria 
having been killed by a blow on the temple, struck by a son of 
Pippin after a game of chess; and there is another well-known 
tradition as to the magnificent chess-board and set of men said to 
have been sent over as a present by the empress Irene to Charle- 
magne. But both tales are not less mythical than the romance 
which relates how the great Frankish monarch lost his kingdom 
over a game of chess to Guerin de Montglave; for van der Linde 
shows that there was no Bavarian prince of the name of Okar or 
Otkar at the period alluded to, and as ruthlessly shatters the 



tradition about Irene's chessmen. With respect to Harun al- 
Rashid, among the various stories told which connect him with 
chess, there is one that at first sight may seem entitled to some 
degree of credit. In the annals of the Moslems by Abulfeda ( Abu'l 
Fida), there is given a copy of a letter stated to be " From 
Nicephorus, emperor of the Romans, to Harun, sovereign of 
the Arabs," which (using Professor Forbes's translation) after 
the usual compliments runs thus:—" The empress (Irene) into 
whose place I have succeeded, looked upon you as a Rukh and 
herself as a mere Pawn; therefore she submitted to pay you a 
tribute more than the double of which she ought to have exacted 
from you. All this has been owing to female weakness and 
timidity. Now, however, I insist that you, immediately on 
reading this letter, repay to me all the sums of money you ever 
received from her. If you hesitate, the sword shall settle our 
accounts." Harun's reply, written on the back of the Byzantine 
emperor's letter, was terse and to the point. " In the name of 
God the merciful and gracious. From Harun, the commander 
of the faithful, to the Roman dog Nicephorus. I have read thine 
epistle, thou son of an infidel mother; my answer to it thou 
shalt see, not hear." Harun was as good as his word, far he 
marched immediately as far as Heraclea, devastating the Roman 
territories with fire and sword, and soon compelled Nicephorus 
to sue for peace. Now the points which give authority to this 
narrative and the alleged correspondence are that the relations 
which they assume between Irene and Nicephorus on the one 
hand and the warlike caliph on the other are confirmed by the 
history of those times, while, also, the straightforward brevity 
of Harun's reply commends itself as what one might expect 
from his soldier-like character. Still, the fact must be remem- 
bered that Abulfeda lived about five centuries after the time to 
which he refers. Perhaps we may assume that it is not improb- 
able that the correspondence is genuine; but that the words 
rukh and pawn may have been substituted for other terms of 
comparison originally used. 

As to how chess was introduced into western and central 
Europe nothing is really known. The Spaniards very likely 
received it from their Moslem conquerors, the Italians not 
improbably from the Byzantines, and in either case it would pass 
northwards to France, going on thence to Scandinavia and 
England. Some say that chess was introduced into Europe at 
the time of the Crusades, the theory being that the Christian 
warriors learned to play it at Constantinople. This is nega- 
tived by a curious epistle of St Peter Damian, cardinal bishop 
of Ostia, to Pope Alexander II., written about a.d. 1061, which, 
assuming its authenticity, shows that chess was known in Italy 
before the date of the first crusade. The'cardinal, as it seems, 
had imposed a penance upon a bishop whom he had found 
diverting himself at chess; and in his letter to the pope he 
repeats the language he had held to the erring prelate, viz. 
" Was it right, I say, and consistent with thy duty, to sport away 
thy evenings amidst the vanity of chess, and defile the hand 
which offers up the body of the Lord, and the tongue that 
mediates between God and man, with the pollution of a sacri- 
legious game ? " Following up the same idea that statutes of the 
church of Elna, in the 3rd vol. of the Councils of Spain, say, 
" Clerks playing at dice or chess shall be ipso facto excommuni- 
cated." Eudes de Sully, bishop of Paris under Philip Augustus, 
is stated in the Ordonn. des Rois de France to have forbidden 
clerks to play the game, and according to the Hist. Redes, of 
Fleury, St Louis, king of France, imposed a fine on all who 
should play it. Ecclesiastical authorities, however, seemed to 
have differed among themselves upon the question whether 
chess was or was not a lawful game according to the canons, and 
Peirino (De Proelat. chap. 1) holds that it was permissible for 
ecclesiastics to play thereat. Among those who have taken 
an unfavourable view of the game may be mentioned John Huss, 
who, when in prison, deplored his having played at chess, whereby 
he had lost time and run the risk of being subject to violent 
passions. Among authentic records of the game may be quoted 
the Alexiad of the princess Anna Comnena, in which she relates 
how her father, the emperor Alexius, used to divert his mind 

from the cares of state by playing at chess with his relatives. 
This emperor died in n 18. 

Concerning chess in England there is the usual confusion 
between legend and truth. Snorre Sturleson relates that as 
Canute was playing at chess with Earl Ulf , a quarrel arose, which 
resulted in the upsetting of the board by the latter, with the 
further consequence of his being murdered in church a few days 
afterwards by Canute's orders. Carlyle, in The Early Kings of 
Norway, repeats this tale, but van der Linde treats it as a myth. 
The Ramsey Chronicle relates how bishop Utheric, coming to 
Canute at night upon urgent business, found the monarch and 
his courtiers amusing themselves at dice and chess. There is 
nothing intrinsically improbable in this last narrative; but 
Canute died about 1035, and the date, therefore, is suspiciously 
early. Moreover, allowance must be made for the ease with 
which chroniclers described other games as chess. William the 
Conqueror, Henry I., John and Edward I. are variously stated 
to have played at chess. It is generally supposed that the 
English court of exchequer took its name from the cloth, figured 
with squares like a chess-board, which covered the table in it 
(see Exchequer). An old writer says that at the coronation 
of Richard I. in 1189, six earls and barons carried a chess-board 
with the royal insignia to represent the exchequer court. Accord- 
ing to Edmonson's Heraldry, twenty-six English families bore 
chess rooks in their coats of arms. 

As regards the individual pieces, the king seems to have had 
the same move as at present; but it is said he could formerly be 
captured. His " castling " privilege is a European invention; 
but he formerly leaped two and even three squares, and also to 
his Kt 2nd. Castling dates no farther back than the first half of 
the 1 6th century. The queen has suffered curious changes in 
name, sex and power. In shatranj the piece was called farz or 
firz (also farzan, farzin and farzi), signifying a " counsellor," 
" minister " or " general." This was latinized into farzia or 
fercia. The French slightly altered the latter form into fierce, 
fierge, and as some say, merge, which, if true, might explain its 
becoming a female. Another and much more probable account 
has it that whereas formerly a pawn on reaching an eighth square 
became a farzin, and not any other piece, which promotion was 
of the same kind as at draughts (in French, dames) , so she became 
a dame or queen as in the latter game, and thence dama, donna, 
&c. There are old Latin manuscripts in which the terms ferzia 
and regina are used indifferently. The queen formerly moved 
only one square diagonally and was consequently the weakest 
piece on the board. The immense power she now possesses 
seems to have been conferred upon her so late as about the middle 
of the 15th century. It will be noticed that under the old 
system the queens could never meet each other, for they operated 
on diagonals of different colours. The bishop's scope of action 
was also very limited formerly; he could only move two squares 
diagonally, and had no power over the intermediate square, 
which he could leap over whether it was occupied or not. This 
limitation of their powers prevailed in Europe until the 15th 
century. This piece, according to Forbes, was called among the 
Persians pil, an elephant, but the Arabs, not having the letter 
p in their alphabet, wrote it fil, or with their definite article 
al-fil, whence alphilus, alfinus, alifiere, the latter being the word 
used by the Italians; while the French^ perhaps get their fol 
and fou from the same source. The pawns formerly could move 
only one square at starting; their powers in this respect were 
increased about the early part of the 16th century. It was 
customary for them on arriving at an eighth square to be ex- 
changed only for a farzin (queen), and not any other piece; 
the rooks (so called from the Indian rukh and Persian rokh, 
meaning " a soldier ") and the knights appear to have always 
had the same powers as at present. As to the chessboards, they 
were formerly uncoloured, and it is not until the 13th century 
that we hear of checkered boards being used in Europe. 

Development in Play.— The change of shatranj into modern 
chess took place most probably first in France, and thence made 
its way into Spain early in the 15th century, where the new game 
was called Axedrezde la dama, being also adopted by the Italians 



under the name of scacci alia rabiosa. The time of the first im- 
portant writer on modern chess, the Spaniard Ruy Lopez de Segura 
(1561), is also the period when the latest improvement, castling, 
was introduced, for his book (Libro de la invention liberal y arte 
del juego del Axedrez), though treating of it as already in use, 
also gives the old mode of play, which allowed the king a leap 
of two or three squares. Shortly afterwards the old shatranj 
disappears altogether. Lopez was the first who merits the name 
of chess analyst. At this time flourished the flower of the Spanish 
and Italian schools of chess — the former represented by Lopez, 
Ceron, Santa Maria, Busnardo and Avalos; the latter by 
Giovanni Leonardo da Cutri (il Puttino) and Paolo Boi (il 
Syracusano). In the years 1562-1575 both Italian masters 
visited Spain and defeated their Spanish antagonists. During 
the whole 17th century we find but one worthy to be mentioned, 
Giacchino Greco (il Calabrese). The middle of the 18th century 
inaugurates a new era in chess. The leading man of this time 
was Francois Andre Danican Philidor. He was born in 1726 
and was trained by M. de Kermur, Sire de Legal, the star of 
the Cafe de la Rigence in Paris, which has been the centre of 
French chess ever since the commencement of the 18th century. 
In 1747 Philidor visited England, and defeated the Arabian 
player, Phillip Stamma, by 8 games to 1 and 1 draw. In 1749 
he published his Analyse des tehees, a book which went through 
more editions and was more translated than any other work 
upon the game. During more than half a century Philidor 
travelled much, but never went to Italy, the only country where 
he could have found opponents of first-rate skill. Italy was 
represented in Philidor's time by Ercole del Rio, Lolli and 
Ponziani. Their style was less sound than that of Philidor, 
but certainly a much finer and in principle a better one. As 
an analyst the Frenchman was in many points refuted by 
Ercole del Rio (" the anonymous Modenese "). Blindfold 
chess-play, already exhibited in the nth century by Arabian 
and Persian experts, was taken up afresh by Philidor, who 
played on many occasions three games simultaneously without 
sight of board or men. These exhibitions were given in London, 
at the Chess Club in St James's Street, and Philidor died in that 
city in 1795. As eminent players of this period must be men- 
tioned Count Ph. J. van Zuylen van Nyevelt (1743-1826), 
and the German player, J. Allgaier (1763-1823), after whom a 
well-known brilliant variation of the King's Gambit is named. 
Philidor was succeeded by Alexandre Louis Honore Lebreton 
Deschapelles (1780-1847), who was also a famous whist player. 
The only player who is known to have fought Deschapelles not 
unsuccessfully on even terms is John Cochrane. He also lost 
a match (1821) to W. Lewis, to whom he conceded the odds of 
" pawn and move," the Englishman winning one and drawing the 
two others. Deschapelles' greatest pupil, and the strongest player 
France ever possessed, was Louis Charles Mahe de laBourdonnais, 
who was born in 1797 and died in 1840. His most memorable 
achievement was his contest with the English champion, 
Alexander Macdonnell, the French player winning in the pro- 
portion of three to two. 

The English school of chess began about the beginning of the 
19th century, and Sarratt was its first leader. He flourished from 
1808 to 1821, and was followed by his great pupil, W. Lewis, 
who will be principally remembered for his writings. His 
literary career belongs to the period from 181 8 to 1848 and he 
died in 1869. A. Macdonnell (1798-1835) has been already 
mentioned. To the same period belong also Captain Evans, 
the inventor of the celebrated " Evans Gambit " (1828), who 
died at a very advanced age in 1873; Perigal, who participated 
in the correspondence matches against Edinburgh and Paris; 
George Walker, for thirty years chess editor of Bell's Life in 
London; and John Cochrane, who met every strong player from 
Deschapelles downwards. In the same period Germany possessed 
but one good player, J. Mendheim of Berlin. The fifth decade 
of the 19th century is marked by the fact that the leadership 
passed from the French school to the English. After the death 
of la Bourdonnais, Fournie de Saint-Amant became the leading 
player in France; he visited England in the early part of 1843, 

and successfully met the best English players, including Howard 
Staunton (?.».); but the latter soon took his revenge, for in 
November and December 1843 a great match between Staunton 
and Saint-Amant took place in Paris, the English champion 
winning by 1 1 games to 6 with 4 draws. During the succeeding 
eight years Staunton maintained his reputation by defeating 
Popert, Horwitz and Harrwitz. Staunton was defeated by 
Anderssen at the London tournament in 1851, and this con- 
cluded his match-playing career. Among the contemporaries of 
Staunton may be mentioned Henry Thomas Buckle, author 
of the History of Civilization, who defeated Kieseritzki, Anderssen 
and LBwenthal. 

In the ten years 1830-1840 a new school arose in Berlin, the 
seven leaders of which have been called " The Pleiades." These 
were Bledow (1795-1846), Bilguer (1815-1840), Hanstein (1810- 
1850), Mayet (1810-1868), Scho